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Migraine headaches are typically episodic in nature and may affect nearly 10% of the population. In addition to treatment, prevention of subsequent episodes or progression to a chronic migraine state is an important therapeutic area. Topiramate is a centrally acting medication approved for both the prevention of seizures and migraine headache. At this time, the exact mechanism of how topiramate assists in migraine prevention is unknown. Several large randomized, controlled trials have aided in establishing topiramate's role in migraine prevention. Despite a favorable pharmacokinetic and adverse effect profile established in clinical trials, several additional studies, case reports and toxicology reports have demonstrated topiramate as a cause of cognitive and behavioural changes. The use of topiramate in migraine prevention can improve a patient's quality of life and is a cost-effective option for migraine prevention.
Participants were randomized to placebo or topiramate, 50, 100, or 200 mg/d, titrated by 25 mg/wk to the assigned dose or as tolerated in 8 weeks; maintenance therapy continued for 18 weeks.
In a multicentre, open-label, comparative and randomized study patients with partial epilepsy, were randomized to received topiramate or carbamazepine treatment. Patients with degenerative disease were excluded. Data were analysed by SPSS statistical program v. 11.0, and non parametric test. Comparisons between groups were made with chi square test and t Student's test.
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AIM. To analyse the effectiveness of therapeutic exercise on migraines and tension-type headaches (TTH). MATERIALS AND METHODS. Electronic databases were used to search the literature for relevant articles. Eligibility criteria were: controlled randomised clinical trials (RCT), conducted on patients with migraine or TTH, in which the therapeutic intervention was based on therapeutic exercise, and the papers had been published in English and Spanish. Two independent reviewers performed the analysis of the methodological quality using the Delphi scale. RESULTS. Ten RCT were selected, seven of which offered good methodological quality. According to all the studies analysed, the intensity and frequency of pain diminished in comparison to the situation prior to establishing therapeutic exercise, and in five studies the effect was higher than in the control group. The qualitative analysis showed strong evidence of the absence of adverse events following the application of therapeutic exercise. Furthermore, strong evidence was also found of the effect of physiotherapeutic treatment, including therapeutic exercise, in lowering the intensity, frequency and duration of pain in patients with TTH. Limited evidence was also found of the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in patients with migraine, although it was not better than the effects derived from other forms of treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Results show that therapeutic exercise is a safe treatment that provides beneficial effects on migraines or TTH. Further RCT are required in the future with appropriate methodological designs to confirm these results.
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While the benefits of lithium in bipolar disorder are evident, its limitations as monotherapy are well recognized, particularly in bipolar depression. This has propelled trials of combined lithium-anticonvulsant therapy in many bipolar patients. The present review of the English-language literature examines both controlled and open studies of such combination therapy, including the risk of drug-drug interactions. Trials of lithium plus either carbamazepine or divalproex have generally produced favorable results, although increased rates of adverse effects may reduce treatment adherence. More recent reports suggest that lithium may be safely and effectively combined with lamotrigine, and perhaps with topiramate, although controlled studies are required. The combined use of lithium with newer, putative mood stabilizers, such as zonisamide or levetiracetam, cannot yet be recommended, but is an important area for future research. Provisional recommendations for combined treatment are provided.
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A thoughtful approach to the AED selection process must factor in data from clinical AED trials as well as a variety of patient characteristics and confounding factors. When neurologists apply an individualized approach to AED drug selection for their patients, they can find an effective and well-tolerated drug for most patients.
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A systematic review of medical records and diaries of pain of 1,600 patients treated between January 1992 and January 2011 in a headache outpatient clinic.
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Kleptomania, defined in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manua of Mental Disorders, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR, as the inability to resist the impulse to steal objects that are not needed for personal use or for their monetary value, may reflect a form of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder and/or affective spectrum disorder. We report on a patient who developed kleptomania and left temporal lobe epilepsy around the same time; both disorders were completely resolved in this patient with topiramate.
