Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ondansetron.
Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.
Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).
Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.
Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.
Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.
Take each dose with a full glass of water.
Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.
Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.
Of 703 patients enrolled, 696 were eligible. There were 343 dolasetron- and 353 ondansetron-treated patients; 57% of dolasetron-treated patients had complete protection in the first 24 hours versus 67% of patients who received ondansetron (P = .013). MNS was also more pronounced on the dolasetron arm (P = .051). Sixty-seven percent of patients who received added dexamethasone in the first 24 hours had complete protection, compared with 55% without dexamethasone (P < .001). MNS was significantly reduced with the addition of dexamethasone (P < .001). At 7 days, dolasetron and ondansetron had equivalent complete protection rates (36% and 39%, respectively). With the addition of dexamethasone, 48% of patients compared with 28% had complete protection (P < .001). MNS was significantly improved with added dexamethasone (P < .001).
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This retrospective evaluation included patients who were admitted to the cardiac ICUs between January 2009 and July 2009 aged ≥ 18 years with electrocardiographic evidence of a QTc ≥ 500 ms. Patients receiving at least two concomitant drugs known to prolong the QT interval were considered to experience a pharmacodynamic DDI. Drugs causing CYP450 inhibition of the metabolism of QT prolonging medications were considered to cause pharmacokinetic DDIs. The causality between drug and QTc prolongation was evaluated with an objective scale.
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Participated in these study 100 patients scheduled for non-obstetric procedures, who were randomly distributed in five groups: control (no treatment - C); 2.5 mg droperidol (D); 10 mg nalbuphine (N); association of previous drugs (DN); and 8 mg ondansetron (O). Pruritus was quantitatively evaluated at 30 minutes, 1, 2 and 3 hours after spinal sufentanil.
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We studied 484 women at high risk for developing PONV scheduled to undergo operations associated with high emetogenic risk.
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Patients received either dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg kg⁻¹ i.v. (dexmedetomidine group) or 0.9% normal saline (control group) 30 min before the completion of surgery followed by fentanyl 0.5 μg kg⁻¹ and 4 mg ondansetron. Postoperatively, the PCA (fentanyl 10 μg kg⁻¹ with 120 mg ketorolac, with or without dexmedetomidine 10 μg kg⁻¹ made up to a total volume of 100 ml) was programmed to deliver 1 ml bolus (lockout 15 min) with a continuous background infusion of 2 ml h⁻¹. The PCA was used for the first 48 h postoperatively.
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The patients were due for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and enteral bypass. Sleep was induced after pre-oxygenation with target control infusions (TCI) of remifentanil and propofol; vecuronium was supplied for facilitating endotracheal intubation. The propofol infusion was stopped and desflurane 3-6% was given for BIS-titrated anaesthetic maintenance together with remifentanil TCI. Antiemetic prophylaxis was supplied with intravenous (IV) droperidol, ondansetron and dexamethasone; post-operative pain prophylaxis was IV paracetamol, parecoxib and bupivacaine infiltration. The patients were extubated in the operating room and kept in the post-operative care unit for 3-4 h, being tested for a 20 m walk before discharge to the ward.
Patients undergoing general anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy are at high risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This study compared ramosetron and ondansetron in terms of efficacy for PONV prevention after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
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Several medication strategies can be considered as promising alternatives or augmenting to antidepressant or benzodiazepine therapy in GAD.
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The two schedules of ondansetron used in the first 24 hours were no different in their antiemetic efficacy, with similar rates for complete responses (76.7% v 72.0%, P = .472), complete plus major responses (90.2% v 82.0%, P = .135), and severity of nausea (P = .348). Oral ondansetron after 24 hours was more effective than placebo in preventing delayed nausea and emesis, with superior rates of complete responses (59.6% v 42.1%, P = .012 by one-sided test), complete plus major responses (80.9% v 66.3%, P = .018 by one-sided test), and less severe nausea (9.2 mm v 18.6 mm on a 100-mm VAS, P = .002). The efficacy of ondansetron was maintained over subsequent courses of chemotherapy.
