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Topamax (Topiramate)

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Generic Topamax is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms. Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Neurontin, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol


Also known as:  Topiramate.


Generic Topamax target is the treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms.

Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation. It is anticonvulsant.

Topamax is also known as Topiramate, Topaz.

Generic name of Generic Topamax is Topiramate.

Brand name of Generic Topamax is Topamax.


Take it orally at the same time every day, with or without food.

Generic Topamax can be taken twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Topamax suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Topamax and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Topamax overdosage: feeling drowsy, problems with a speech, blurred vision, double vision, fatigue, lack of coordination, lack of consciousness, lightheadedness, pain of stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, extreme hunger, agitation, depression, dyspnoea, confusion, decreased appetite, weakness of muscle, pain of bone, convulsion, coma.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Topamax if you are allergic to Generic Topamax components.

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are taking ipratropium (such as Atrovent); motion sickness, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, urinary problems, Parkinson's disease, ulcers medicines; oral contraceptives; methazolamide; seizures medicines (carbamazepine (such as Tegretol), phenytoin (such as Phenytek, Dilantin); metformin (such as Glucophage); iron; salicylate pain relievers (such as choline salicylate (such as Arthropan), aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (such as Trisalate), diflunisal (such as Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (such as Doan's); dichlorphenamide (such as Daranide); digoxin (such as Digitek, Lanoxin); zonisamide (such as Zonegran); tranquilizers; acetazolamide (such as Diamox); valproic acid (such as Depakote, Depakene); cholestyramine (such as Questran); sedatives; antidepressants; isoniazid (such as Nydrazid, INH); antihistamines, salsalate (such as Salgesic, Argesic, Disalcid), sleeping pills.

Be careful if you have lung, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, glaucoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nearsightedness, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, kidney stones.

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Avoid being dehydrated.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

Be careful with Generic Topamax if you are going to have a surgery (dental or other).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Topamax you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Generic Topamax.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Topamax.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Topamax taking suddenly.

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Migraine headaches are typically episodic in nature and may affect nearly 10% of the population. In addition to treatment, prevention of subsequent episodes or progression to a chronic migraine state is an important therapeutic area. Topiramate is a centrally acting medication approved for both the prevention of seizures and migraine headache. At this time, the exact mechanism of how topiramate assists in migraine prevention is unknown. Several large randomized, controlled trials have aided in establishing topiramate's role in migraine prevention. Despite a favorable pharmacokinetic and adverse effect profile established in clinical trials, several additional studies, case reports and toxicology reports have demonstrated topiramate as a cause of cognitive and behavioural changes. The use of topiramate in migraine prevention can improve a patient's quality of life and is a cost-effective option for migraine prevention.

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Participants were randomized to placebo or topiramate, 50, 100, or 200 mg/d, titrated by 25 mg/wk to the assigned dose or as tolerated in 8 weeks; maintenance therapy continued for 18 weeks.

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In a multicentre, open-label, comparative and randomized study patients with partial epilepsy, were randomized to received topiramate or carbamazepine treatment. Patients with degenerative disease were excluded. Data were analysed by SPSS statistical program v. 11.0, and non parametric test. Comparisons between groups were made with chi square test and t Student's test.

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AIM. To analyse the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise on migraines and tension-type headaches (TTH). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Electronic databases were used to search the literature for relevant articles. Eligibility criteria were: controlled randomised clinical trials (RCT), conducted on patients with migraine or TTH, in which the therapeutic intervention was based on therapeutic exercise, and the papers had been published in English and Spanish. Two independent reviewers performed the analysis of the methodological quality using the Delphi scale. RESULTS. Ten RCT were selected, seven of which offered good methodological quality. According to all the studies analysed, the intensity and frequency of pain diminished in comparison to the situation prior to establishing therapeutic exercise, and in five studies the effect was higher than in the control group. The qualitative analysis showed strong evidence of the absence of adverse events following the application of therapeutic exercise. Furthermore, strong evidence was also found of the effect of physiotherapeutic treatment, including therapeutic exercise, in lowering the intensity, frequency and duration of pain in patients with TTH. Limited evidence was also found of the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients with migraine, although it was not better than the effects derived from other forms of treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Results show that therapeutic exercise is a safe treatment that provides beneficial effects on migraines or TTH. Further RCT are required in the future with appropriate methodological designs to confirm these results.

