The result indicated 800 mg/kg double dose of extract has profound efficacy against mature worms, where the EPG count was reduced by 79.57% and percentage worm recovery rate by 16.60%. These effects were better than treatment with 5 mg/kg single dose of praziquantel, the standard drug. In case of efficacy against immature worms, the extract showed a significant reduction in worm recovery rate (from 100% in control to 20.00% at 800 mg/kg dose of extract).
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Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE. Genetic variation in the pre-Hispanic Mayas from archaeological sites in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, and Tabasco and their relationship with the contemporary communities in these regions have not been previously studied. Consequently, the principal aim of this study was to determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the pre-Hispanic Maya population and to assess the relationship of these individuals with contemporary Mesoamerican Maya and populations from Asia, Beringia, and North, Central, and South America. Our results revealed interactions and gene flow between populations in the different archaeological sites assessed in this study. The mtDNA haplogroup frequency in the pre-Hispanic Maya population (60.53%, 34.21%, and 5.26% for haplogroups A, C, and D, respectively) was similar to that of most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, with haplogroup A exhibiting the highest frequency. Haplogroup B most likely arrived independently and mixed with populations carrying haplogroups A and C based on its absence in the pre-Hispanic Mexican Maya populations and low frequencies in most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, although this also may be due to drift. Maya and Ciboneys sharing haplotype H10 belonged to haplogroup C1 and haplotype H4 of haplogroup D, suggesting shared regional haplotypes. This may indicate a shared genetic ancestry, suggesting more regional interaction between populations in the circum-Caribbean region than previously demonstrated. Haplotype sharing between the pre-Hispanic Maya and the indigenous populations from Asia, the Aleutian Islands, and North, Central, and South America provides evidence for gene flow from the ancestral Amerindian population of the pre-Hispanic Maya to Central and South America.
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A mild, simple, safe, chemoselective reduction of different kinds of aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols mediated by the Mn dust/water system is described. In addition to this, the use of D(2)O leads to the synthesis of α-deuterated alcohols and constitutes an efficient, inexpensive alternative for the preparation of these compounds.
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The care of poisoned patients in the sphere of the hospital emergency services is an increasingly frequent phenomenon. Any patient, whether or not they die, who is subjected to medical care in the course of a poisoning generates certain obligations from the medical-legal point of view. This paper reviews the most frequent causes of medical care in living patients, or in those who have died because of a poisoning, the legal obligations that care gives rise to, and the suitable form for approaching and resolving these.
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Selective Barbier-type allylations, benzylations and propargylations of aldehydes and ketones can be carried out under extremely mild conditions employing titanocene(III) complexes as catalysts. In this way, chiral titanocene catalysts provided yields ranging from 50-80% of optically active products.
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In this study, semi structured guided open and close ended questionnaires were used. Focus group discussions were conducted and key informants were chosen within the TMPs who helped in further discussions of how the herbal remedies where collected, prepared and administered.
In conclusion, genetically defined MBL-deficiency is associated with a better outcome after acute stroke in mice and humans.
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The methanol extract (JP-M) was tested in ER and PR binding assays, a COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay, the ERbeta-CALUX assay in U2-OS cells, as well as reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 K1 cells.
This article considers the evolutive process that judicial organisms of medical experts have experienced in Argentina since their creation and formulates a proposal for its adequacy and modernization. Due to multiple and various evolutive factors, judicial organisms managing medicolegal expert activities show, nowadays, signals that a structural and dynamic reform is needed. They remain as organizational units of Public Administration and their effectiveness and efficiency depends not only of a scientific criteria but a managing one. The present and future challenge will be their conceptual transformation, from "corporate scientific entities" to "public-service-providing units" within the justice administration system.
25-OHD levels of children admitted because of a LT-ARI are <30 ng/mL. Lower levels of 25-OHD were found to be correlated with severity of the disease. The possible role of abnormal 25-OHD levels as a facilitator or consequence of the infection needs further evaluation.
The cumulative incidence of 0.013 claims (1.35%) in 23 years suggests that there is a very low risk of lawsuits in psychiatry, with a similarly low rate of sentences of professional liability and awards for financial compensation. Specific actions could improve clinical safety, particularly in suicide risk assessment.
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The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus beta hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin.
A new arylnaphthalide lignan, prostalidin D (6) was isolated as a minor metabolite from Justicia diffusa var. prostrata. 6 contains a rare catechol unit and its structure was confirmed by total synthesis. In addition, seven known lignans, namely, justicidin E (7), helioxanthin (8), justicidin A (9), medioresinol dimethyl ether (10), medioresinol (11), lariciresinol (12) and 8-methoxyisolariciresinol (13) have also been isolated from the same source and identified by direct comparison with authentic samples.