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Serotonin and 5-HT3 receptors may be involved in the activation of nociceptive afferent pathways by rectal distension. In rats, intracolonic infusion of glycerol is able to trigger nociceptive inputs as evidenced by the occurrence of abdominal constrictions. This work was designed to evaluate the influence of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists on this reflex and to approach the site of action by comparing their relative efficacies according to the route of administration. Male Wistar rats (250-350 g) were surgically prepared for abdominal electromyography and a catheter was placed in the colonic lumen. Five days after surgery, electrical activity of abdominal muscles was recorded before and during (20 min) intracolonic infusion of glycerol (60% glycerol + 40% saline, rate 0.75 mL/h). Cilansetron was administered intraperitoneally, 15 min before glycerol infusion, at doses of 5 to 500 micrograms/kg. Granisetron, ondansetron and cilansetron were administered at the dose of 20 micrograms/kg by intraperitoneal (i.p.), intravenous (i.v.) or intracolonic (i.c.) routes. The number of abdominal spike bursts was used as an index of visceral nociception. Intracolonic infusion of glycerol increased significantly (P < 0.05) the number of abdominal spike bursts during the time of infusion compared with saline (30.6 +/- 6.6 vs 4.5 +/- 3.4 bursts). When administered i.p., cilansetron dose-dependently reduced the frequency of abdominal spike bursts from the dose of 20 micrograms/kg i.p. Administration i.p. of granisetron and ondansetron at this dose also significantly reduced the number of abdominal spikes (19.0 +/- 6.0 and 18.3 +/- 6.9 respectively). Cilansetron, ondansetron and granisetron were also effective by i.v. and i.c. routes, cilansetron was more active by the i.c. route. Serotonin, via 5-HT3 receptors, is involved in the mediation of abdominal contractions induced by intracolonic infusion of glycerol. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are also active by i.c. route suggesting a local site of action.
The involvement of opioid receptor activation in the antinociceptive effect of either fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, or serotonin (5-HT) on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain in mice induced by sciatic nerve ligation was examined. The experiments were conducted 2 or 6 weeks after unilateral sciatic nerve ligation. Ipsilateral thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were observed both 2 and 6 weeks after sciatic nerve ligation. Neither s.c. fluvoxamine nor i.t. 5-HT affected sciatic nerve ligation-induced thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia in mice 2 weeks after sciatic nerve ligation. However, the same dose of either fluvoxamine or 5-HT significantly reduced mechanical allodynia but not thermal hyperalgesia in sciatic nerve ligated mice 6 weeks after surgery. The antinociceptive effect of fluvoxamine on sciatic nerve ligation-induced mechanical allodynia in mice 6 weeks after surgery was completely abolished by pretreatment with either naloxone, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, or beta-funaltrexamine, a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with naltrindole, a selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist, partially but significantly inhibited the antinociceptive effect of fluvoxamine in sciatic nerve ligated mice at the 6th postoperative week. The antinociceptive effect induced by i.t. 5-HT was also completely antagonized by either naloxone or beta-funaltrexamine, and partially inhibited by naltrindole. However, pretreatment with nor-binaltorphimine, a selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist, had no effect against either s.c. fluvoxamine- or i.t. 5-HT-induced antinociception. These results suggest that the antinociceptive effect of s.c. fluvoxamine or i.t. 5-HT in the chronic state of sciatic nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain may be related to opioidergic activity, mainly through the activation of spinal mu- and delta-opioid receptors.
