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Voltaren (Diclofenac)

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Generic Voltaren is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Generic Voltaren is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis. Generic Voltaren works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Celebrex, Diclofenac Gel, Mobic, Anaprox, Naprosyn


Also known as:  Diclofenac.


Generic Voltaren is used to treat pain or inflammation caused by arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

Generic Voltaren is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Generic Voltaren works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Voltaren is also known as Diclofenac, Voveran, Voltarol, Voltarol SR, Voltarol Retard, Voltarol Rapid, Diclomax SR, Diclomax Retard, Motifene, Defenac, Diclofex, Diclozip, Dyloject, Fenactol, Flamrase, Flamatak, Econac, Rhumalgan SR, Rhumalgan XL, Volsaid SR.

Generic name of Generic Voltaren is Diclofenac.

Brand names of Generic Voltaren are Cataflam, Voltaren, Voltaren-XR.


Take Generic Voltaren orally.

Do not crush or chew the pill. Swallow it whole.

Take Generic Voltaren with great amount of water.

Take Generic Voltaren with or without food.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Voltaren suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Voltaren and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Voltaren overdosage: nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, black or bloody stool, shallow breathing, fainting, coma.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Voltaren are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Voltaren if you are allergic to Generic Voltaren components or to aspirin or other NSAIDs.

Do not take Generic Voltaren if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant. Do not breast-feed while taking Generic Voltaren.

Do not take Generic Voltaren if you just before or after having heart bypass surgery (also called coronary artery bypass graft, or CABG).

Be careful with Generic Voltaren if you use any other over-the-counter cold, allergy, or pain medicataion.

Be careful with Generic Voltaren if you had a history of heart attack, stroke or blood clot, heart disease, congestive heart failure, high blood pressure, liver or kidney diseases, asthma, polyps in the nose.

Be careful with Generic Voltaren if you smoke.

Be careful with Generic Voltaren if you take antidepressants, blood thinner (Coumadin); cyclosporine, lithium, methotrexate, you take diuretics, you take steroids.

Avoid exposure to sunlight or artificial UV rays (sunlamps or tanning beds).

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Voltaren taking suddenly.

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This case/noncase analysis was conducted using the US Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information (FDA/FOI) database (through quarter 1, 2003) and the World Health Organization Uppsala Monitoring Centre (WHO/UMC) database (through quarter 3, 2003). Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology preferred terms were used to classify hepatic disorders with broad and specific case definitions. After reports involving established hepatotoxic drugs (bromfenac, nimesulide, sulindac) were excluded, the proportion of reports (PRs) of each case definition was calculated for each NSAID. Crude and adjusted reporting odds ratios (RORs) were used to compare the overall proportions of hepatic disorders and hepatic failure of celecoxib and rofecoxib versus nonselective NSAIDs.

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The compound 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)indolin-2-one (1), planned as a pro-drug of diclofenac (2), was easily synthesized in 94% yield by an intramolecular reaction in the presence of coupling agent (i.e., EDC). Compound 1 showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity without gastro-ulcerogenic effects. The chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis profile of the lactam derivative 1 does not indicate conversion to diclofenac (2). This compound is a new non-ulcerogenic prototype for treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

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To examine the clinical efficacy of intrathecal morphine as postoperative analgesia for cervical laminoplasty.

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Phytochemicals with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties are known to inhibit tumour initiation, promotion and progression. Hence, there is an increasingly-convincing rationale for employing remedies containing those phytochemicals in the treatment of cancers and also as analgesic and anti-inflammatory adjuvants in therapy. The plants Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae), stem bark; Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (Annonaceae), root; and Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (Olacaceae), root, have been documented to be part of various indigenous anti-cancer regimens.

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Under symptomatic treatment with tramadol, diclofenac ointment, and fragmented heparin serum creatine kinase returned to normal levels (105 U/I) within 14 days. In accordance, symptoms of local pain disappeared completely. After two weeks of treatment the patient was able to move his leg without pain.

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A trial was initiated at the Government Medical College in Patiala, India, in December 1993. Patient intake was terminated in July 1999 and the cut-off date for this analysis was March 31, 2003. Using a modified IUD inserter, seven 252 mg quinacrine pellets with 50 mg of diclofenac were transcervically inserted into the uterus. DMPA 150 mg was administered IM at the time of the first insertion as a back-up contraceptive. This same combination was inserted a month later. A total of 134 women underwent QS. Of these, 92 were considered to be at high risk for surgery, 27 were afraid of surgery or voluntarily opted for QS, and 15 had had failed surgical sterilization or surgery was found not to be technically feasible. Follow-up was scheduled for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, and then annually after the second insertion or whenever side effects or complications were experienced.