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Recent advances in understanding the pathological mechanisms of this syndrome and the biochemical/pharmacological characterization of novel drug targets, evidenced carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 18.104.22.168) inhibition as a new approach for designing antineuropathic pain agents. Expert commentary: Peripheral nerve injury negatively influences spinal γ-aminobutyric (GABA)-ergic networks via a reduction in the neuron-specific potassium-chloride (K(+)-Cl(-)) cotransporter (KCC2), which leads to neuropathic allodynia. CA inhibitors (CAIs) reduce the bicarbonate-dependent depolarization of GABAA receptors, showing analgesic effects. Novel classes of selective sulfonamide CA II/VII inhibitors showed highly improved efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain, compared to acetazolamide, offering the basis for the development of specific therapies of this syndrome based on selective CA isoforms inhibition.
Topiramate (TPM) has shown efficacy in migraine prophylaxis in two large placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trials. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two doses of topiramate vs placebo for migraine prophylaxis, with propranolol (PROP) as an active control. Subjects with episodic migraine with and without aura were randomised to TPM 100 mg/d, TPM 200 mg/d, PROP 160 mg/d (active control), or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was the change in mean monthly migraine frequency from the baseline phase relative to the double-blind treatment phase. Five hundred and seventy-five subjects were enrolled from 61 centres in 13 countries. TPM 100 mg/d was superior to placebo as measured by reduction in monthly migraine frequency, overall 50% responder rate, reduction in monthly migraine days, and reduction in the rate of daily rescue medication use. The TPM 100 mg/d and PROP groups were similar with respect to reductions in migraine frequency, responder rate, migraine days, and daily rescue medication usage. TPM 100 mg/d was better tolerated than TPM 200 mg/d, and was generally comparable to PROP. No unusual or unexpected safety risks emerged. These findings demonstrate that TPM 100 mg/d is effective in migraine prophylaxis. TPM 100 mg/d and PROP 160 mg/d exhibited similar efficacy profiles.
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Hemicrania continua (HC) is an uncommon and under-recognized primary headache disorder characterized by a strictly unilateral continuous headache of moderate intensity with possible exacerbations and associated with ipsilateral autonomic features. HC has generally a prompt and enduring response to indomethacin although 25% to 50% of treated patients develop gastrointestinal side effects. These cases pose a difficult management challenge as no other drug is consistently effective in HC. Recently 2 HC patients responsive to topiramate treatment have been reported. Here we describe 2 more patients effectively treated with topiramate. Neither reported any side effects and one had persisting response for 6 months after drug withdrawal.
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The anticonvulsant activity of angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists, losartan (2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-hydroxymethyl-1-[(2'(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-biphenil-4-yl)methyl]imidazole) and telmisartan (49-[(1,49-dimethyl-29-propyl[2,69-bi-1H-benzimidazo]-19-yl)methyl]-[1,19-biphenyl]-2-carboxylic acid), has been reported recently. It is suggested that AT1 receptor antagonists may affect the protective action of antiepileptic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of losartan and telmisartan on the anticonvulsant activity of some second-generation antiepileptics (lamotrigine - LTG, oxcarbazepine - OXC, and topiramate - TPM). For this purpose, the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) test in mice was used. Additionally, the drug combinations were checked for adverse effects in the passive avoidance and chimney tests. In the MES test, losartan at the doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), potentiated the protective action of LTG (P < 0.01). This interaction was not accompanied by a significant change of LTG level either in plasma or in the brain. Telmisartan at the dose of 30 mg/kg i.p. enhanced the anticonvulsant action of TPM (P < 0.01). However, this interaction was pharmacokinetic in nature, as telmisartan significantly increased plasma and total brain concentrations of TPM (P < 0.001). The combinations of AT1 receptor antagonists with antiepileptic drugs did not affect retention in the passive avoidance test or motor coordination in the chimney test. The potentiation of the anticonvulsant action of LTG by losartan probably on account of pharmacodynamic interactions, make this combination important for further experimental and clinical studies. The combination of telmisartan and TPM is less beneficial due to pharmacokinetic interactions.
