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Serevent (Salmeterol)
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Serevent

Serevent is used for long-term treatment of asthma. It may be used to prevent breathing problems in certain patients, including patients with nighttime asthma, or breathing problems caused by exercise. It may be used for long-term treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Theo-24 Sr, Serevent, Theo-24 Cr, Ventolin, Flovent

 

Also known as:  Salmeterol.

Description

Serevent is used to prevent asthma attacks. Its active ingredient Salmeterol is a bronchodilator. It works by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing. It will not treat an asthma attack that has already begun.

Serevent is also used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

Generic name of Serevent is Salmeterol.

Brand name of Serevent is Serevent.

Dosage

Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Serevent exactly as directed.

Do not change your doses or medication schedule without advice from your doctor.

The usual dose of Serevent for asthma and COPD is 1 inhalation twice a day. The 2 doses should be about 12 hours apart.

Overdose

If you overdose Serevent and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Overdose symptoms may include nervousness, headache, tremor, dry mouth, chest pain or heavy feeling, rapid or uneven heart rate, pain spreading to the arm or shoulder, nausea, sweating, dizziness, seizure (convulsions), feeling light-headed or fainting.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Serevent are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Serevent if you are allergic to Serevent components.

It is not known whether Serevent will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

You shouldn't take Serevent if you have heart disease or high blood pressure; epilepsy or other seizure disorder; diabetes; a thyroid disorder; or liver disease.

Do not use a second form of salmeterol (such as Advair) or use a similar inhaled bronchodilator such as formoterol or arformoterol (Foradil, Perforomist, Symbicort, or Brovana) unless your doctor has told you to.

Do not give this medication to a child younger than 4 years old.

Do not use Serevent to treat an asthma attack that has already begun. Salmeterol may increase the risk of asthma-related death.

Avoid getting this medication in your eyes. If this does happen, rinse the eyes with water and seek medical attention.

Do not stop taking Serevent suddenly.

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Persistent elevations in airway tissue mast cells and BAL tryptase after treatment with TAA predict treatment failure in patients for whom discontinuation of ICS is being considered.

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Asthma control is the goal of therapeutic interventions. In observational studies, the use of short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) is a surrogate for symptoms and emergency department or hospital events for exacerbations.

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The paper explores the method of determination of salmeterol xinafoate at nanogram level with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) probe, to measure the intensity of resonance Rayleigh light scattering (RLS) by a common spectrofluorometer. The RLS intensity of salmeterol xinafoate was greatly enhanced by AuNPs, with the maximum scattering peak at 357 nm. The salmeterol xinafoate was determined basing on the binding of salmeterol xinafoate to AuNPs by electrostatic adsorption. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced RLS intensity was directly proportional to the concentration of salmeterol xinafoate in the range of 0.054-6.038 μg mL(-1) with a good linear relationship (r=0.9928). The limit of detection (LOD) was 9.48 ng mL(-1). The interference tests were performed carefully. With the proposed method, the synthetic samples were analyzed satisfactorily, the recovery and RSD were 102.5-103.0% and 0.67-1.0% respectively.

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Forty participants, (15-18 years of age, 19 female subjects, 30 black/African American subjects, 11 Medicaid-insured subjects, and 24 previously hospitalized for asthma) with a median FEV1 of 98% of predicted value (range, 67% to 127%) had median adherence of 43% (range, 4% to 89%). Adherence was not associated with FEV1 or emergency department visits. Themes emerged from interviews as follows. Teens (1) take F/S inconsistently; (2) believe F/S is "supposed to help me breathe"; (3) dislike its taste; (4) are "too busy" and "forget"; and (5) recommend "reminder" solutions to poor adherence. Twenty percent believed that taking F/S was unnecessary, and another 18% expressed ambivalence about its benefits.

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This study evaluated the use and drug costs of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), long-acting beta2-agonists (LABAs), and fluticasone propionate and salmeterol in a fixed-dose combination (FSC) and their relationship to asthma exacerbations before and after the market introduction of FSC in April 2001.

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At endpoint, compared with montelukast, FSC significantly increased morning predose forced expiratory volume in 1 second (0.61 +/- 0.03 L vs 0.32 +/- 0.03 L), morning peak expiratory flow rate (peak expiratory flow rate; 81.4 +/- 5.9 L/minute vs 41.9 +/- 4.8 L/minute), evening peak expiratory flow rate (64.6 +/- 5.3 L/minute vs 38.8 +/- 4.7 L/minute), the percentage of symptom-free days (40.3 +/- 2.9% vs 27.0 +/- 2.7%), the percentage of rescue-free days (53.4 +/- 2.8% vs 26.7 +/- 2.5%), and the percentage of nights with no awakenings (29.8 +/- 2.5% vs 19.6 +/- 2.1%) (P < or = 0.011, all comparisons). At endpoint, FSC significantly reduced asthma symptom scores (-1.0 +/- 0.1 vs -0.7 +/- 0.1) and rescue albuterol use (-3.6 +/- 0.2 puffs/day vs -2.2 +/- 0.2 puffs/day) compared with montelukast (P < 0.001). At endpoint, patients treated with FSC also had a significantly greater improvement in quality of life scores and were more satisfied with their treatment compared with montelukast-treated patients (P < or = 0.001). Both treatments were well tolerated.