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Infants (n = 26) undergoing tonsillectomy were given diclofenac 2 followed by 1 8 h as suppository formulation for postoperative analgesia. Serum was assayed for diclofenac, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac and 5'-hydroxydiclofenac concentrations during the procedure and 1, 2 and 4 h postoperatively. The formation clearances of diclofenac to hydroxyl metabolites were estimated using nonlinear mixed effects models. A single compartment, first order absorption and first order elimination model was used to describe diclofenac pharmacokinetics. Published data from 11 children given enteric-coated diclofenac tablets were used to assess relative bioavailability.

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The main aim of the present study was to develop a series of pH-sensitive hydrogels for targeted releasing drugs under simulated intestinal environment instead of stomach condition. These hydrogels were prepared via free radical polymerization with polyethylene glycol methacrylate 475 (PEGMA475), PEGMA950 and methacrylic acid as monomers, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TRGDMA), and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-link agents. The surface morphology and internal structures of hydrogels were detected by scanning electron microscope. The swelling experiments were also performed and the results revealed that the smart hydrogels were pH sensitive and their sensitiveness was reversible. Diclofenac sodium and bull serum albumin used as model drugs were loaded in the hydrogels to target releasing them in simulative intestinal tract. In vitro releasing studies showed that medicated hydrogels released model drugs slowly in acid conditions (pH 1.2), while the cumulated release amounts of drugs increased greatly when ambient pH value increased to 7.4. These phenomena indicated that these hydrogels tended to target release stimulating and destructible drugs in intestinal canal instead of gastric environment.

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The oral bioavailability of diclofenac potassium 50 mg administered as a soft gelatin capsule (softgel capsule), powder for oral solution (oral solution), and tablet was evaluated in a randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence crossover study in healthy adults. Plasma diclofenac concentrations were measured using a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed by noncompartmental methods. The median time to achieve peak plasma concentrations of diclofenac was 0.5, 0.25, and 0.75 hours with the softgel capsule, oral solution, and tablet formulations, respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf, and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the oral solution formulation were 0.97 (0.95-1.00) and 0.85 (0.76-0.95), respectively. The geometric mean ratio and associated 90%CI for AUCinf and Cmax of the softgel capsule formulation relative to the tablet formulation were 1.04 (1.00-1.08) and 1.67 (1.43-1.96), respectively. In conclusion, the exposure (AUC) of diclofenac with the new diclofenac potassium softgel capsule formulation was comparable to that of the existing oral solution and tablet formulations. The peak plasma concentration of diclofenac from the new softgel capsule was 67% higher than the existing tablet formulation, whereas it was 15% lower in comparison with the oral solution formulation.

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Results indicated that DLC had both clinical sign-modifying and disease-modifying effects. Only clinical sign-modifying effects were detected in association with phenylbutazone administration. Treatment with DLC had significant beneficial effects, compared with phenylbutazone, and no detrimental effects. Results suggested that DLC is a viable therapeutic option for horses with osteoarthritis.

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To test our hypothesis that pseudophakic inflammation, including the fibrin reaction, may be caused by cytokines, prostaglandins (PG), or both, synthesised by residual lens epithelial cells (LECs), we measured interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and PGE2 in the incubation medium of cultures of human LECs obtained by capsulotomy during cataract surgery. After 1 week radioimmunoassay showed that there were 1.46 (0.62) ng of PGE2/10(6) cells (mean (SD) six cultures), and after 4 weeks, there were 5.50 (2.20) ng of PGE2/10(6) cells (seven cultures). During culture the cells proliferated and underwent fibroblast-like cell changes on exposure to the plastic of the wells. In the medium of control plates to which sodium diclofenac had been added PGE2 was not detected. Some IL-1 alpha was found in four of 10 samples, each of which contained media from 12 cultures; 207 pg/10(6) cells in one of the two pools of 2-week cultures, 120 pg/10(6) cells in one pool and 139 pg/10(6) cells in another of the three pools of 3-week cultures, and 111 pg/10(6) cells in the one pool of 4-week cultures. PGE2 and IL-1 alpha may therefore be produced in vivo by residual LECs after cataract surgery, and may be involved in postoperative inflammation, including the fibrin reaction.