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disruptive, chronic, and relatively common disorder that is often difficult to treat. Many patients with PTSD are unresponsive, have only moderate or marginal responses, or have troubling side effects to first-line serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Studies suggest that antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may be an effective treatment alternative or adjunctive treatment for the symptoms of PTSD. Recent results from case reports and open and controlled studies on the efficacy and tolerability of AEDs in PTSD are reviewed here, and their methodological limitations are discussed when relevant. AEDs shown to be effective in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of PTSD include lamotrigine, topiramate, and tiagabine. Other AEDs that appear promising in open-label trials of PTSD include carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin, vigabatrin, phenytoin, and levetiracetam. Stress-activated limbic kindling may be involved in the pathogenesis of PTSD. The possibility that AEDs may be effective in the treatment of PTSD due to their antikindling effect is discussed, and suggestions for future research are made.
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According to our preliminary findings, genetic variation in the INSR and HNF1A genes may differentially affect weight loss in obese individuals treated with topiramate and genes related to insulin action are implicated in modulating topiramate response. However, these findings need to be further replicated in additional larger samples.
An interview-based survey was conducted from February 2 to June 30, 2015, among neurologists working in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Direct interviews were conducted using a questionnaire that assessed knowledge of the pharmacological interactions between various contraceptive methods and six AEDs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, topiramate, phenytoin, lamotrigine, and valproate) on the basis of WHO medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use.
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Cocaine abuse is a major public health problem with multiple-related complications. Indeed, cocaine can affect almost every organ of the human body, but little is known about its effects on the visual system. The main purpose of this work was to study if topiramate was able to reverse changes in retinal metabolism and retinal function induced by chronic cocaine exposure in adult rats.
These findings have extended our knowledge about essential tremor. It appears that a new, more distinct classification system is required. Recent treatments have remained unchanged.
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Despite recent advances in our understanding of human traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology, we still need effective neuroprotective agents. The lack of rigorous drug pharmacokinetic studies in the "living" brain is an important cause of neuroprotection trials failure in human TBI research. In the past, several drugs have been labeled as inefficient, and even withdrawn from expensive trials, without knowing their actual penetration in the traumatized human brain. The injured brain is characterized by an increased diffusion distance, due to edema, and reduced blood flow that modulates drug transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the study reported in this paper, we used cerebral microdialysis to provide a safe and efficient tool for continuous in vivo evaluation of bioavailability and pharmacologic efficacy of topiramate, a glutamate release inhibitor. Topiramate crossed the BBB in neuroprotective concentrations, and showed a lowering effect on glutamate levels, thereby modifying the natural history of glutamate release after TBI. The use of cerebral microdialysis in phase II drug studies will allow the detection of the appropriate therapeutic window and dosage for the neuroprotective agent. This strategy represents a clear improvement compared to traditional clinical trial design, and will reduce the trial costs.
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To evaluate whether the postoperative, antiepileptic drug (AED) regimen influences seizure recurrence after anterior temporal lobectomy when considering the putative mechanism of action and possible neuroprotective effects.
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Topiramate, a sulphamate fructopyranose derivative, might antagonise alcohol's rewarding effects associated with abuse liability by inhibiting mesocorticolimbic dopamine release via the contemporaneous facilitation of gamma-amino-butyric acid activity and inhibition of glutamate function. We aimed to see whether topiramate was more effective than placebo as a treatment for alcohol dependence.
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After receiving increased dosages of topiramate, a 37-year-old man developed hyperchloremic, normal anion-gap, metabolic acidosis, which resolved after discontinuation of the drug.
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Topiramate is newly approved as anticonvulsant that seems to promote body weight loss in humans. The present study was designed to evaluate the weight-controlling properties of topiramate in dietary obese female rats in comparison with sibutramine.