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Direct crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles in the inhalable size range of 1-6 microm may overcome surface energization resulting from micronization. The aerosolization of fluticasone propionate (FP) and salmeterol xinafoate (SX) microcrystals produced by aqueous crystallization from poly(ethylene glycol) solutions was investigated using a twin stage impinger following blending with lactose. Fine particle fractions from SX formulations ranged from 15.98 +/- 2.20% from SX crystallized from PEG 6000 to 26.26 +/- 1.51% for SX crystallized from PEG 400. The FPF of microcrystal formulations increased as the particle size of microcrystals was increased. The aerosolization of SX from DPI blends was equivalent for the microcrystals and the micronized material. FP microcrystals, which had a needlelike morphology, produced similar FPFs (PEG 400: 17.15 +/- 0.68% and PEG 6000: 15.46 +/- 0.97%) to micronized FP (mFP; 14.21 +/- 0.54). The highest FPF (25.66 +/- 1.51%) resulted from the formulation of FP microcrystals with the largest median diameter (FP PEG 400B: 6.14 +/- 0.17 microm). Microcrystallization of SX and FP from PEG solvents offers the potential for improving control of particulate solid state properties and was shown to represent a viable alternative to micronization for the production of particles for inclusion in dry powder inhalation formulations.

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The aim of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group clinical trial with a 2-week treatment period was to compare the efficacy and safety of salmeterol (50 micrograms twice daily) with slow-release (SR) terbutaline (5 mg orally, twice daily) in nocturnal asthma. A total of 159 asthmatic adults (FEV, 50-90% of predicted value; sex ratio: 0.87) with at least two nocturnal awakenings during a 7-d run-in period was included in the study. Patients were centrally randomized with a national computer network (Minitel). The main variable (number of awakening-free nights during the last week of treatment) was analyzed according to a sequential method with the one-sided triangular test. The number of awakening-free nights (+/- SD) was significantly higher in the salmeterol group: 5.3 +/- 2.4 vs 4.6 +/- 2.3 (P = 0.006). Salmeterol was significantly more effective than SR-terbutaline in the following factors: number of patients without any awakening during the last week of treatment (50% vs 27%, P = 0.003), mean morning PEF (351 +/- 109 l/min-1 vs 332 +/- 105 l/min-1, P = 0.04), PEF diurnal variation 6 +/- 10% vs 11 +/- 12%, P = 0.01), overall assessment of efficacy by the patient and the investigator (P = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively), and daily rescue salbutamol intakes (P = 0.004). In the salmeterol group, significantly fewer patients reported adverse events (16% vs 29%, P = 0.04).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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This retrospective cohort study analyzed data from MarketScan Medicaid, a large US administrative claims database containing data on Medicaid programs in 8 states. The study cohort comprised LTC facility residents aged > or =60 years who had a diagnosis of COPD. Eligible patients also had a prescription filled between January 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, for one of the following COPD treatments: fluticasone propionate + salmeterol xinafoate, tiotropium bromide, ipratropium bromide, or ipratropium bromide + albuterol sulfate. The date of the first prescription fill was considered the index date. Measures of health care resource utilization included COPD-related and all-cause hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits. Cost analysis outcomes included COPD-related and all-cause inpatient, outpatient, pharmacy, LTC, and total costs during the 12-month postindex period.

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Tiotropium resulted noninferiorly to salmeterol and superiorly to placebo in patients with moderate to severe asthma who were not adequately controlled by ICS or ICS/salmeterol. Major benefits were concentrated in the increase in lung function and in the case of patients with severe asthma, in the reduction of exacerbations.

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To assess whether switching from SFC to FBC improves peripheral airway/alveolar inflammation in asthma (UMIN000009619).

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This review highlights the clinical studies on which safety analyses pertaining to salmeterol and formoterol have been based and then focuses on recent meta-analyses of safety outcomes with and without consideration of concomitant ICS.