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Both analgesic and ulcerogenic activities of d-2-[4-(3-methyl-2-thienyl)phenyl] propionic acid (M-5011), a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), were compared with those of indomethacin (IND), ketoprofen (KP), diclofenac sodium (DIF), zaltoprofen (ZLT) and tiaprofenic acid (TIA) in mice. All orally administered NSAIDs including M-5011 inhibited kaolin-induced writhing in a dose-dependent manner. M-5011 had an effective antinociceptive activity (ED50 value) of 0.63 mg/kg, being more potent than ZLT (16.80 mg/kg) and TIA (4.78 mg/kg), equipotent to DIF (0.68 mg/kg), and less potent than IND (0.21 mg/kg) and KP (0.28 mg/kg). All drugs tested significantly reduced peritoneal 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto-PGF1 alpha) levels at the peak kaolin-induced writhing time (7.5 min post-kaolin injection) without affecting peritoneal bradykinin (BK) levels. Antinociceptive effects of all drugs were closely correlated with inhibition of peritoneal 6-keto-PGF1 alpha levels. Ulcerogenic activities (UD50 value) of M-5011 in the stomach and small intestines were 88.23 and 46.09 mg/kg, respectively. UD50 values of other drugs in the stomach and small intestines were as follows: 8.96 and 4.78 mg/kg, 20.04 and 10.75 mg/kg, 4.19 and 2.24 mg/kg, 62.86 and 46.55 mg/kg, and 110.92 and 54.78 mg/kg for IND, KP, DIF, TIA, and ZLT, respectively. Thus, the safety indexes (UD50/ED50) of the stomach (or small intestine) for M-5011, IND, KP, DIF, TIA and ZLT were 140.05 (73.16), 42.67 (22.76), 71.57 (38.39), 6.16 (3.29), 13.15 (9.74) and 6.60 (3.26), respectively. These findings suggest that M-5011 is a useful NSAID that shows potent antinociceptive effects with low ulcerogenic activities.

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Midazolam has analgesic effects mediated by gamma aminobutyric acid-A receptors. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of midazolam on anesthesia and analgesia quality when added to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA).

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Meta-regression analyses were performed. Change in risk was evaluated by testing whether the slope of the regression line declined over time. Four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) provided evaluable data from five NSAID arms (aspirin, naproxen, two ibuprofen arms, and diclofenac). When the RCT data were combined, a small significant decline in annualised risk was seen: - 0.005% (95% CI, - 0.008% to - 0.001%) per month. Sensitivity analyses were conducted because there was disparity within the RCT data. The pooled estimate from three cohort studies showed no significant decline in annualised risk over periods up to 2 years: - 0.003% (95% CI, - 0.008% to 0.003%) per month.

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Acetaminophen and diclofenac are prescribed as postoperative analgesic agents in children. However, the efficacy of their combination is not studied sufficiently. We compare the analgesic effects of acetaminophen, diclofenac, and their combination after cleft palate surgery. In this randomized clinical trial, 120 children (1.5-5 y) who were scheduled for cleft palate repair were studied. Children were randomized to receive placebo, acetaminophen (40 mg/kg), diclofenac (1 mg/kg), or acetaminophen (40 mg/kg) plus diclofenac (1 mg/kg) rectally just after surgery. Acetaminophen (30 mg/kg) and diclofenac (1 mg/kg) were administered every 8 hours until 48 hours. Postoperative pain was assessed regularly with the Children Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale, and rescue analgesia was provided if scores were 7 or greater. Time to the first prescription of meperidine, total postoperative meperidine consumption, and adverse effects were the main outcomes.After surgery, pain scores were higher in placebo than in other groups in all time intervals. In the first 12 hours, pain scores in the combined group were less than those in the acetaminophen (P < 0.05) and diclofenac (P < 0.05) groups. Postoperative meperidine consumption was the highest in placebo and was the least in combined group (P < 0.05). It was significantly higher in the acetaminophen group than in the diclofenac group (P < 0.05). Time to the first prescription of meperidine was significantly different among all groups. Adverse effects were comparable among groups.Rectal acetaminophen plus diclofenac was found to be the most effective in pain control. However, both rectal acetaminophen and diclofenac were more effective than placebo, whereas diclofenac was more effective than acetaminophen.

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Fifty-eight patients undergoing phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation were randomly selected to receive either ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%, diclofenac sodium 0.1%, or prednisolone acetate 1% following surgery. The treatment regimen was 1 drop 4 times a day for 1 week, then twice a day for the next 3 weeks. Flare, cells, and intraocular pressures (IOPs) were measured preoperatively and on postoperative days 1, 7, and 28.