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While the benefits of lithium in bipolar disorder are evident, its limitations as monotherapy are well recognized, particularly in bipolar depression. This has propelled trials of combined lithium-anticonvulsant therapy in many bipolar patients. The present review of the English-language literature examines both controlled and open studies of such combination therapy, including the risk of drug-drug interactions. Trials of lithium plus either carbamazepine or divalproex have generally produced favorable results, although increased rates of adverse effects may reduce treatment adherence. More recent reports suggest that lithium may be safely and effectively combined with lamotrigine, and perhaps with topiramate, although controlled studies are required. The combined use of lithium with newer, putative mood stabilizers, such as zonisamide or levetiracetam, cannot yet be recommended, but is an important area for future research. Provisional recommendations for combined treatment are provided.

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A thoughtful approach to the AED selection process must factor in data from clinical AED trials as well as a variety of patient characteristics and confounding factors. When neurologists apply an individualized approach to AED drug selection for their patients, they can find an effective and well-tolerated drug for most patients.

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A systematic review of medical records and diaries of pain of 1,600 patients treated between January 1992 and January 2011 in a headache outpatient clinic.

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Kleptomania, defined in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manua of Mental Disorders, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR, as the inability to resist the impulse to steal objects that are not needed for personal use or for their monetary value, may reflect a form of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder and/or affective spectrum disorder. We report on a patient who developed kleptomania and left temporal lobe epilepsy around the same time; both disorders were completely resolved in this patient with topiramate.

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Recent advances in understanding the pathological mechanisms of this syndrome and the biochemical/pharmacological characterization of novel drug targets, evidenced carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC inhibition as a new approach for designing antineuropathic pain agents. Expert commentary: Peripheral nerve injury negatively influences spinal γ-aminobutyric (GABA)-ergic networks via a reduction in the neuron-specific potassium-chloride (K(+)-Cl(-)) cotransporter (KCC2), which leads to neuropathic allodynia. CA inhibitors (CAIs) reduce the bicarbonate-dependent depolarization of GABAA receptors, showing analgesic effects. Novel classes of selective sulfonamide CA II/VII inhibitors showed highly improved efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain, compared to acetazolamide, offering the basis for the development of specific therapies of this syndrome based on selective CA isoforms inhibition.

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Topiramate (TPM) has shown efficacy in migraine prophylaxis in two large placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trials. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of topiramate vs placebo for migraine prophylaxis, with propranolol (PROP) as an active control. Subjects with episodic migraine with and without aura were randomised to TPM 100 mg/d, TPM 200 mg/d, PROP 160 mg/d (active control), or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was the change in mean monthly migraine frequency from the baseline phase relative to the double-blind treatment phase. Five hundred and seventy-five subjects were enrolled from 61 centres in 13 countries. TPM 100 mg/d was superior to placebo as measured by reduction in monthly migraine frequency, overall 50% responder rate, reduction in monthly migraine days, and reduction in the rate of daily rescue medication use. The TPM 100 mg/d and PROP groups were similar with respect to reductions in migraine frequency, responder rate, migraine days, and daily rescue medication usage. TPM 100 mg/d was better tolerated than TPM 200 mg/d, and was generally comparable to PROP. No unusual or unexpected safety risks emerged. These findings demonstrate that TPM 100 mg/d is effective in migraine prophylaxis. TPM 100 mg/d and PROP 160 mg/d exhibited similar efficacy profiles.

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Hemicrania continua (HC) is an uncommon and under-recognized primary headache disorder characterized by a strictly unilateral continuous headache of moderate intensity with possible exacerbations and associated with ipsilateral autonomic features. HC has generally a prompt and enduring response to indomethacin although 25% to 50% of treated patients develop gastrointestinal side effects. These cases pose a difficult management challenge as no other drug is consistently effective in HC. Recently 2 HC patients responsive to topiramate treatment have been reported. Here we describe 2 more patients effectively treated with topiramate. Neither reported any side effects and one had persisting response for 6 months after drug withdrawal.