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Although restraint stress accelerates colonic transit via a central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), the precise mechanism still remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that restraint stress and central CRF stimulate colonic motility and transit via a vagal pathway and 5-HT(3) receptors of the proximal colon in rats. (51)Cr was injected via the catheter positioned in the proximal colon to measure colonic transit. The rats were subjected to a restraint stress for 90 min or received intracisternal injection of CRF. Ninety minutes after the administration of (51)Cr, the entire colon was removed, and the geometric center (GC) was calculated. Four force transducers were sutured on the proximal, mid, and distal colon to record colonic motility. Restraint stress accelerated colonic transit (GC of 6.7 +/- 0.4, n=6) compared with nonrestraint controls (GC of 5.1 +/- 0.2, n=6). Intracisternal injection of CRF (1.0 microg) also accelerated colonic transit (GC of 7.0 +/- 0.2, n=6) compared with saline-injected group (GC of 4.6 +/- 0.5, n=6). Restraint stress-induced acceleration of colonic transit was reduced by perivagal capsaicin treatment. Intracisternal injection of CRF antagonists (10 microg astressin) abolished restraint stress-induced acceleration of colonic transit. Stimulated colonic transit and motility induced by restraint stress and CRF were significantly reduced by the intraluminal administration of 5-HT(3) antagonist ondansetron (5 x 10(-6) M; 1 ml) into the proximal colon. Restraint stress and intracisternal injection of CRF significantly increased the luminal content of 5-HT of the proximal colon. It is suggested that restraint stress stimulates colonic motility via central CRF and peripheral 5-HT(3) receptors in conscious rats.
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A total of 82 patients were enrolled, 39 received ropivacaine, and 43 received placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in narcotic usage between the ropivacaine group and placebo group, 51.9 mg versus 55.2 mg, respectively (P = .63). Ondansetron usage was 10.7 mg and 10.6 mg for ropivacaine and placebo groups. (P = .98). Average pain score was 3.0 for each group (P = .632). Total hospital length of stay was 37.5 hours for ropivacaine group and 38.1 hours for placebo group (P = .768).
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Sixty-four patients completed the study (n = 28 in the control group, n = 36 in the intervention group). In the control group, 36% of the patients reached their preoperative activity level after 1 week, as compared to 50% in the intervention group (p = 0.19). Resumption of daily physical activity during the first postoperative week in the intervention group was not significantly different from the control group [repeated measures analysis of variance (MANOVA), p = 0.05]. However, in contrast with men, women in the intervention group did show a faster recovery of daily physical activity as compared to the control group (MANOVA, p = 0.02). Although there was no significant difference in postoperative VAS scores for pain and nausea between both groups, patients in the intervention group experienced pain less often as a limiting factor (p = 0.006).
The incidence of PONV and use of rescue antiemetics was significantly greater in the ondansetron group compared with the prochlorperazine group. The mean total costs of PONV management per patient in the prochlorperazine and ondansetron groups were dollar 13.99 and dollar 51.98, respectively (based on 2004 average wholesale prices [AWP]). The cost of successfully treating one patient with prochlorperazine and ondansetron was dollar 31.87 and dollar 275.01, respectively. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed adjusting the percent efficacy rate of each antiemetic and the drug cost of ondansetron (up to a 50% reduction in AWP). Prochlorperazine remained the dominant strategy across each scenario.
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Of 100 patients treated with droperidol added in a patient-controlled analgesia pump with morphine, 30 who would have vomited or been nauseated had they not received droperidol will not suffer these effects. There is no evidence of dose-responsiveness for efficacy with droperidol, but the risk of adverse effects is dose-dependent. There is a lack of evidence for other antiemetics.