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Wistar rats were operated on by a transverse osteotomy of the proximal tibia of the left leg. The fracture was stabilized by intramedullary nailing (healing period 21 days). All drugs were applied orally twice a day. The animals were divided into four groups with 10 rats each: Group 1 was treated with placebo (P), group 2 with tramadol (T; 20 mg/kg body weight/day), group 3 with diclofenac sodium (DS; 5 mg/kg bw/day) for 7 days followed by 14 days of placebo, group 4 with diclofenac sodium (DL; 5 mg/kgbw/day) over 21 days. On day 21 the rats were killed, and each leg was examined by X-ray, then the tibia was examined by CT scan, three-point bending, and histology.

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The level of pain was statistically similar between the two eyes half an hour after operation; however, Diclofenac eyes had significantly less pain 24 h after operation (1.7 ± 1.4 vs 5.8 ± 2.1, P < 0.001 for VAS, 0.6 ± 0.6 vs 2.4 ± 1.1, P < 0.001 for VRS, and 3.4 ± 3.4 vs 12.0 ± 6.9, P < 0.001 for PRI, respectively). Also, 48 h after surgery, the pain scores were less in the Diclofenac eyes (1.6 ± 1.8 vs 3.4 ± 2.8, P < 0.001 for VAS, 0.6 ± 0.6 vs 1.2 ± 0.9, P < 0.001 for VRS, and 3.3 ± 3.7 vs 6.5 ± 6.2, P < 0.001 for PRI). No case with delayed epithelial healing in both groups was observed.

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Neural network model analysis, based on the full clinical trial data with collection of both traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine diagnostic information, shows a good predictive role for the information in the efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis.

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We analysed the whole consumption of NSAIDs from ATC class M01 in Slovakia during 1996-2007.

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The evidence about the treatment of acute infusion superficial thrombophlebitis is limited and of low quality. Data appear too preliminary to assess the effectiveness and safety of topical treatments, systemic anticoagulation or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

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Both in abraded (AA3 and AA5) and control (RA3 and RA5) groups without diclofenac, 1 of 17 anastomoses leaked (6%). Leak rate was 9 of 15 (60%) in group AA-Dic and 8 of 15 (53%) in RA-Dic (P = 1.0). The bursting pressure in group RA3 (127 ± 44 mm Hg) was higher (P = 0.006) compared with group AA3 (82 ± 34 mm Hg), breaking strength was comparable (P = 0.331). Mechanical strength was similar between groups RA5 and AA5. Abrasion did not increase mechanical strength in the diclofenac groups. Adhesion formation was not different between groups. Histology showed dense interserosal scar formation in abraded groups, compared with loose connective tissue in control anastomoses.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective and necessary for the relief of pain and inflammation in patients with arthritis. NSAIDs are however also associated with an increased risk for ulceration in the stomach and in the duodenum, and many NSAID users experience bothersome dyspeptic symptoms during continued NSAID therapy. PPIs like omeprazole, have been shown to heal and to prevent ulcers and dyspeptic symptoms during continued NSAID therapy, and during continued NSAID therapy the prostaglandin analogue, misoprostol, has been shown to reduce the risk for ulcer complications. The COX-2 selective NSAID, rofecoxib, is in comparison with naproxen, a non-selective NSAID, associated with fewer clinically important upper gastrointestinal events. The incidence of myocardial infarctions seems, however, to be lower with naproxen than with rofecoxib, and this is expected to lead to low-dose aspirin use in rofecoxib users at risk for cardiovascular events. Co-administration of the COX-2 selective NSAID, celecoxib, and low-dose aspirin, is associated with the same risk for upper gastrointestinal ulcer complications alone and combined with symptomatic ulcers, as the non-selective NSAIDs, ibuprofen and diclofenac. A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) should be used for healing of NSAID-associated ulcers, and a PPI or misoprostol should be considered for prevention of ulceration in non-selective NSAID users at risk for ulceration. The experience with COX-2 selective NSAIDs is still limited, and it remains to be studied whether subpopulations of COX-2 selective NSAID users will benefit from gastro-duodenal protection.

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A novel cationic liposome nanocarrier, having interesting performance in topical drug delivery, is here presented and evaluated for its features. Two penetration enhancers, namely monoolein and lauroylcholine chloride, are combined to rapidly formulate (15 min) a cationic liposome nanostructure endowed of excellent stability (>6 months) and skin penetration ability, along with low short-term cytotoxicity, as evaluated via the MTT test. Cytotoxicity tests and lipid droplet analysis give a strong indication that monoolein and lauroylcholine synergistically endanger long-term cells viability. The physicochemical features, investigated through SAXS, DLS, and cryo-TEM techniques, reveal that the nanostructure is retained after loading with diclofenac in its acid (hydrophobic) form. The drug release performances are studied using intact newborn pig skin. Analysis of the different skin strata proves that the drug mainly accumulates into the viable epidermis with almost no deposition into the derma. Indeed, the flux of the drug across the skin is exceptionally low, with only 1% release after 24 h. These results validate the use of this novel formulation for topical drug release when the delivery to the systemic circulation should be avoided.