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The anticonvulsant activity of angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists, losartan (2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-biphenil-4-yl)methyl]imidazole) and telmisartan (49-[(1,49-dimethyl-29-propyl[2,69-bi-1H-benzimidazo]-19-yl)methyl]-[1,19-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid), has been reported recently. It is suggested that AT1 receptor antagonists may affect the protective action of antiepileptic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of losartan and telmisartan on the anticonvulsant activity of some second-generation antiepileptics (lamotrigine - LTG, oxcarbazepine - OXC, and topiramate - TPM). For this purpose, the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice was used. Additionally, the drug combinations were checked for adverse effects in the passive avoidance and chimney tests. In the MES test, losartan at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), potentiated the protective action of LTG (P < 0.01). This interaction was not accompanied by a significant change of LTG level either in plasma or in the brain. Telmisartan at the dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. enhanced the anticonvulsant action of TPM (P < 0.01). However, this interaction was pharmacokinetic in nature, as telmisartan significantly increased plasma and total brain concentrations of TPM (P < 0.001). The combinations of AT1 receptor antagonists with antiepileptic drugs did not affect retention in the passive avoidance test or motor coordination in the chimney test. The potentiation of the anticonvulsant action of LTG by losartan probably on account of pharmacodynamic interactions, make this combination important for further experimental and clinical studies. The combination of telmisartan and TPM is less beneficial due to pharmacokinetic interactions.

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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disruptive, chronic, and relatively common disorder that is often difficult to treat. Many patients with PTSD are unresponsive, have only moderate or marginal responses, or have troubling side effects to first-line serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Studies suggest that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be an effective treatment alternative or adjunctive treatment for the symptoms of PTSD. Recent results from case reports and open and controlled studies on the efficacy and tolerability of AEDs in PTSD are reviewed here, and their methodological limitations are discussed when relevant. AEDs shown to be effective in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of PTSD include lamotrigine, topiramate, and tiagabine. Other AEDs that appear promising in open-label trials of PTSD include carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin, vigabatrin, phenytoin, and levetiracetam. Stress-activated limbic kindling may be involved in the pathogenesis of PTSD. The possibility that AEDs may be effective in the treatment of PTSD due to their antikindling effect is discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.

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According to our preliminary findings, genetic variation in the INSR and HNF1A genes may differentially affect weight loss in obese individuals treated with topiramate and genes related to insulin action are implicated in modulating topiramate response. However, these findings need to be further replicated in additional larger samples.

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An interview-based survey was conducted from February 2 to June 30, 2015, among neurologists working in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Direct interviews were conducted using a questionnaire that assessed knowledge of the pharmacological interactions between various contraceptive methods and six AEDs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, topiramate, phenytoin, lamotrigine, and valproate) on the basis of WHO medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use.

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Cocaine abuse is a major public health problem with multiple-related complications. Indeed, cocaine can affect almost every organ of the human body, but little is known about its effects on the visual system. The main purpose of this work was to study if topiramate was able to reverse changes in retinal metabolism and retinal function induced by chronic cocaine exposure in adult rats.

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These findings have extended our knowledge about essential tremor. It appears that a new, more distinct classification system is required. Recent treatments have remained unchanged.

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Despite recent advances in our understanding of human traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology, we still need effective neuroprotective agents. The lack of rigorous drug pharmacokinetic studies in the "living" brain is an important cause of neuroprotection trials failure in human TBI research. In the past, several drugs have been labeled as inefficient, and even withdrawn from expensive trials, without knowing their actual penetration in the traumatized human brain. The injured brain is characterized by an increased diffusion distance, due to edema, and reduced blood flow that modulates drug transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the study reported in this paper, we used cerebral microdialysis to provide a safe and efficient tool for continuous in vivo evaluation of bioavailability and pharmacologic efficacy of topiramate, a glutamate release inhibitor. Topiramate crossed the BBB in neuroprotective concentrations, and showed a lowering effect on glutamate levels, thereby modifying the natural history of glutamate release after TBI. The use of cerebral microdialysis in phase II drug studies will allow the detection of the appropriate therapeutic window and dosage for the neuroprotective agent. This strategy represents a clear improvement compared to traditional clinical trial design, and will reduce the trial costs.

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To evaluate whether the postoperative, antiepileptic drug (AED) regimen influences seizure recurrence after anterior temporal lobectomy when considering the putative mechanism of action and possible neuroprotective effects.

