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To evaluate the effect of pentoxifylline on blood flow in the central retinal artery and the short posterior ciliary arteries in patients with progressive myopia.
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Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels.
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A prospective single-blind, placebo-controlled trial was effected in 30 patients presenting to an out-patient clinic complaining principally of tinnitus. Over a 6-week period, the subjects were assessed by routine audiometry and subjective reporting of change in their symptoms. A treatment group received the xanthine derivative, oxpentifylline (Hoechst UK), while a control group received identically presented inactive placebo. There was no significant difference between the placebo and treatment groups for any of the parameters measured, and, therefore, oxpentifylline cannot be recommended in the management of idiopathic tinnitus.
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Previous studies performed by others indicated that apart from its other biological effects, caffeine (CAF) may have a role in protection of organisms against cancer. However, biological mechanism of this phenomenon remained unknown. Recent studies suggested that caffeine can form stacking (pi-pi) complexes with polycyclic aromatic chemicals. Therefore, one might speculate that effective concentrations of polycyclic aromatic mutagens could be reduced in the presence of caffeine. Here we demonstrate that caffeine and another xanthine, pentoxifylline (PTX), effectively alleviate mutagenic action of polycyclic aromatic agents (exemplified by quinacrine mustard (QM), 2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-(2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino)acridine.2HCl (ICR-191) and 1,3,7-propanediamine-N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(6-chloro-2-methoxy-9-acridinyl)-N-ethyl.2HCl (ICR-170)), but not of aliphatic mutagens (exemplified by mechlorethamine), in the recently developed mutagenicity test based on bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Biophysical studies indicated that caffeine and pentoxifylline can form stacking complexes with the aromatic agents mentioned above. Molecular modeling also confirmed a possibility of stacking interactions between examined molecules.
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The constitutively class I-negative tumor cell line, Kgv, expresses H-2Dk in response to interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not in response to IFN-alpha/beta, tumor necrosis factor, or lymphotoxin. H-2Dk expression was not induced on Kgv cells by the methylxanthines, pentoxifylline (PTX) and caffeine, which modulate class I expression on cells that constitutively express class I molecules. Treatment of Kgv cells with either IFN-alpha/beta, PTX, caffeine, or dibutyryl cAMP and a concentration of IFN-gamma insufficient by itself to induce Dk expression resulted in the induction of Dk expression. Since PTX and caffeine are cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitors, it is possible that the effects of PTX, caffeine, and dibutyryl cAMP involve a cAMP-dependent mechanism. We conclude that concentrations of IFN-gamma insufficient to induce Dk expression on Kgv cells may be capable of rendering the Dk gene responsive to signals that, in the absence of IFN-gamma treatment, have no effect on Dk expression.
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Eight patients with livedo vasculitis of four to 30 years' duration that was unresponsive to a variety of medications were treated with pentoxifylline. Three patients experiences complete healing and remained free of active lesions while receiving the drug, four noted much improvement, and one had no change.
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The effects of an infusion of pentoxifylline 1 g as an inhibitor of free radical generation have been determined in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Leucocyte-derived free radical generation (by the superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome), the release of reactive oxygen metabolites (as plasma oxidant activity), unfractionated leucocyte and erythrocyte filterability rates (using a constant-flow positive-pressure system), plasma viscosity, and plasma fibrinogen concentration have been measured in two matched groups of 10 patients with Stage II peripheral vascular disease, before and after treatment. Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (PtcO2) during treadmill exercise to stress leg circulation was also measured. Leucocyte-derived free radicals were generated during peripheral ischaemia. Pentoxifylline inhibited their generation, blocked the release of reactive oxygen metabolites, and reduced impairment of the filterability rate of unfractionated leucocytes. The improvements were accompanied by significant shortening of the half-time of recovery of transcutaneous oxygen pressure, indicating that ischaemic damage had been contained.