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The current study estimated the efficacy of acetaminophen, nsNSAIDs, and COX-2 selective NSAIDs in OA and found that etoricoxib 30 mg is likely to result in the greatest improvements in pain and physical function. Differences in PGADS between interventions were smaller.

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Patterns of NSAID use, particularly chronic NSAID use, and of concomitant use of GPAs were examined using a large US buy voltaren -based prescription database. Patients with at least 1 NSAID prescription dispensed between May 1 and August 31, 1998, were identified. Persons with any NSAID prescription within 4 months prior to the first (index) prescription were excluded. The remaining patients were defined as new NSAID users and then classified as chronic users (> or = 30 days of supply of NSAIDs during the 120 days of follow-up after the first NSAID prescription) or acute users (<30 days of NSAID supply during the 120 days of follow-up). Concomitant GPA use was defined as receipt of any GPA prescription between the fill date of NSAID prescription and 125% of days of supply. NSAIDs included diclofenac/misoprostol (in a fixed combination), diclofenac, naproxen, nabumetone, ibuprofen, and "other" (comprising several less frequently prescribed agents). Patients were classified as users of a particular NSAID based on the first NSAID prescription they received. GPAs included PPIs, H2-receptor antagonists, and misoprostol.

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The prevalence of drug-induced angioedema without urticaria among patients with adverse drug reactions was 2.3%/year. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were the most common cause (50%), followed by antibiotics (20%). The commonest NSAID which induced angioedema were ibuprofen and diclofenac. The common sites were periorbital area (67.3%) and lips (27.6%). The median duration of suspected drug therapy before the development of angioedema was 1 buy voltaren day with the range of 10 min to 23 days.

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Diclofenac has recently been identified as a cause of the widespread vulture decline on the Indian subcontinent. Although the clinical signs and pathology have been described, buy voltaren the pathophysiology of toxicity remains unexplained. In the following study we attempt to validate the domestic fowl as a model, to allow for the further characterisation of diclofenac's mechanism of toxicity. In a lethal dose study, diclofenac was shown to have an approximate intramuscular LD(50) of 9.8mg/kg in 18-week old layers. Signs of toxicity in the affected birds were severe depression that persisted from 24h post-dosing to death with corresponding increased plasma uric acid concentrations. Post-mortem examinations showed signs of gout with deposits of urates (tophi) in the kidneys, liver, heart and spleen. The pharmacokinetics after both the intramuscular and oral route showed that diclofenac had a short half-life of elimination of approximately 1h, a volume of distribution of 0.09-0.24l/kg and relative oral bioavailability of 50% compared to intramuscular administration. With the similarity in the clinical signs, necropsy findings, histopatological lesions and clinical pathological changes, the fowl may be used in further studies to characterise the mechanism of toxicity of diclofenac. However, due to the large difference in susceptibility of the fowl, it is not a suitable model to simulate the dose-response relationship of the vulture to the other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

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The correlation between the mean daily-dose (MDD) ratios of NSAIDs and the probability values of the current statistical tests were highly negative (Pearson's r = -0.920, P = 0.003), which indicated that the higher the MDD ratios, the greater the risks of a buy voltaren second hip fracture. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a time-dependent trend of increasing risk of a second hip fracture in patients taking NSAIDs (P < 0.001). Moreover, patients ≥ 60 years old had a higher risk of a second hip fracture than did those <60 and taking the NSAIDs diclofenac (P = 0.016) and celecoxib (P = 0.003) and the corticosteroid dexamethasone (P = 0.018), but not those taking analgesic paracetamol (P = 0.074).

