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To assess the impact on virological outcomes of a switch from branded single-tablet regimen (STR) including tenofovir, efavirenz, and emtricitabine (STR-TEE) to generic triple-tablet regimen (TTR), including tenofovir, efavirenz, and lamivudine (TTR-TEL), which was implemented on April 1, 2011 to obtain economic savings.
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Efavirenz is the preferred nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in low- and middle-income countries, where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Randomized control trials have shown mild increases in plasma glucose in participants in the efavirenz arms, but no association has been reported with overt diabetes. We explored the association between efavirenz exposure and incident diabetes in a large Southern African cohort commencing NNRTI-based first-line ART. Our cohort included HIV-infected adults starting NNRTI-based ART in a private sector HIV disease management program from January 2002 to December 2011. Incident diabetes was identified by the initiation of diabetes treatment. Patients with prevalent diabetes were excluded. We included 56,298 patients with 113,297 patient-years of follow-up (PYFU) on first-line ART. The crude incidence of diabetes was 13.24 per 1000 PYFU. Treatment with efavirenz rather than nevirapine was associated with increased risk of developing diabetes (hazard ratio 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.46)) in a multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline CD4 count, viral load, NRTI backbone, and exposure to other diabetogenic medicines. Zidovudine and stavudine exposure were also associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes. We found that treatment with efavirenz, as well as stavudine and zidovudine, increased the risk of incident diabetes. Interventions to detect and prevent diabetes should be implemented in ART programs, and use of antiretrovirals with lower risk of metabolic complications should be encouraged.
A cross-sectional analysis examined common characteristics of HBV infection in an ongoing cohort study of 308 patients with both HIV-1-positive Western blot and plasma HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity. Risk factors for liver fibrosis were studied in a subset of 104 patients for whom liver biopsy and complete HBV genomic analysis were available. Analysis was performed by exact multiple regression analysis.
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A total of 389 patient records were analyzed (STR, n = 165 versus MTR, n = 224). There were more males, a higher percentage of treatment-naive patients, and more patients with a baseline CD4 count of >200 cells/mm(3) in the MTR group. Based on refill records, more patients on MTR were >90% adherent (61.6% versus 51.5%, P = .047). In a multivariable analysis, being treatment experienced was a negative predictor (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, 0.29-0.78) for adherence. Regimen choice was not associated with adherence. More patients taking MTR were virologically suppressed at the end of the observation period. Regardless of the regimen, being >90% adherent was a significant predictor of virologic suppression (OR = 3.51, 1.98-6.23).
Rates of cardiovascular disease are higher among HIV-infected patients as a result of the complex interplay between traditional risk factors, HIV-related inflammatory and immunologic changes, and effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study prospectively evaluated changes in cardiovascular biomarkers in an underrepresented, racially diverse, HIV-1-infected population receiving abacavir/lamivudine as backbone therapy.
Resistance assays are useful in guiding decisions for patients experiencing virologic failure (VF) during highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We investigated antiretroviral resistance mutations in 41 Korean human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients with VF and observed immunologic/virologic response 6 months after HAART regimen change. Mean HAART duration prior to resistance assay was 45.3+/-27.5 months and commonly prescribed HAART regimens were zidovudine/lamivudine/nelfinavir (22.0%) and zidovudine/lamivudine/efavirenz (19.5%). Forty patients (97.6%) revealed intermediate to high-level resistance to equal or more than 2 antiretroviral drugs among prescribed HAART regimen. M184V/I mutation was observed in 36 patients (87.7%) followed by T215Y/F (41.5%) and M46I/L (34%). Six months after resistance assay and HAART regimen change, median CD4+ T cell count increased from 168 cells/microL (interquartile range [IQR], 62-253) to 276 cells/microL (IQR, 153-381) and log viral load decreased from 4.65 copies/mL (IQR, 4.18-5.00) to 1.91 copies/mL (IQR, 1.10-3.60) (P<0.001 for both values). The number of patients who accomplished viral load <400 copies/mL was 26 (63.4%) at 6 months follow-up. In conclusion, many Korean HIV-1 infected patients with VF are harboring strains with multiple resistance mutations and immunologic/virologic parameters are improved significantly after genotypic resistance assay and HAART regimen change.
Efavirenz is a commonly used antiretroviral drug that causes neurologic side effects in more than 50% of patients.
To compare the incidence and define the risk factors associated with liver toxicity in patients beginning treatment with nevirapine (NVP) and efavirenz (EFZ).