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1. The anti-emetic effects of the NK1 tachykinin receptor antagonist, CP 99,994 (10 mg kg-1) were investigated in the ferret using a cisplatin-induced acute (day 1) and delayed (day 2 and 3) retching and vomiting model. 2. With a single cisplatin (10 mg kg-1) emetogenic challenge, the i.p. administration of CP 99,994 given as a single injection immediately following the first emetic episode, promptly abolished the retching and vomiting for a 4 h period. CP 99,994 was as efficacious as ondansetron (1.0 mg kg-1). The general toxicity of cisplatin 10 mg kg-1 precluded its use in studies of delayed emesis. 3. With a single cisplatin (5 mg kg-1) emetogenic challenge, the single administration of either CP 99,994 (10 mg kg-1) or ondansetron (1.0 mg kg-1) immediately following the first emetic episode markedly reduced or abolished the retching and vomiting for 4 h. Such single treatments failed to modify significantly the intensity of delayed emesis appearing on the second and third day. 4. With a cisplatin (5 mg kg-1) emetogenic challenge, administration of CP 99,994 (10 mg kg-1) at 8 hourly intervals, the first injection being administered 30 s post cisplatin, was associated with 4 or more abolitions of emesis during both the acute and delayed phase. A 4 hourly administration of CP 99,994 for 20 h during delayed emesis completely abolished the retching and vomiting. 5. It is concluded that cisplatin 5 mg kg-1 provides an emetogenic challenge causing an acute and delayed phase of retching and vomiting and that CP 99,994 can abolish both phases. The results may be relevant to the understanding and treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis in man.
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To determine the prevalence of substandard antiemetic therapy among recently published trials conducted in patients with cancer who received emetogenic chemotherapy.
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An inspired oxygen fraction of 0.8 during general anesthesia with sevoflurane does not decrease PONV in patients undergoing strabismus repair. Ondansetron also did not significantly decrease PONV in our study setting.
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Palonosetron is comparable to ondansetron for PONV prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy when administered as single pre-induction dose.
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Promethazine was significantly more effective than ondansetron for treating PONV after failed ondansetron prophylaxis. Promethazine 6.25 mg was as effective as higher doses.
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A statistically significant reduction in postoperative nausea between 8 and 24 hours in patients receiving TDS was noted.
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Nausea and vomiting are well-known gastrointestinal complications in chronic renal failure and are frequent indications for the commencement of dialysis. Although the administration of antiemetic drugs (metoclopramide and, recently, ondansetron) is usually mentioned, there are scanty data on their effects.
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The present study assessed 5-HT3 receptor recognition site levels in homogenates of putamen derived from patients with clinically and neurochemically diagnosed Huntington's disease or Parkinson's disease and those from age-, sex- and post-mortem delay-matched neurologically and psychiatrically normal patients to investigate the cellular location of 5-HT3 receptors in the human putamen. Specific [3H]granisetron (0.91 nM) binding (defined by ondansetron, 10 microM) was significantly reduced in putamen homogenates from eight out of ten patients with Huntington's disease compared to similar homogenates from 'control' patients (72 +/- 6 and 39 +/- 8 fmol/g wet weight, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10 and 8, tissue from 'control' and Huntington's disease patients, respectively, P = 0.004). In contrast, specific [3H]granisetron (1.04 nM) binding levels were similar in putamen homogenates from patients with Parkinson's disease when compared to homogenates from 'control' patients. The present results indicate that at least a proportion of the 5-HT3 receptor population in the human putamen is located on neurones that have their cell bodies within this brain region and that these receptors are not primarily located on dopamine neurone terminals in the human putamen.
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A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted in patients aged 2-18 years. 160 chemotherapy cycles, consisting of chemotherapy drugs with moderate- and high-emetogenic potential, were studied. The study group received a single dose of intravenous (IV) palonosetron 5 mcg/kg, and the standard group received IV ondansetron 5 mg/m2 every 8 hours while receiving chemotherapy. The patients were observed for vomiting, use of rescue antiemetic medications, and nausea from Day 1 0-72 hours after completion of each chemotherapy cycle. All adverse events during the study period were recorded.
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Ondansetron may be the preferred agent for controlling nausea and vomiting in patients with neurosurgical trauma. Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy in this patient population.
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This study suggests that the use of ondansetron to control CDDP-induced nausea and vomiting does not affect CDDP antitumor efficacy.
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