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Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, have come to play an important role in the pharmacologic management of arthritis and pain. Clinical trials have established the efficacy of etoricoxib in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute gouty arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, low back pain, acute postoperative pain, and primary dysmenorrhea. Comparative studies indicate at least similar efficacy with etoricoxib versus traditional NSAIDs. Etoricoxib was generally well tolerated in these studies with no new safety findings during long-term administration. The gastrointestinal, renovascular, and cardiovascular tolerability profiles of etoricoxib have been evaluated in large patient datasets, and further insight into the buy voltaren cardiovascular tolerability of etoricoxib and diclofenac will be gained from a large ongoing cardiovascular outcomes program (MEDAL). The available data suggest that etoricoxib is an efficacious alternative in the management of arthritis and pain, with the potential advantages of convenient once-daily administration and superior gastrointestinal tolerability compared with traditional NSAIDs.

voltaren generic name 2015-01-21

Thermoassociative nanoparticles were obtained through the crosslinking reaction of periodate oxidized carboxymethyl pullulan with two difunctional Jeffamines: ED-600 and ED-2003. The nanoparticles were characterized through (1)H NMR spectra; their particle size, determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) presented a bimodal distribution, with dimensions varying as a function of amount and type buy voltaren of crosslinking agent used; transmission electron microscopy photos confirmed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles and their dimensions determined by DLS. Their amphiphilic character was evidenced by retention of the dyes: hydrophobic (Rose Bengal), amphiphilic (Brilliant Blue) and hydrophilic (Vitamin B12). The thermosensitive properties, more pronounced for ED-2003 crosslinked nanoparticles, were evidenced through absorbance variation, fluorescence and DLS measurements as a temperature function. The nanoparticles retain important amounts of anionic (diclofenac: 40-80 mg/g), cationic (methylene blue: 70-125 mg/g) and hydrophobic (alpha-tocopherol: 220-350 mg/g) drugs. The in vitro characterization of the drug-polymer conjugates recommends the synthesized nanoparticles as supports for drug delivery.

voltaren 75mg medication 2017-12-15

To investigate the cost effectiveness of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX 2) selective inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( buy voltaren NSAIDs), and the addition of proton pump inhibitors to these treatments, for people with osteoarthritis.

voltaren pills 2015-10-23

This study investigated the effects of polymer molecular weight, drug solubility, addition of a water-soluble excipient, and drug loading on zero-order release kinetics and elucidated the release mechanism of a drug from directly compressed tablets. Directly compressed tablets consisting of polyethylene oxides (PEO) (MW = 0.9, 2.0 and 4.0 x 10(6)) and drugs (solubility ranging from 290 to 25,000 mg/l) were formulated with or without a water-soluble excipient (lactose). For PEO tablets (MW = 0. buy voltaren 9 x 10(6)), drug release is primarily swelling/erosion controlled for drugs for which solubility is below 1%, resulting in zero-order release kinetics. For PEO tablets (MW = 4.0 x 10(6)), drug release is controlled at a zero-order rate by the dissolution rate of the drug at high loading (39%). At low loading (20%), drug diffusion through the swollen gel layer becomes the governing release mechanism. For a highly water-soluble drug (e.g., diclofenac Na), drug diffusion is the controlling mechanism regardless of the molecular weight of the PEOs. Zero-order release kinetics can be achieved with PEO tablets (MW = 0.9 x 10(6)) for drugs for which solubility is below 1%. PEO tablets (MW = 2.0 x 10(6)) provided zero-order release for poorly water-soluble drugs (below 0.2%) at 39% drug loading. It is possible to attain zero-order release kinetics with PEO tablets (MW = 4.0 x 10(6)) using a drug which has a solubility of less than 0.1%.

voltaren cream drug 2015-02-26

40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided in five groups ( buy voltaren n = 8) treated for 14 days with saline (control), diclofenac (positive control), fluoxetine, cyproheptadine (5-HT2 antagonist), and fluoxetine + cyproheptadine, respectively. We used the experimental model of inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenan and nociceptive test with mechanical pressure on the inflamed hind paw.

voltaren drug class 2017-02-26

Pellets containing drugs of different properties were prepared in a Rotoprocessor in order to study changes in the formulation process and resulting pellet characteristics. Diltiazem hydrochloride, diclofenac sodium, and theophylline were chosen as model drugs. Pellet size distribution, sphericity, density, hardness, friability, and repose angle were determined using standard methods. The amount of water as a wetting agent necessary for successful pellet formulation was observed for each sample and changed depending on drug solubility, concentration, and particle size. The pelletization of freely soluble diltiazem hydrochloride required 24.8-23.1% of the wetting agent and its amount decreased as the drug concentration increased. The demand for water in the formulation of theophylline pellets was 31.0-34.4% and it increased with increasing drug concentration. The pellet buy voltaren samples containing both drugs were easy to prepare. However, the cohesion of micronized diclofenac sodium particles negatively influenced both the pellet size distribution and the formulation process itself. When the drug concentration exceeded 40%, it was not possible to produce pellets of an appropriate size and the process was not reproducible.