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Topiramate, a sulphamate fructopyranose derivative, might antagonise alcohol's rewarding effects associated with abuse liability by inhibiting mesocorticolimbic dopamine release via the contemporaneous facilitation of gamma-amino-butyric acid activity and inhibition of glutamate function. We aimed to see whether topiramate was more effective than placebo as a treatment for alcohol dependence.

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After receiving increased dosages of topiramate, a 37-year-old man developed hyperchloremic, normal anion-gap, metabolic acidosis, which resolved after discontinuation of the drug.

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Topiramate is newly approved as anticonvulsant that seems to promote body weight loss in humans. The present study was designed to evaluate the weight-controlling properties of topiramate in dietary obese female rats in comparison with sibutramine.

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Topiramate and zonisamide have been shown to reduce weight in adults. Our finding of a decrease in mean birth weight and length among neonates exposed in utero raises concern.

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This study demonstrates that most of the more common AEs with TPM adjunctive therapy are transient. Patients can be counseled that most AEs emerging when TPM is initially added to CBZ can be expected to diminish with continued therapy.

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Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is characterized by excellent response to treatment, if diagnosed correctly. Lifestyle advice is an integral part of the treatment of JME; it should include recommendations on avoidance of common triggers such as sleep deprivation and alcohol excess and emphasis on the importance of compliance with medication. The drug of first choice in the treatment of JME is sodium valproate, which has a response rate of up to 80%. Valproate should be avoided in women of childbearing age because of significantly increased risks of fetal malformations and neurodevelopmental delay. Levetiracetam or lamotrigine are alternative first-line options if valproate is contraindicated. With limited data from trials to support either of these drugs, the choice should take into account comorbidity factors and patient priorities. Because of its low side effect profile, excellent tolerability, and lack of interactions with other drugs, levetiracetam is our preferred alternative first-line agent. Lamotrigine is another first-line option but may exacerbate myoclonus. The failure of valproate or failure of two first-line antiepileptic drugs suggests that combination therapy is indicated. Drug interactions and the patient's gender, age, and comorbidities need to be considered. Levetiracetam, lamotrigine, and valproate are suitable adjuncts, with a synergistic effect reported from the combination of valproate and lamotrigine. Clonazepam is a useful adjunct for myoclonus and can be used in combination with lamotrigine to avoid lamotrigine's myoclonic effects. In women of childbearing potential, valproate should be considered if levetiracetam and lamotrigine have failed to control seizures at this stage. Topiramate is a cost-effective alternative monotherapy, but because of its poor tolerability, we recommend it as add-on treatment only. Zonisamide should remain a second-line adjunct in the treatment of JME, owing to the lack of supportive data. Phenobarbital is the most cost-effective drug and can be used to control the seizures of JME when antiepileptic drugs are limited or too costly. Carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin can exacerbate absences and myoclonus and are therefore contraindicated, although they can improve control of tonic-clonic seizures when these are refractory to other medication. Gabapentin, pregabalin, tiagabine, and vigabatrin are contraindicated and can worsen seizures. (Tiagabine and vigabatrin have been reported to induce absence status epilepticus.) Surgical alternatives in refractory cases are rarely contemplated but may include vagus nerve stimulation and callosotomy. Deep brain stimulation is an experimental technique that may prove useful in managing refractory cases of JME.

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OnabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate demonstrated similar efficacy for subjects with CM as determined by Global Physician Assessment and supported by multiple secondary endpoint measures.

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Results suggest that topiramate enhances both nicotine withdrawal and reward. These findings question the utility of topiramate treatment for smoking cessation.

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Source localisation of ERPs can be helpful in identifying target brain regions for the cognitive side effects of anti-epileptic drugs.

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Data from 1066 patients were included: 336 for lamotrigine, 301 for levetiracetam, 429 for topiramate. Two-year retention rates were 69.2% (lamotrigine), 45.8% (levetiracetam), 38.3% (topiramate); (LTG vs. LEV at p<0.001; LTG vs. TPM at p<0.001; LEV vs. TPM at p=0.005). Seizure freedom rates were lowest for lamotrigine and highest for levetiracetam. Adverse events played a role in drug discontinuation in 154/429 patients (35.9%) on topiramate, 52/336 patients (15.5%) on lamotrigine (p<0.001), 68/301 patients (22.5%) on levetiracetam (p<0.001). Mood and general CNS-effects are common in patients on lamotrigine and levetiracetam, and neurocognitive side effects are most prevalent in patients on topiramate. A positive effect on cognition is frequently noted in patients on lamotrigine.