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This study examined medical, hospital and outpatient, and pharmacy claims from a large managed care database with dates of service from January 1, 1999, through August 31, 2003. Patients with PAD were identified from claims using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes (primary or secondary codes), ICD-9-CM procedure codes, current procedural terminology (CPT) codes, or by a pharmacy claim for cilostazol or pentoxifylline. The index date for each patient was the first occurrence of either a medical claim for PAD or a pharmacy claim for 1 of the 2 drugs. Patients were required to be a minimum of 18 years old with continuous plan eligibility. The prevalence of PAD in adults in a managed care setting was also determined, as were annual rates for the key outcomes of MI, TIA, stroke, and amputations. Health care resource utilization and costs were calculated for PAD patients after the index date for a period of at least 12 months per patient for medications, outpatient/physician office visits, laboratory/diagnostic procedures, emergency department visits, and hospitalization. Cost was defined as the allowed charge on each administrative claim, including the amount paid by the insurer plus the amount paid by the health plan members (copay, deductible, and coinsurance).
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PTX does influence TNF levels in septic shock patients. Nevertheless, inhibiting a single mediator in severe septic shock cannot stop the inflammatory overreaction.
Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine compound which was first filed in 1973 and registered in 1974 in the United States by Sanofi-Aventis Deustchland Gmbh for the treatment of intermittent claudication for chronic occlusive arterial disease. This methylxanthine was later discovered to be a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Furthermore, its hemorheological properties and its function as an inhibitor of inflammatory cytokines, like TNF-α, allowed researchers to study its effects in organ ischemia and reperfusion and transplantation. Although this drug has demonstrated beneficial effects, the mechanisms by which Pentoxifylline exerts a protective effect are not fully understood. This paper focuses on reviewing the literature to define the effect of Pentoxifylline when used in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury. Our research shows different animal models in which Pentoxifylline has been used as well as different doses and time of administration, as the ideal dose and timing have not yet been ascertained in liver ischemia and reperfusion. In conclusion, Pentoxifylline has shown positive effects in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury, and the main mechanism seems to be associated with the inhibition of TNF-α.
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Chronic venous disease (CVD) affects approximately a quarter of the adult population and causes a considerable burden on the health of these patients. The true extent of the severity of the disease is hampered because of reduced public awareness, operational difficulties in diagnosis, and the perception that varicose veins are mainly a cosmetic inconvenience. Consequently the disease receives little attention in public health care systems which focus on life threatening conditions and those which cause obvious morbidity like cancer, cardiac disease and stroke. This review aims to correct these misconceptions by addressing the full scope of CVD, including the post-thrombotic syndrome and venous ulceration. The severity of conditions like telangectasiae and edema and the symptoms they cause are frequently underestimated, especially if varicose veins are not present to alert the patient or doctor. The definition, diagnosis, scope, epidemiology, progression and cost of CVD are discussed with evidence to explain how these underestimate the severity of the disease. It is anticipated that once CVD achieves greater recognition this will open up greater opportunities for treatment. These include surgery, endovenous ablation, stenting, compression, venoactive drugs like micronized purified flavonoid fraction and other drugs such as sulodexide and pentoxifylline.
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Whole blood was incubated with HBSS, LPS (100 microg/mL), leukoreduced PRBC supernatant + LPS, or supernatant + LPS + PTX (2 mmol/L). TNF-alpha levels were measured by ELISA. MMP-9 was evaluated with zymography. Neutrophil CD66b expression was determined by flow cytometry in blood treated with HBSS, fMLP (1 micromol/L), supernatant + fMLP, or supernatant + fMLP + PTX.
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To investigate whether delayed auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) induced by DM improve following pentoxifylline treatment in rats.
The brief interruption of cerebral blood flow causes permanent brain damage and behavioral dysfunction. The hippocampus is highly vulnerable to ischemic insults, particularly the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. There is no effective pharmacological strategy for improving brain tissue damage induced by cerebral ischemia. Previous studies reported that pentoxifylline (PTX) has a neuroprotective effect on brain trauma. The possible neuroprotector effects of PTX on behavioral deficit were studied in male Wistar rats subjected to a model of transient global brain ischemia.
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Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving people with a diagnosis of venous leg ulcers which compared sulodexide with placebo or any other drug therapy (such as pentoxifylline, flavonoids, aspirin), with or without compression therapy.