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An observational study was conducted of all the traffic accident deaths registered in the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia between January 1(st) 2005 and December 31(st) 2014. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS v.18.0 statistical package. Comparisons of proportions were based on the χ(2) test.
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This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.
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A total of 75 species of plants under 68 genera belonging to 43 families were collected during the study for the treatment of 15 disease categories. Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts and most of the medicines were prepared in the form of extract and administered orally. FIC values of the present study indicated that there was a high agreement in the use of plants in the treatment of digestive system disorders and respiratory system disorders among the healers. Plants having high ISu are Justicia adhatoda, Pajanelia longifolia, Catharanthus roseus etc.
To investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the leaf extract of Justicia extensa T. Anders used traditionally in the treatment of convulsion.
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The present study suggests establishing the parameters for pharmacopoeial standardization of G. pictum.
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Under several adverse conditions, such as hypoxia or ischaemia, extracellular levels of adenosine are elevated because of increased energy demands and ATP metabolism. Because extracellular adenosine affects metabolism through G-protein-coupled receptors, its regulation is of high adaptive importance. CNT2 (concentrative nucleoside transporter 2) may play physiological roles beyond nucleoside salvage in brain as it does in other tissues. Even though nucleoside transport in brain has mostly been seen as being of equilibrative-type, in the present study, we prove that the rat phaeochromocytoma cell line PC12 shows a concentrative adenosine transport of CNT2-type when cells are differentiated to a neuronal phenotype by treatment with NGF (nerve growth factor). Differentiation of PC12 cells was also associated with the up-regulation of adenosine A1 receptors. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists to cell cultures increased CNT2-related activity by a mechanism consistent with A₁ and A2A receptor activation. The addition of adenosine to the culture medium also induced the phosphorylation of the intracellular regulatory kinase AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), with this effect being dependent upon adenosine transport. CNT2-related activity of differentiated PC12 cells was also dramatically down-regulated under hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, the analysis of nucleoside transporter expression after experimental focal ischaemia in rat brain showed that CNT2 expression was down-regulated in the infarcted tissue, with this effect somehow being restricted to other adenosine transporter proteins such as CNT3 and ENT1 (equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1). In summary, CNT2 is likely to modulate extracellular adenosine and cell energy balance in neuronal tissue.
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Adhatoda beddomei and Adhatoda vasica leaf, known as 'Vasaka' and/or 'Vasa' in Ayurveda and 'Malabar nut' in English, is an official drug in the Indian Pharmacopoeia. The medicinal properties of these plants are due to the presence of pyrroquinazoline alkaloids. An UHPLC-ESI/MS/MS method in both positive and negative electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode was developed and validated for the estimation of alkaloids and flavonoids in Adhatoda species and their marketed herbal formulations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 -column using a gradient elution with 0.1% formic acid in water and methanol. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and found to be accurate with overall recovery in the range 94.2-105.0% (RSD ≤ 1.71%), precise (RSD ≤ 3.44%) and linear (R(2) ≥ 0.9992) over the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL. The total content of alkaloids and flavonoids were highest in the chloroform and aqueous fraction of A. vasica leaf, respectively. The results indicated that the developed method was simple, rapid, sensitive, selective and accurate for the estimation of multiple bioactive constituents in crude mixture, and therefore could make a contribution to the quality control of Adhatoda species and its derived herbal formulations.
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The diagnostic accuracy of the recombinant allergen-specific IgE test could help to improve the selection of specific-allergen immunotherapy in polysensitized patients.