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Valproate is effective in reducing headache frequency and is reasonably well tolerated in adult patients with episodic migraine.

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topamax drug abuse 2016-03-24

This study evaluated buy topamax topiramate (TPM) antagonism of glutamate receptors activated by kainate.

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Variables analyzed included between-treatment group differences in percent responders, change in the mean monthly rate of total headache days and headache-free days, change in average and worst daily headache severity, change in the mean monthly use of acute headache medications, and absolute change and percent change in a buy topamax headache index. Additional analyses included evaluation of changes in: the associated symptoms of photophobia, phonophobia, and nausea; Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire scores; Migraine Disability Assessment Scale scores; and Physician's and Subjects Global Impression of Change.

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Future clinical trials in patients with cancer and epilepsy should buy topamax focus on combinations of chemotherapeutic interventions with antiepileptic drugs that demonstrate antineoplastic activities.

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Recent controlled clinical studies have highlighted some very promising medications, especially glutamatergic (N-Acetylcysteine, modafinil, topiramate) and GABAergic (vigabatrin) agents, agonist replacement therapy (sustained-release methylphenidate, d-amphetamine) and dopamine agents (disulfiram). Additionally, immunotherapy is buy topamax a new and promising pharmacological approach.

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Chronic migraine is a common condition that requires global management aimed at reducing the frequency buy topamax of the attacks, lowering the associated disability and improving the patients' quality of life.

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A 17 week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 80 patients (25 - 65 years buy topamax ) from 2005 - 2007. All were hospitalized in Mashhad psychiatric hospitals with chronic DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed schizophrenia. All participants received up to 300 mg/day of clozapine. In addition, participants randomly received either topiramate (200 - 300 mg/day) or placebo gradually added to their ongoing treatment. Efficacy of medication was measured by administering Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12, and 17.

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We studied the effects of TPM on mitochondrial function in the pilocarpine rat model of chronic epilepsy and buy topamax in isolated mitochondria from rat brain.

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Patients diagnosed with transformed migraine, episodic migraine, or cluster headache, who received topiramate either as add-on therapy or monotherapy were selected via retrospective chart review. Patients had begun topiramate therapy at 25 mg/day for the first week and increased their dosage by 25 mg/week to a maximum of 200 mg/day. Topiramate was used as add-on therapy buy topamax for patients with transformed migraine and cluster headache, and as a first-line monotherapy in patients with episodic migraine who had no previous prophylactic therapy. The outcome parameters examined included a mean 28-day migraine frequency, migraine severity, number of headache days/month, number of abortive medication tablets/month, patient global evaluation, and the MIDAS scale.

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Benzodiazepines are the standard pharmacotherapies for ethanol detoxification, but concerns about their abuse potential and negative effects upon the transition to alcohol abstinence drive the search for new treatments. Glutamatergic activation and glutamate receptor up-regulation contribute to ethanol dependence and withdrawal buy topamax . This study compared 3 antiglutamatergic strategies for ethanol detoxification with placebo and to the benzodiazepine, diazepam: the glutamate release inhibitor, lamotrigine; the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine; and the AMPA/kainite receptor inhibitor, topiramate.