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A decision-analysis model compared two strategies for PMTCT: intervention – long-course maternal triple ART [zidovudine/lamivudine/efavirenz (ZDV/3TC/EFV)] beginning at 14 weeks gestation through the end of breastfeeding, with infant ART, per new WHO guidelines (option B); and minimal standard of care (MSOC) in Nigeria – short-course dual ART (ZDV/3TC) from 34 weeks gestation to 1 week postpartum, with single-dose nevirapine for infant and mother at labor/delivery. The primary outcomes were expected costs, pediatric HIV cases, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) accrued with each strategy; cost-effectiveness was represented using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs).
One of the many challenges which come together with the implementation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in settings with limited resources is the monitoring of toxicity. This monitoring increases costs of ART and strains resources. We therefore investigated the necessity for laboratory toxicity monitoring of ART in Thailand. DESIGN, METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective Thai cohort of 417 HIV-infected patients were enrolled in randomized clinical trials investigating ART. Time-dependent occurrence of grade III/IV abnormal laboratory values as defined by the AIDS Clinical Trial Group was analysed.
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Rifampicin-based anti-TB cotreatment has no significant influence on long-term efavirenz plasma exposure and efficacy. Hence, there is no need to increase the dose of efavirenz during concomitant rifampicin-based anti-TB cotreatment in the sub-Saharan African population.
Efavirenz (Sustiva) is the first once-daily dosing anti-HIV drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is highly potent and more convenient than other therapies, and is used to treat HIV-1 in both adults and pediatric patients. It is effective in combination therapy, and patients on efavirenz had fewer side effects than patients on other triple combinations therapies. It remains to be seen if efavirenz will be used in first-line therapy. Some reports show that patients who are taking other drugs that affect the central nervous system suffer additional central nervous system side effects from efavirenz. There are reports of cross-resistance with other drugs in the same class, and limited data that is available on fetal toxicity suggests that women of childbearing age need to be counseled carefully before taking this drug.
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Forty-three patients were randomly assigned: 21 remained on their original regimen and 22 switched to once-daily therapy with stavudine PRC. Although high levels of adherence and good quality of life were present at study enrollment, adherence declined to a significantly lesser extent at week 24 in the group that switched to once-daily therapy. Efficacy was maintained in both groups and there were no differences in tolerability or toxicity.
To compare the effect that initiating different antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens has on weight, BMI, and lean body mass (LBM) and explore how changes in body composition are associated with bone mineral density (BMD).
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Cohort analysis of prospectively collected routine clinical data in a community-based South African antiretroviral treatment program. Antiretroviral treatment-naive adults enrolled between May 2001 and June 2006 were included in the analysis, and were followed up until the end of 2006.
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Dupont Pharma officials have confirmed that Sustiva (efavirenz) has been shown to cause false positives on THC tests. THC tests are urine tests used to screen for marijuana use. They are frequently used on individuals in critical occupations, people in drug treatment, or prisoners in work release programs. The company does not understand the mechanism causing the false readings, but determined that a follow-up test would yield a negative result. Dupont Pharma is planning to notify physicians and clinical investigators about the problem and may issue cards to patients using this drug to avoid embarrassment or potential punishment as a result of inaccurate urine tests.
CYP2B6 516TT was associated with greater plasma and intracellular exposure to EFV, and greater plasma exposure to NVP. Intracellular drug concentration, and CYP2B6 genotype were predictors of EFV neuropsychological toxicity. CYP2B6 genotyping may be useful to complement an individualization strategy based on plasma drug determinations to increase the safety and tolerability of EFV.
A selective and a highly sensitive method for the determination of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), efavirenz, in human plasma has been developed and fully validated based on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involved protein precipitation followed by one to one dilution with water. The analyte, efavirenz was separated by high performance liquid chromatography and detected with tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. Efavirenz and ¹³C₆-efavirenz (Internal Standard), respectively, were detected via the following MRM transitions: m/z 314.20243.90 and m/z 320.20249.90. A gradient program was used to elute the analytes using 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile as mobile phase solvents, at a flow-rate of 0.3 mL/min. The total run time was 5 min and the retention times for the internal standard (¹³C₆-efavirenz) and efavirenz was approximately 2.6 min. The calibration curves showed linearity (coefficient of regression, r>0.99) over the concentration range of 1.0-2,500 ng/mL. The intraday precision based on the standard deviation of replicates of lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 9.24% and for quality control (QC) samples ranged from 2.41% to 6.42% and with accuracy from 112% and 100-111% for LLOQ and QC samples. The inter day precision was 12.3% and 3.03-9.18% for LLOQ and quality controls samples, and the accuracy was 108% and 95.2-108% for LLOQ and QC samples. Stability studies showed that efavirenz was stable during the expected conditions for sample preparation and storage. The lower limit of quantification for efavirenz was 1 ng/mL. The analytical method showed excellent sensitivity, precision, and accuracy. This method is robust and is being successfully applied for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies in HIV-infected patients.
