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Chlamydia pneumoniae illness is poorly characterized, particularly as a sole causative pathogen. We investigated a C. pneumoniae outbreak at a federal correctional facility.
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Due to its improved coverage for ciprofloxacin- and methicillin-resistant staphylococci, besifloxacin may offer extended coverage for some ocular pathogens resistant to current fluoroquinolones recovered from a diverse group of ocular sources. Ninety-five percent of all isolates were covered by a besifloxacin MIC90 of 4 μg/mL.
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The results indicate that oral administration of azithromycin (AZM) is equivalent to intravenous administration of cefazolin (CEZ) for preventing surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing tonsillectomy, and should be used as cost-effective antimicrobial prophylaxis.
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Dentists prefer macrolide antibiotics, protected penicillins, and fluoroquinolone combined with 5-nitroimidazole. All patients have taken antibiotics themselves at least once a year. Microbial complexes in patients with acute and exacerbated apical periodontitis in 79% of cases are susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, to azithromycin - 52%, lincomycin - 36%, 5-nitroimidazole - 68%, ciprofloxacin - 73.7%. In patients with apical abscess high rates of resistance of microbial complexes to all types of antibiotics was revealed (33% for lincomycin 76,1% for ciprofloxacin, 28,6% for 5-nitroimidazole). Patients with moderate to severe periodontitis in 90.5% are sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and azithromycin, in 62.4% to lincomycin. Sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was detected in 85.7% of patients, in 14.3% - moderate resistance.
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Of 82 pneumococcal isolates identified before treatment, 4 (5%) exhibited azithromycin resistance, representing 3 different sequence types (STs): 177, 6449, and 6494. The proportion of isolates that were classified as one of these 3 STs and were resistant to azithromycin increased after 4 mass azithromycin treatments (14 of 96 isolates [15%]; P = .04). Using a classification index, we found evidence for a relationship between ST and macrolide resistance after mass treatments (P < .0001). The diversity of STs-as calculated by the unbiased Simpson index-decreased significantly after mass azithromycin treatment (P = .045).
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A total of 52 patients, 32 females and 20 males with a mean age of 49+/-12 years, were included in the study. Eradication was achieved in 15 (28%) out of 52 patients in total. There was a significant difference between RbA and RbTM groups (p=0.01). In fact, H. pylori was eradicated in 3 (12%) out of 25 patients in the RbA group, whereas it was eradicated in 12 (44.4%) out of 27 patients in the RbTM group. Symptom scores significantly improved in both groups after the treatment, though there was not a significant difference between the groups (p=0.705).
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In 2009, the first high-level ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain (H041) was isolated in Kyoto, Japan. The present study describes an intensified surveillance (antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Kyoto and its neighboring prefecture Osaka, Japan, in 2010 to 2012, which was initiated after the identification of H041. From April 2010 to March 2012, 193 N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected and the MICs (μg/ml) to six antimicrobials, including ceftriaxone, were determined. All isolates showed susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime (MIC values, <0.5 μg/ml), and spectinomycin. The rates of resistance (intermediate susceptibility) to azithromycin, penicillin G, and ciprofloxacin were 3.6% (19.7%), 24.4% (71.0%), and 78.2% (0.5%), respectively. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that 40.9%, 19.2%, and 17.1% of isolates belonged to ST1901, ST7359, and ST7363, respectively. Furthermore, N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) revealed that 12 (63%) of the 19 isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (MIC > 0.064 μg/ml) were of ST1407. NG-MAST ST1407 was also the most prevalent ST (16.1%; 31 of 193 isolates). In those NG-MAST ST1407 strains, several mosaic type penA alleles were found, including SF-A type (penicillin binding protein 2 allele XXXIV) and its derivatives. These were confirmed using transformation of the penA mosaic alleles as critical determinants for enhanced cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs. The intensified surveillance in Kyoto and Osaka, Japan, did not identify any dissemination of the high-level ceftriaxone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae strain H041, suggesting that H041 might have caused only a sporadic case and has not spread further.
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A literature search of MEDLINE (1946-August 2013) was performed using the search terms macrolide, azithromycin, QT prolongation, cardiovascular, and torsade de pointes. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations.
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One hundred and fifty-two men and 60 women positive for M genitalium were recruited. Patients treated either with doxycyline for 9 days or with azithromycin 1 g stat. were compared. Those still positive for M genitalium after primary doxycycline treatment received an extended course of azithromycin 500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the following 4 days, whereas those with treatment failure after azithromycin received doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 15 days.