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Topiramate and zonisamide have been shown to reduce weight in adults. Our finding of a decrease in mean birth weight and length among neonates exposed in utero raises concern.
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This study demonstrates that most of the more common AEs with TPM adjunctive therapy are transient. Patients can be counseled that most AEs emerging when TPM is initially added to CBZ can be expected to diminish with continued therapy.
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Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is characterized by excellent response to treatment, if diagnosed correctly. Lifestyle advice is an integral part of the treatment of JME; it should include recommendations on avoidance of common triggers such as sleep deprivation and alcohol excess and emphasis on the importance of compliance with medication. The drug of first choice in the treatment of JME is sodium valproate, which has a response rate of up to 80%. Valproate should be avoided in women of childbearing age because of significantly increased risks of fetal malformations and neurodevelopmental delay. Levetiracetam or lamotrigine are alternative first-line options if valproate is contraindicated. With limited data from trials to support either of these drugs, the choice should take into account comorbidity factors and patient priorities. Because of its low side effect profile, excellent tolerability, and lack of interactions with other drugs, levetiracetam is our preferred alternative first-line agent. Lamotrigine is another first-line option but may exacerbate myoclonus. The failure of valproate or failure of two first-line antiepileptic drugs suggests that combination therapy is indicated. Drug interactions and the patient's gender, age, and comorbidities need to be considered. Levetiracetam, lamotrigine, and valproate are suitable adjuncts, with a synergistic effect reported from the combination of valproate and lamotrigine. Clonazepam is a useful adjunct for myoclonus and can be used in combination with lamotrigine to avoid lamotrigine's myoclonic effects. In women of childbearing potential, valproate should be considered if levetiracetam and lamotrigine have failed to control seizures at this stage. Topiramate is a cost-effective alternative monotherapy, but because of its poor tolerability, we recommend it as add-on treatment only. Zonisamide should remain a second-line adjunct in the treatment of JME, owing to the lack of supportive data. Phenobarbital is the most cost-effective drug and can be used to control the seizures of JME when antiepileptic drugs are limited or too costly. Carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin can exacerbate absences and myoclonus and are therefore contraindicated, although they can improve control of tonic-clonic seizures when these are refractory to other medication. Gabapentin, pregabalin, tiagabine, and vigabatrin are contraindicated and can worsen seizures. (Tiagabine and vigabatrin have been reported to induce absence status epilepticus.) Surgical alternatives in refractory cases are rarely contemplated but may include vagus nerve stimulation and callosotomy. Deep brain stimulation is an experimental technique that may prove useful in managing refractory cases of JME.
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OnabotulinumtoxinA and topiramate demonstrated similar efficacy for subjects with CM as determined by Global Physician Assessment and supported by multiple secondary endpoint measures.
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Results suggest that topiramate enhances both nicotine withdrawal and reward. These findings question the utility of topiramate treatment for smoking cessation.
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Source localisation of ERPs can be helpful in identifying target brain regions for the cognitive side effects of anti-epileptic drugs.
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Data from 1066 patients were included: 336 for lamotrigine, 301 for levetiracetam, 429 for topiramate. Two-year retention rates were 69.2% (lamotrigine), 45.8% (levetiracetam), 38.3% (topiramate); (LTG vs. LEV at p<0.001; LTG vs. TPM at p<0.001; LEV vs. TPM at p=0.005). Seizure freedom rates were lowest for lamotrigine and highest for levetiracetam. Adverse events played a role in drug discontinuation in 154/429 patients (35.9%) on topiramate, 52/336 patients (15.5%) on lamotrigine (p<0.001), 68/301 patients (22.5%) on levetiracetam (p<0.001). Mood and general CNS-effects are common in patients on lamotrigine and levetiracetam, and neurocognitive side effects are most prevalent in patients on topiramate. A positive effect on cognition is frequently noted in patients on lamotrigine.
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Valproate is effective in reducing headache frequency and is reasonably well tolerated in adult patients with episodic migraine.