voltaren and alcohol 2016-06-04

To show the allergy to drugs frequency evaluated by the buy voltaren Shelley's Modified Test.

voltaren 50mg generic 2016-05-17

PLGA microspheres were prepared as a sustained release system for the intra-articular administration of celecoxib (CCB). The microspheres were prepared in the presence of different concentrations of dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-Cyd), by the simple oil-in-water emulsion/evaporation solvent method. The microspheres were evaluated as to surface morphology, size and technological properties (such as encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity and drug release). Ex vivo studies on cultures of human chondrocytes were performed in order to evaluate the influence of the polymeric carriers on the pharmacological activity of CCB. All systems ranged from about 1 to 5 μm in size and had a high encapsulation efficiency percentage ranging from about 80% to 90% (w/w), except for CCB-loaded-PLGA microspheres containing the highest amount of DM-β-Cyd, in which a dramatic drop in the encapsulation efficiency was buy voltaren observed (about 54%, w/w). FIB images evidenced the fact that the microspheres had a porous structure in the presence of the highest amount of DM-β-Cyd. The macrocycle modulated the release profiles of CCB from the microspheres, producing in some cases a zero-order kinetic release. Ex vivo biological studies demonstrated that DM-β-Cyd improved the drug's anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, CCB-loaded PLGA/cyclodextrin microspheres may have a potential therapeutic application in the treatment of osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis.

voltaren actigo gel 2016-10-02

Reports concerning the quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals in marine ecosystems are somewhat limited. It is necessary to determine pharmaceutical fate and assess any potential risk of exposure to aquatic species and ultimately, seafood consumers. In the work presented herein, analytical methods were optimised and validated for the quantification of pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluent, receiving marine waters and marine mussels (Mytilus spp.). Selected pharmaceuticals included two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (diclofenac and mefenamic acid), an antibiotic (trimethoprim), an antiepileptic (carbamazepine) and a lipid regulator (gemfibrozil). This paper also presents the results of an in situ study in which caged Mytilus spp. were deployed at three sites on the Irish coastline over a 1-year period. In water samples, pharmaceutical residues were determined using solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The extraction of pharmaceuticals from mussel tissues used an additional pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) step prior to SPE and LC-MS/MS. Limits of quantification between 15 and 225 ng·L(-1) were achieved in wastewater effluent, between 3 and 38 ng·L(-1) in marine surface water and between 4 and 29 ng·g(-1) dry weight in marine mussels. Method linearity was achieved for pharmaceuticals in each matrix with correlation coefficients of R(2)≥0.976. All five selected pharmaceuticals were quantified in wastewater effluent and marine surface waters. This work has demonstrated the susceptibility of the Mytilus spp. to pharmaceutical exposure buy voltaren following the detection of pharmaceutical residues in the tissues of this mussel species at measurable concentrations.

voltaren with alcohol 2017-07-18

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of alfuzosin treatment on rate and time of stone expulsion in patients with uncomplicated distal Suprax Pediatric Dosing ureteral stones.

voltaren emulgel reviews 2017-12-02

Both ketorolac and diclofenac maintained endothlium-dependent relaxation induced by ACh in a dose-related manner inspite of ROS attack (P < 0.05 vs. control value). The 3AT pretreated ketorolac (3 × 10(-3 Cardura Y Alcohol ) M) group was decreased more significantly than un-pretreated ketorolac (P < 0.05).

voltaren generic 2016-11-03

We included 40 trials with 5131 participants. Because of heterogeneity, we divided studies into seven groups: Local anesthesia: Data were insufficient to show a clear benefit of a paracervical block (PCB) compared to no PCB. Reported mean pain scores (10-point scale) during dilation and aspiration were improved with carbonated lidocaine [weighted mean difference (WMD), -0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.89 to -0.71; WMD, -0.96; 95% CI, -1.67 to -0.25], deep injection (WMD, -1.64; 95% CI, -3.21 to -0.08; WMD, 1.00; 95% CI, 1.09 to 0.91), and with adding a 4% intrauterine lidocaine infusion (WMD, -2.0; 95% CI, -3.29 to -0.71; WMD, -2.8; 95% CI, -3.95 to -1.65). PCB with premedication: Ibuprofen and naproxen resulted in small reduction of intra- and postoperative pain. Conscious sedation: The addition of conscious intravenous sedation using diazepam and fentanyl to PCB decreased procedural pain. General anesthesia: Conscious sedation increased intraoperative but decreased postoperative pain compared to general anesthesia (GA) [Peto Vermox 100mg Dosage odds ratio (Peto OR) 14.77 (95%, CI 4.91-44.38) and Peto OR 7.47 (95% CI, 2.2-25.36) for dilation and aspiration, respectively, and WMD -1.00 (95% CI, -1.77 to -0.23) postoperatively). Inhalation anesthetics are associated with increased blood loss (p<0.001). GA with premedication: The cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor etoricoxib; the nonselective COX inhibitors lornoxicam, diclofenac and ketorolac IM; and the opioid nalbuphine improved postoperative pain. Nonpharmacological intervention: Listening to music decreased procedural pain. No major complication was observed.