The UGT1A1*28 variant has been associated with hyperbilirubinemia and atazanavir discontinuation. Protocol A5202 randomly assigned human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients to receive atazanavir/ritonavir (atazanavir/r) or efavirenz, with tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine. A total of 646 atazanavir/r recipients were evaluable for UGT1A1. Homozygosity for *28/*28 was present in 8% of whites, 24% of blacks, and 18% of Hispanics and was associated with increased bilirubin concentrations. There was an association between *28/*28 and increased atazanavir/r discontinuation among Hispanic participants (P = .005) but not among white or black participants (P = .79 and P = .46, respectively). The positive predictive value of 28*/28* for atazanavir/r discontinuation among Hispanic participants was only 32% (95% confidence interval, 16%-52%).
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Suicidality was defined as suicidal ideation or attempted or completed suicide. Groups were compared with a hazard ratio and 95% CI estimated from a Cox model, stratified by study.
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The interventions are first-line abacavir, lamivudine, and efavirenz without pretreatment HLA-B*5701 testing; the same regimen with HLA-B*5701 testing; and first-line tenofovir, emtricitabine, and efavirenz.
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The assay was validated over the concentration range 50-7500 ng/mL. Accuracy ranged between 95.2% and 102.5% and precision ranged between 1.05% and 9.53%. The average recovery of efavirenz from dried breast milk spots was 106.4% and the matrix effect was 8.14%. Stability of efavirenz in dried breast milk spots and processed samples at room temperature, -40°C and -80°C was demonstrated. In the pharmacokinetic study, the mean (SD) AUC0-24, Cmax and Cmin of efavirenz in breast milk were 59,620 ng·h/mL (17,440), 4527 ng/mL (1767) and 1261 ng/mL (755.9), respectively. The mean (range) milk-to-plasma concentration ratio over the dosing interval was 0.78 (0.57-1.26).
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The mechanism by which CYP2B6*6 allele alters drug metabolism in vitro and in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that altered substrate binding and/or catalytic properties contribute to its functional consequences, efavirenz 8-hydroxylation and bupropion 4-hydroxylation were determined in CYP2B6.1 and CYP2B6.6 proteins expressed without and with cytochrome b5 (Cyt b5) and in human liver microsomes (HLMs) obtained from liver tissues genotyped for the CYP2B6*6 allele. The susceptibility of the variant protein to inhibition was also tested in HLMs. Significantly higher V(max) and K(m) values for 8-hydroxyefavirenz formation and ∼2-fold lower intrinsic clearance (Cl(int)) were noted in expressed CYP2B6.6 protein (-b5) compared with that of CYP2B6.1 protein (-b5); this effect was abolished by Cyt b5. The V(max) and Cl(int) values for 4-hydroxybupropion formation were significantly higher in CYP2B6.6 than in CYP2B6.1 protein, with no difference in K(m), whereas coexpression with Cyt b5 reversed the genetic effect on these kinetic parameters. In HLMs, CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype was associated with markedly lower V(max) (and moderate increase in K(m)) and thus lower Cl(int) values for efavirenz and bupropion metabolism, but no difference in catalytic properties was noted between CYP2B6*1/*1 and CYP2B6*1/*6 genotypes. Inhibition of efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by voriconazole was significantly greater in HLMs with the CYP2B6*6 allele (K(i) = 1.6 ± 0.8 μM) than HLMs with CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype (K(i) = 3.0 ± 1.1 μM). In conclusion, our data suggest the CYP2B6*6 allele influences metabolic activity by altering substrate binding and catalytic activity in a substrate- and Cyt b5-dependent manner. It may also confer susceptibility to inhibition.
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Nine HIV-infected children who were receiving a PI- or NNRTI-containing regimen via g-tube were enrolled. All antiretrovirals (excluding efavirenz) were administered under direct observation for the pharmacokinetic evaluation. Blood samples were collected at predose and at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours postdose. Antiretroviral concentrations were measured in plasma using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.
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Our findings, together with those of previous studies, indicate that many children dosed according to the current guidelines do not achieve adequate efavirenz exposure. Because low efavirenz concentrations are associated with the rapid emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutations and treatment failure, the current recommended efavirenz doses should be re-evaluated, especially in developing countries, where therapeutic drug monitoring is seldom available.