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Some studies suggest a higher risk of hypertension in people with epilepsy. Captopril, a potent and selective angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, is a well known antihypertensive drug. Besides the peripheral renin-angiotensin system (RAS), ACE inhibitors are also suggested to affect the brain RAS which might participate in the regulation of seizure susceptibility. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of captopril on the protective action of numerous antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine [CBZ], phenytoin [PHT], valproate [VPA], phenobarbital [PB], oxcarbazepine [OXC], lamotrigine [LTG] and topiramate [TPM]) against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. This study was accompanied by an evaluation of adverse effects of combined treatment with captopril and antiepileptic drugs in the passive avoidance task and chimney test. Captopril (25 and 50 mg/kg i.p.) did not influence the threshold for electroconvulsions. Among the tested antiepileptics, captopril (25 and 50 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antiseizure action of CBZ, decreasing its ED(50) value from 12.1 to 8.9 and 8.7 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, captopril (50 mg/kg i.p.) enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of LTG. ED(50) value for LTG was lowered from 5.1 to 3.5 mg/kg. The observed interactions between captopril and CBZ or LTG were pharmacodynamic in nature as captopril did not alter plasma and total brain concentrations of these antiepileptics. The combinations of captopril with antiepileptic drugs did not lead to retention deficits in the passive buy topamax avoidance task or motor impairment in the chimney test. Based on the current preclinical data, it is suggested that captopril may positively interact with CBZ and LTG in epileptic patients. The combinations of captopril with the remaining antiepileptics (PHT, VPA, PB, OXC and TPM) seem neutral.

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The aim of this paper was to summarize of current knowledge about neuronal injuries during epileptogenesis process and possibilities buy topamax of neuroprotection.

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Previous studies have buy topamax shown an association between the use of traditional anticonvulsants (e.g. phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproate) and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). However, there are limited data regarding the effects of newer anticonvulsants (e.g. gabapentin, levetiracetam, topiramate) on BMD. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the duration of anticonvulsant exposure and BMD, focusing on newer anticonvulsants.

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Cross-sectional, retrospective study buy topamax to evaluate clinical prevalence and cost of DRE in Spain. Every participant neurologist assessed the percentage of DRE among the first 40 patients with diagnosed epilepsy seen. Patients of both sexes, older than 18 years were recruited. Their treatment before and after DRE diagnosis was analyzed.

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We found 41 systematic buy topamax reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

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Topiramate, a sulphamate fructopyranose derivative, might antagonise alcohol's rewarding effects associated with abuse liability by Zoloft Overdose Level inhibiting mesocorticolimbic dopamine release via the contemporaneous facilitation of gamma-amino-butyric acid activity and inhibition of glutamate function. We aimed to see whether topiramate was more effective than placebo as a treatment for alcohol dependence.

topamax alcohol addiction 2015-08-29

Seizure outcome did not differ when patients receiving valproic acid monotherapy (n = 36) were compared with those receiving lamotrigine monotherapy (n = 14), and when patients receiving valproic acid polytherapy (n = 22) were compared with those receiving lamotrigine polytherapy (n = 21) or topiramate polytherapy (n = 15) (P>.05 for all). The combined data Lanoxin Cost of myoclonic seizure control by all 3 AEDs were poorer when compared with the combined data of generalized tonic-clonic seizure control by all 3 AEDs (P =.03), but not when compared with the combined data of absence seizure control by all 3 AEDs (P =.43). Valproic acid, lamotrigine, and topiramate, when compared with phenytoin or carbamazepine, demonstrated significantly better control of myoclonic seizures (P<.01 for all), but not of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (P>.11 for all).

topamax reviews anxiety 2016-12-30

We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Anafranil 10mg Dosage Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016. We checked references and applied no language restrictions.

topamax generic name 2016-10-30

Metabolic syndrome has been recognised as a cluster of risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Different diagnostic criteria have been proposed and the consensus focuses on four major risk factors: obesity, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Although treatment options are available to treat each component separately, a highly effective agent for metabolic syndrome has yet to be developed. To explore the clinical definition of metabolic syndrome and potential molecular targets that can be modulated for treatment purpose, a meeting entitled 'Targeting Metabolic Syndrome' was organised in 2004 by IBC USA Conferences, Inc. This article highlights discussions related to the clinical correlates and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome, and reviews some of the promising drug discovery efforts. Metabolic syndrome should be treatable Indocin Tab and preventable if obesity and insulin resistance are well controlled. New regulatory guidelines need to be developed as new treatment options are being investigated. From a broad spectrum of potential mechanisms encompassing central nervous system targets and peripheral targets for pharmacological intervention, a few promising molecular targets have emerged. Modulating these is expected to treat at least some components of metabolic syndrome.

topamax 30 mg 2015-08-11

In experiment 1, which occured immediately or 3 hours after training, topiramate was administered to rats, and consolidation of memory was verified 18 days after the conditioning session. In experiment 2, which occured 18-22 days after the training session, rats were submitted to the extinction protocol. Rats received topiramate 14 days before Nexium Generic Price or during the extinction protocol.

topamax alcohol 2015-04-07

These results suggest that topiramate prescribe widely in diverse neurosurgical disorders, and effective in reduction of seizure frequency, and does not cause serious adverse Lanoxin 125 Mg effects comparable with old AEDs.