voltaren gel canada 2016-02-02

A gravimetric method for the determination of diclofenac in pharmaceutical preparations was developed. Diclofenac is precipitated from aqueous solution with copper(II) acetate in pH 5.3 (acetic acid/acetate buffer). Sample aliquots had approximately the same quantity of the drug content in tablets (50 mg) or in ampules (75 mg). The observed standard deviation was about +/- 2 mg Imdur 90 Mg ; therefore, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was approximately 4% for tablet and 3% for ampule preparations. The results were compared with those obtained with the liquid chromatography method recommended in the United States Pharmacopoeia using the statistical Student's t-test. Complete agreement was observed. It is possible to obtain more precise results using higher aliquots, for example 200 mg, in which case the RSD falls to 1%. This gravimetric method, contrary to what is expected for this kind of procedure, is relatively fast and simple to perform. The main advantage is the absolute character of the gravimetric analysis.

voltaren street drug 2016-11-02

An experimental Asacol Generic 2014 animal study.

voltaren gel doses 2017-05-30

Porous carbons were prepared from a metal-organic framework (MOF, named ZIF-8), with or without modification, via high-temperature pyrolysis. Porous carbons with high nitrogen content were obtained from the calcination of MOF after introducing an ionic liquid (IL) (IL@MOF) via the ship-in-bottle method. The MOF-derived carbons (MDCs) and IL@MOF-derived carbons Inderal And Alcohol (IMDCs) were characterized using various techniques and used for liquid-phase adsorptions in both water and hydrocarbon to understand the possible applications in purification of water and fuel, respectively. Adsorptive performances for the removal of organic contaminants, atrazine (ATZ), diuron, and diclofenac, were remarkably enhanced with the modification/conversion of MOFs to MDC and IMDC. For example, in the case of ATZ adsorption, the maximum adsorption capacity of IMDC (Q0 = 208 m(2)/g) was much higher than that of activated carbon (AC, Q0 = 60 m(2)/g) and MDC (Q0 = 168 m(2)/g) and was found to be the highest among the reported results so far. The results of adsorptive denitrogenation and desulfurization of fuel were similar to that of water purification. The IMDCs are very useful in the adsorptions since these new carbons showed remarkable performances in both the aqueous and nonaqueous phases. These results are very meaningful because hydrophobic and hydrophilic adsorbents are usually required for the adsorptions in the water and fuel phases, respectively. Moreover, a plausible mechanism, H-bonding, was also suggested to explain the remarkable performance of the IMDCs in the adsorptions. Therefore, the IMDCs derived from IL@MOF might have various applications, especially in adsorptions, based on high porosity, mesoporosity, doped nitrogen, and functional groups.

voltaren capsule 2016-04-23

Surgically induced miosis (SIM Avodart 10 Mg ) frequently occurs during extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). A randomized clinical trial was performed to evaluate the effect of 3 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs Indomethacin 1%, Diclofenac 0.1% and Flurbiprofen 0.03%, administered topically before ECCE, on the maintenance of mydriasis during surgery. The patients were grouped based on the type of NSAID given preoperatively in addition to the standard mydriatic agents: 46 patients in group A (Indomethacin), 40 patients in B (Diclofenac), 44 patients in C (Flurbiprofen) and 34 patients formed control group D (no NSAID was instilled). Horizontal pupillary diameter measurements were taken, using a caliper, immediately prior to surgery (step 0), after capsulotomy (step I), after expression of the lens nucleus (step II) and after irrigation-aspiration of the cortical remnants (step III). Differences in pupillary diameter between step 0 and the different surgical steps were used as indices of pupillary constrictions observed in the 4 groups. A significantly less pupillary constriction was found in groups A and C than in D between steps 0 and II (p = 0.01) and in groups A and C than in B and D between steps 0 and III (p = 0.001). Our results show that Indomethacin 1% and Flurbiprofen 0.03%, compared to Diclofenac 0.1% and no NSAID regime, are significantly more effective in maintaining mydriasis during cataract surgery.