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Opium is a substance extracted from Papaver somniferum L. Opium latex contains morphine, codeine, and thebaine and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. In Spain opium growing is allowed only for scientific or pharmaceutical purposes and harvest is supervised by the Spanish Health Ministry. This work describes a sudden fatality involving opium consumption in a legal poppy field. The toxicological and autopsy findings, previous disease, paraphernalia, and scenario are discussed in order to clarify cause and manner of death. A 32-year-old white caucasian male was found unresponsive in a legal poppy field in the South of Spain. The emergency medical services responded to the scene where he was pronounced dead. The friends explained that the deceased had presented with about 30min of convulsions; in spite of trying to keep his airway tract open they noted that "he stayed airless". According to them the victim suffered from epilepsy. Tools found beside his body consisted of plain wood sticks with a blade razor, a fabric handle, and paper. A comprehensive toxicological screening for abuse and psychoactive drugs was performed in the deceased samples. This included ethanol and volatile analysis by HS-GC-FID in peripheral blood and urine, enzyme immunoassay in urine by CEDIA, and a basic drug screening in all samples (including paraphernalia) by GC-MS using modes full scan for screening/confirmation and selected ion monitoring for quantitation. The peripheral blood, urine, vitreous, and gastric content contained the following concentrations of opiates expressed in mg/L (gastric content additionally also expressed in mg total): 0.10, 7.12, 0.23, and 14.80 (2.81mg total) of thebaine, 0.13, 4.50, 0.13, and 6.60 (1.25mg total) of morphine (free), 0.48, 0.88, 0.17, and 1.50 (0.28mg total) of codeine. These tree opiates were also detected in the tools (paraphernalia) used by the deceased for opium consumption. Other toxicological findings were metabolites of cocaine and cannabis. Apparently the victim stole poppy capsules and ingested an unknown quantity of the latex with the goal to obtain euphoric effects. The cause of death was considered poly-drug toxicity with a preponderant role of thebaine and morphine. In addition, the epileptic condition of the deceased could have played a role. As far as we know, there are no previous reports of fatalities occurring in legal poppy fields.
From these three plants, S. gratum had the highest contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. All of them found to contain compound(s) with cytotoxicity in vitro on cancer cells but not on normal cell lines as resolved in tissue culture and ultrastructural analysis. This is the first report to show the effect on cellular alteration as apoptosis of an ethyl acetate extract of S. gratum and J. gangetica. Further studies are now focused on individual isolates and their function, prioritizing on S. gratum and J. gangetica for the development of novel therapeutics and combatants against cancer.
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The role physicians play in society is very important from different perspectives. In spite of this, their activities cannot remain outside of the legal sphere and their ensuing guidelines since physicians activities include the health and life of patients, often at risk. We describe a law put forth by Mexico's Supreme Court that includes a balance between physician's duties and safeguarding a patient's health. Following international guideliens and human right's treaties, Supreme Court magistrates analyzed the constitutionality of article 271 included in Mexico's General Health Law (Ley General de Salud). Other aspects of their analysis included attributes to grant medical degrees and the way in which certain clauses in the General Health Law are compatible with physicians' daily work and other constitutional rights.
For every year of the studied period, the number of suicides reported by the INE was lower than that obtained directly from the IML. Using the highest annual suicide rate registered by province and the total, a count was obtained of identified suicides that for some reason had not been recorded in the INE or the IML data. Based on these figures, the mean rate of suicides per 100,000 was 0.97 (SD 0.10) higher than official INE data, which indicates a mean loss of 443.86 (SD 46.72) cases reported each year. Possible factors that may influence the missing recorded cases are discussed.
Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) has emerged as a valuable tool for cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. We present a multi-exposure laser speckle imaging (MESI) method which uses a high-frame rate acquisition with a negligible inter-frame dead time to mimic multiple exposures in a single-shot acquisition series. Our approach takes advantage of the noise-free readout and high-sensitivity of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) array to provide real-time speckle contrast measurement with high temporal resolution and accuracy. To demonstrate its feasibility, we provide comparisons between in vivo measurements with both the standard and the new approach performed on a mouse brain, in identical conditions.
A new triterpenoid saponin, named justicisaponin-I, has been isolated from Justicia simplex D. Don. (Acanthaceae). It has been assigned oleanolic acid-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-4'-O-ferulate structure (1) on the basis of chemical transformation and comprehensive spectral evidence. Justicisaponin-I has produced significant sperm acrosomal membrane stabilizing action and may prove to be a potent antifertility agent.
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Two new arylnaphthalide lignans, procumphthalide A (1) and 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1"'-->2")-beta-D-apiofuranosyldiphyllin, named procumbenoside B (2), along with cilinaphthalide B (3) and several other known compounds were isolated from the methanolic extracts of Justicia procumbens. By using NMR and other spectral methods, the structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated. Cilinaphthalide B (3), justicidin A (4), and taiwan E methyl ether (5) were shown to have an antiplatelet effect in human plateletrich plasma. In human citrated PRP, 5 showed a strong inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by adrenaline in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC(50) value of about 27.6 microM.
The ethanol extract, J-01 was prepared from the leaves of Justicia gendarussa. The inhibitory effect of J-01 in nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expressions were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.
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The prevalence of allergic rhinitis due to house-dust mites (HDMs) is high and increasing. Treatment guidelines and consensus statements are available, but few data exist on how these are followed in clinical practice in Spain. This study was designed to collect data on diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis due to HDMs and adherence to guidelines in Spanish specialized clinical practice.