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Patients with polymerase chain reaction results positive for B. parapertussis reported during October 2011-May 2012 were interviewed regarding presence and durations of pertussis-like symptoms and receipt of azithromycin treatment. Data regarding acute cough illnesses and receipt of azithromycin prophylaxis among parapertussis patient household members (HHMs) were also collected. Using multivariate repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis, we examined associations of treatment receipt by the HHM with the earliest illness onset and prophylaxis receipt among other HHMs with the presence of any secondary cough illnesses in the household.
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Randomized controlled trials comparing azithromycin with other antibiotics for treating children and adults with uncomplicated enteric fever confirmed by cultures of S. Typhi or Paratyphi in blood and/or stool.
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This article describes the case of spontaneous splenic rupture as a rare complication of infection with Babesia species. We will discuss the symptomatology that this disease could present along with both surgical and non-surgical management approaches. Babesia infection often presents with mild to moderate symptoms, but can rapidly progress to significant injury including splenic rupture. The first case reported in a medical journal was in 2007. Treatment usually involves a two-drug regimen; clindamycin plus quinine, or atovaquone plus azithromycin (as in our patient). If hemodynamic stability is present, a primary non-surgical treatment may be especially beneficial since splenectomy may worsen optimal immunologic function and the infection itself.
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High-performance liquid chromatographic methods using reversed-phase chromatography and electrochemical detection have been developed for the quantitation of azithromycin in serum and tissues of laboratory animals and humans. Serum sample preparation involved addition of internal standard, alkalinization, and solvent extraction. Tissue sample preparation involved Polytron homogenization in acetonitrile containing internal standard, evaporation of the supernatant, alkalinization of the residue, and solvent extraction. Serum samples were chromatographed on an alkylphenyl-bonded silica column eluted with pH 6.8-7.2 mobile phase with a dual-electrode coulometric detector operated in the oxidative screen mode. Serum and tissue samples were chromatographed on a gamma RP-1 alumina column with pH 11 mobile phase with a glassy carbon amperometric detector. Recovery of azithromycin was 87% from serum and 85% from tissues. Linear standard curves were prepared in serum over two concentration ranges (0.01-0.20 and 0.20-2.0 micrograms/ml) and in tissues over several concentration ranges (0.1-2, 1-10, 10-100, and 100-1000 micrograms/g). In serum and tissues, intra- and inter-assay precision ranged from 1 to 8% and 4 to 11%, respectively. The tissue assay has been applied to liver, kidney, lung, spleen, muscle, fat, brain, tonsil, lymph nodes, eye, prostate and other urological tissues, and gynecological tissues.
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Biofilm production is an important mechanism for bacterial survival and its association with antimicrobial resistance represents a challenge for the patient treatment. In this study we evaluated the in vitro action of macrolides in combination with anti-pseudomonal agents on biofilm-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients.
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P-glycoprotein is important in local antibiotic resistance. Aim was to evaluate the role of P-glycoprotein in local antibiotic resistance in patients with antral gastritis during antibiotic therapy to Helicobacter pylori infection. In the group of 53 patients with pathohistologically verified gastritis and microbiologically confirmed H. pylori infection (no signs of antimicrobial resistance) we have determined P-glycoprotein activity in gastric mucosa biopsy specimens, and compared them with the P-glycoprotein activity in 12 control subjects with normal endoscopic findings. The H. pylori positive patients were treated according to Maastricht protocol with short-term 7-day therapy consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and azithromycin/metronidazole and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor P-glycoprotein activity was determined in rhodamine dye efflux test and quantified by ratio of the mean fluorescence (RMF) in flow cytometry analysis. H. pylori was successfully eradicated in the first cycle in 20 patients, whereas therapy was continued in 33 patients. The mean pre-treatment RMF values were higher in patients with H. pylori infection then in control subjects (p < 0.0046). RMF was also higher in patients with multiple therapeutic failure than in those with successful H. pylori eradication (p < 0.0001). RMF increased significantly during the antibiotic therapy (p < 0.05). P-glycoprotein might be one of the causes of therapy failure in patients with H. pylori. Our study confirms the importance of quantitative evaluation of P-glycoprotein expression during antibiotic treatment response.
Diabetes has no significant influence on the prevalence of ASB in diabetic pregnancy both in terms of isolates and antibiotic susceptibility pattern.
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2 × 2 factorial community randomized, double blind, trial.