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Data were obtained from 16 reports with 25 trial-arms involving 1856 (905 RC and 951 non-RC) patients treated with carbamazepine, lamotrigine, lithium, topiramate, or valproate, alone or with other agents over an average of 47.5 months (7347 total patient-years). Estimated RC prevalence was 15.4%. Crude rates (%/month) of recurrence (2.31/1.20) and clinical non-improvement (1.93/0.49) averaged 2.9-fold greater in RC vs. non-RC subjects. The pooled RC/non-RC risk ratio (RR) for inferior treatment-response (in 13 direct comparisons) was 1.40 (CI 1.26-1.56; P < 0.0001). Pooled crude recurrence and non-improvement rates suggested no clear advantage for any treatment, nor superiority for anticonvulsants over lithium. However, only lithium Diamox Brand Name vs. carbamazepine could be directly compared (in four treatment-arms) meta-analytically in RC patients (RR = 0.93, CI 0.74-1.18, indicating no difference in effectiveness).

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Literature on this topic was systematically reviewed Protonix Generic Cost .

topamax 800 mg 2015-03-28

Fifty-seven subjects were randomized to treatment. The 4-week CAR was 1 of 19 (5%) in the PLC group, 5 of 19 (26%) in the TOP group, and 7 of 19 (37%) in the TOP/NIC group (p = .056). Pairwise comparisons showed a difference between TOP/NIC and Effexor 450 Mg PLC (p = .042) and a nonsignificant difference between TOP and PLC (p = .18). The PLC group gained 0.37 lb/week, the TOP group lost 0.41 lb/week, and the TOP/NIC group lost 0.07 lb/week (p = .004). Pairwise comparisons showed a difference between TOP and PLC (p < .001) and between TOP/NIC and PLC groups (p = .035). Paresthesia was more frequent in subjects on TOP than PLC (p = .011).

topamax high dose 2016-03-12

In recent years, several new-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been introduced in clinical practice. These agents, which include felbamate, gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide, are being increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy at the extremes of age. For a rational prescribing of these drugs in specific age groups, major pharmacokinetic changes that occur during development and aging need to be taken into consideration. A review of available evidence indicates that the apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of new-generation AEDs in children is increased by 20-170% (depending on the type of drug and characteristics of the patients studied) compared with adults, with the highest CL/F values usually being observed in the youngest age groups. These findings do not necessarily apply to the first weeks of life, when drug eliminating capacity is still undergoing maturation, as in the case of lamotrigine for which preliminary data suggest that CL/F in neonates aged <2 months can be much lower than in infants aged 2-12 months. At the other extreme of age, in the elderly, CL/F is almost invariably reduced (on average by 10-50%) compared with values found in non-elderly adults. Age-related CL/F changes, together with the large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, contribute to the need for individualised dosage requirements in these patients. Measurement of serum drug concentrations can be useful as an aid to dosage individualization in these age groups but interpretation of therapeutic drug monitoring data should also take into account the possibility of age-related changes in pharmacodynamic sensitivity and, for neonates and the elderly, alterations in drug binding to serum proteins.

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MEDLINE (1966-July 2012) was searched using the terms weight loss, obesity, phentermine and topiramate, phentermine, topiramate, Qnexa, Qsymia, and VI-0521. Additionally, the new drug application and prescribing information for PHEN/TPM were retrieved.

topamax 20 mg 2016-10-26

Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide mainly used to treat epilepsy in children and adults and prophylaxis of migraine. This article describes a case of topiramate-induced acute transient myopia. The underlying mechanism and management is discussed. A 13-year-old female complained of sudden onset of blurred vision; 7 days prior to this she had commenced topiramate therapy for migraine prophylaxis. Visual acuity was reduced in both eyes. Examination revealed myopic refractive changes which resolved quickly following discontinuation of the drug. An MRI showed uveoscleral and subcutaneous cellular tissue abnormalities in the T1 contrasted images.