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The Operculina macrocarpa tincture (OMT) was characterized by the polyphenol content and chromatographic profile established by HPLC with detection and quantification of three phenol acids (caffeic, clorogenic and gallic acids). The human platelet aggregation was induced in vitro by the agonists ADP, collagen, thrombin, epinephrine or arachidonic acid, and the antiplatelet effect of OMT was evaluated in the presence or absence of aspirin (a nonselective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase), pentoxifylline (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor), ticlopidine (a P2Y12 purinoceptor antagonist) or ODQ (a selective inhibitor of guanilate cyclase). The effect of OMT on the partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and bleeding time were investigated on human or rat plasma.
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Pentoxifylline (POF) is a new candidate for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Its effects on the cytokine production in patients with NASH are not completely understood. This study was designed to investigate the effect of POF on TNF-alpha production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with NASH. After preliminary experiments in healthy control subjects to determine the range of POF concentration to be used in NASH patients, PBMCs from patients with NASH (n = 13) were cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 ng/ml) and various concentrations of POF for 24 hr. Concentrations of TNF-alpha in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA and the transcriptional activity was determined by RT-PCR. As dictated by the results of our preliminary study in PBMC from healthy control subjects, we treated LPS stimulated PBMCs from NASH patients with 10, 100, and 500 microg/ml of POF. Stimulation of PBMCs from NASH patients with LPS resulted in a strong up-regulation of TNF-alpha production from median 355.9 (interquartile range, 206.7-463.5) pg/ml to 1,670 pg/ml (interquartile range, 1,121-2,414) pg/ml. In this LPS-stimulated culture system, POF caused a dose-dependent suppression of TNF-alpha levels (P < 0.001, ANOVA on ranks for repeated measures). TNF-alpha levels in culture supernatants decreased to 870.3 (range, 598.3-2,077) pg/ml with 10 microg/ml of POF treatment, and to levels similar to those obtained in baseline unstimulated cultures (133.4 (range, 95.8-1518.5) pg/ml) at 100 microg/ml. At 500 microg/ml, POF suppressed TNF-alpha production to levels significantly lower than that obtained in unstimulated (baseline) culture supernatants (76.3 (range, 33-94.5) pg/ml; P = 0.001). The mRNA expression was consistent with the effects on protein concentration. Demographic characteristics of the patients, laboratory results, such as AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, GGT, and triglyceride levels, and the liver histology did not seem to influence the in vitro TNF-alpha response of the PBMCs from NASH patients. POF can significantly decrease the LPS-stimulated TNF-alpha production by PBMCs in NASH patients. Our results support the notion that POF might be a good candidate for the treatment of NASH.
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For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched June 2014) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 5). We sought additional trials through screening the reference lists of relevant papers.
CO and tissue perfusion in the liver, kidney, spleen, and small intestine decreased significantly after hemorrhage and resuscitation. Pentoxifylline treatment, however, restored the depressed CO and tissue perfusion. The elevated liver enzyme levels were also significantly reduced by pentoxifylline treatment. Moreover, pentoxifylline prevented the increased mortality of posthemorrhaged rats subjected to sepsis.
A group of 11 female patients (mean age 33.7 +/- 8 years) with a clearly proven primary Raynaud's syndrome of up to five years' duration were subjected to a two-month oral treatment with 3 X 400 mg pentoxifylline per day. The following parameters were studied without and with exposure to cold conditions: hemodynamics (finger photoplethysmography), red cell deformability (filtration test), various clotting variables (prothrombin activity, antithrombin III, plasma fibrinogen, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, thrombelastogram), and clinical symptomatology. After treatment 7 of the 11 patients showed a distinct improvement of peripheral blood flow and of symptoms (decrease or removal of asphyxia attacks, pain, color change) under basal conditions, as well as after exposure to cold. Red cell filtration was significantly (p less than 0.05) improved, increasing by 35% under normal conditions and by 30% after exposure to cold. Positive changes were also found in respect to antithrombin III (increase) and plasma fibrinogen (decrease). The thrombelastogram was unchanged. Clinical and instrumental improvements were probably ascribable to better microcirculatory flow due to increased red cell deformability, reduced viscosity, and decreased fibrinogen, all capable of influencing in various degrees the blood flow at the microcirculatory level.