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A comparison was made of the clinical effectiveness of azithromycin (once daily for three days at a dose of 10 mg/kg in children or 500 mg/day in adults) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefaclor (standard doses for 7 to 14 days) in acute ear, nose and throat infections in an open randomized study. The group with azithromycin included 37 otitis media, 24 pharyngotonsillitis and 6 maxillary sinusitis (n = 67). The amoxicillin/clavulanic acid group, 22 otitis media, 19 pharyngotonsillitis and 6 maxillary sinusitis (n = 47) and the cefaclor group, 15 otitis media, 12 pharyngotonsillitis and 4 maxillary sinusitis (n = 31). Fifteen days after beginning treatment, 97% (65/67) of the patients who received azithromycin had improved or cured, compared with 85% (40/47) of those who received amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 84% (26/31), cefaclor (p < 0.02). Pathogens were not eradicated in 3% (2/58) of the patients who received azithromycin, compared with 13% (4/28) who received amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 15% (4/28) cefaclor. Patients with azithromycin showed an earlier clinical improvement and more rapid normalization of the leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and acute phase proteins. No patient with azithromycin had adverse effects, versus 15% (7/47) for patients with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and 16% (5/31) for cefaclor. Treatment compliance was 100, 83 (39/47) and 84% (26/31), respectively (p < 0.01). We conclude that azithromycin treatment for three days is faster and more effective clinically and analytically than standard treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or cefaclor in acute infections of the ear, nose and throat.
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A total of 68 patients were included (mean age: 9.95 yrs (3.61)). After 12 months, significant reductions in the numbers of pulmonary exacerbations and antibiotic courses were present. However, this effect was not maintained in the subsequent periods, during which increased rates of both pulmonary exacerbations and antibiotic courses were observed. The lung function decline was not modified during the treatment, and a decreasing time-dependent trend typical of CF was observed for the various parameters. No differences in the airway colonization by pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-sensitive and/or -resistant Staphyloccocus aureus were observed during the treatment. However, isolated Staphyloccocus aureus strains became resistant to macrolides after 6 months of azithromycin and remained resistant thereafter.
The study included 1026 patients aged 13 to 30 years. Urine samples were tested with a molecular biology assay: AMP-CT.
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The in vitro antibacterial activity of taxifolin-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (TR) and its synergy with four conventional antibiotics (ampicillin (AMP), levofloxacin (LEV), ceftazidime (CAZ) and azithromycin (AZM)) against ten clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were evaluated, respectively. Individual MICs and MBCs were determined by microdilution methods following the CLSI guidelines. Anti-MRSA synergy effects were measured using the chequerboard and time-kill curve tests. MICs/MBCs (μg/ml) ranges were 32-64/64-128 for TR alone against all 10 MRSA isolates. Chequerboard method showed that significant synergies were observed for the TR/CAZ and TR/LEV combinations with FICI ranged 0.187-0.375 and 0.25-0.5, respectively. Some synergy and additivity effects were also observed for TR/AMP and TR/AZM combinations. In the time-kill dynamic confirmation test, synergy results kept by the TR/CAZ combination (2.186 log₁₀ cfu/ml increase in killing), but the TR/LEV combination changed to additivity (1.839 log₁₀ cfu/ml increase in killing). These results demonstrated that TR enhanced the efficacy of CAZ and LEV in vitro, which had potential for combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.
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Persons with spinal cord injury or disorder (SCI/D) are at increased risk for antibiotic resistance because of recurrent infections and subsequent use of antibiotics. However, there are no studies focused on providers who care for these patients and their perceptions regarding antibiotic use and resistance.
The levels of intermediate susceptibility and resistance to the different antibiotics were as follows: penicillin G 76%, ampicillin 71%, cefixime 0%, ceftriaxone 3%, ciprofloxacin 17%, erythromycin 54%, azithromycin 14%, kanamycin 49%, spectinomycin 0% and tetracycline 92%. Of the isolates 55 (72%) were determined as multiresistant--that is, they showed intermediate susceptibility or resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics. However, none of the isolates were beta-lactamase producing.
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Two authors independently assessed the trials' methodological quality and extracted data. We calculated odds ratios (OR) for dichotomous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed trials with greater than 60% children separately from trials of mostly adults.
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Over the past decade, the incidence of syphilis and widespread macrolide resistance in its etiological agent, Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, have become a major health concern across countries, including China. Regional trends in subtypes and antibiotic resistance can be monitored effectively by molecular surveillance programs. In this study, whole blood samples were used to assess circulating T. pallidum strains collected from various regions of Hunan, China, between 2013 and 2015.
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Azithromcyin activates human recombinant motilin receptors in therapeutically relevant concentrations, similar to erythromycin. In humans, gastric antrum azithromycin caused long-lasting facilitation of cholinergic activity. These actions explain the gastric prokinetic activity of azithromycin.
Primary cultures of purified tracheal epithelial cells from F508del and normal homozygous mice were established. Responses to lipopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (LPS, 0.1 microg/ml) on mRNA expression of neutrophil-related chemokines, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were investigated in the presence or the absence of azithromycin (1 microg/ml).
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Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing antibiotics commonly used for treating M. pneumoniae (i.e. macrolide, tetracycline or quinolone classes) versus placebo, or antibiotics from any other class in the treatment of children under 18 years of age with community-acquired LRTI secondary to M. pneumoniae.