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The polygenic origin of generalized absence epilepsy results in dysfunction of ion channels that allows the switch from physiological asynchronous to pathophysiological highly synchronous network activity. Evidence from rat and mouse models of absence epilepsy indicates that altered Ca(2+) channel activity contributes to cellular and network alterations that lead to seizure activity. Under physiological circumstances, high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels are important in determining the thalamic firing profile. Here, we investigated a possible contribution of HVA channels to the epileptic phenotype using a rodent genetic model of absence epilepsy. In this study, HVA Ca(2+) currents were recorded from neurons of three different thalamic nuclei that are involved in both sensory signal transmission and rhythmic-synchronized activity during epileptic spike-and-wave discharges (SWD), namely the dorsal part of the lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), the ventrobasal thalamic complex (VB) and the reticular thalamic nucleus (NRT) of epileptic Wistar Albino Glaxo rats from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) and non-epileptic August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats. HVA Ca(2+) current densities in dLGN neurons were significantly increased in epileptic rats compared with non-epileptic controls while other thalamic regions revealed no differences between the strains. Application of specific channel blockers revealed that the increased current was carried by L-type Ca(2+) channels. Electrophysiological evidence of increased L-type current correlated with up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of a particular L-type channel, namely Cav1.3, in dLGN of epileptic rats. No significant changes were found for other HVA Ca(2+) channels. Moreover, pharmacological inactivation of L-type Ca(2+) channels results in altered firing profiles of thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons from non-epileptic rather than from epileptic rats. While HVA Ca(2+) channels influence tonic and burst firing in ACI and WAG/Rij differently, it is discussed that increased Cav1.3 expression may indirectly contribute to increased robustness of burst firing and thereby the epileptic phenotype of absence epilepsy.

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Persistent small airways dysfunction occurs despite treatment at steps 2 through 4 of current asthma guidelines. Extra-fine ICS may reduce airway resistance at step 2. Prospective studies with extra-fine ICS ± LABA at steps 2 through 4 are required to discern whether improving small airways function might result in long-term improved control.

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In this randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study, 322 symptomatic patients were recruited, of which 282 were randomised to receive either salmeterol (50 microg), FP (250 microg), or SFC (50 microg/250 microg), via a single Diskus inhaler twice daily for 12 months. Outcome variables included the number of patients requiring an increase in study medication and the number experiencing 2 exacerbations during the 12-month treatment period. Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and lung function tests were performed at clinic visits. Peak expiratory flow, rescue medication use, symptom scores and adverse events were recorded in diary cards.

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Three hundred and eighty-three asthmatic patients receiving sustained release theophylline 200-400mg/day entered the study and were randomised to receive either salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination (SFC) 50microg/250microg+1 placebo tablet, fluticasone propionate 250microg+1 sustained release theophylline 200mg (SR-T+FP), twice daily for 8 weeks.

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We conducted an 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study of subjects with moderate to severe COPD to compare fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 250/50 microg BID (FSC) with ipratropium/albuterol 36/206 microg QID (IB/ALB). The primary efficacy measure was morning preadministration forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)). Secondary measures were morning peak expiratory flow (PEF), 6-hour FEV(1) AUC, percentage of symptom-free nights, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI) score, and overall daytime symptom score. Additional measures included sleep symptoms, supplemental albuterol use, and nighttime awakenings due to respiratory symptoms. Safety evaluations were based on clinical adverse events and COPD exacerbations.

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No statistically significant associations between Arg16Gly genotypes and serial FEV(1) clinical responses to SAL and FSC were observed following acute assessment. In addition, the FEV(1) response was preserved following 12 weeks of treatment with SAL and FSC and was not altered by Arg16Gly genotypes analyzed. These results may not be generalizable to other ethnic groups since they are derived predominantly from Caucasians.

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The effect of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) and salmeterol (SM) on tracheal responsiveness (TR) to methacholine and lung pathology of sensitized guinea pig was examined.

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In vitro data suggest that salmeterol, contrary to formoterol, can partly antagonise the effect of short-acting beta(2)-agonist rescue medication. To explore whether this occurs in vivo, we compared the effects of increasing doses (200-3200 microg) of fenoterol on the recovery of methacholine induced bronchoconstriction as well as PD(20) methacholine in 23 asthmatic patients, during two-week treatment periods with placebo, and standard doses of salmeterol or formoterol in a double blind, double-dummy, crossover study. Salmeterol showed a slightly higher propensity for the development of bronchodilator tolerance. The recovery of methacholine induced bronchoconstriction was more complete during regular use of formoterol relative to salmeterol. During regular use of both long-acting beta(2)-agonists the bronchoprotective efficacy of fenoterol was attenuated, but this was more pronounced during salmeterol than during formoterol. The mean maximum increase in PD(20) metacholine after the highest dose of fenoterol was 3.97 DD during placebo, 2.47 DD during formoterol (p<0.001) and 1.81 DD during salmeterol treatment (p<0.001). We conclude that in asthmatic patients the efficacy of short-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists can be significantly attenuated during regular use of long-acting beta(2)-agonists. In this respect, differences were observed between salmeterol and formoterol that may represent the expression of partial antagonism by salmeterol.

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Asthma management focuses on achieving and maintaining asthma control. Few studies have assessed whether complete and sustained asthma control is maintained in clinical practice after stepping-across ICS/LABA fixed combinations. Aim of this double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, parallel group, controlled study was to demonstrate clinical equivalence between equipotent doses of extrafine beclometasone/formoterol (BDP/F) pMDI and fluticasone/salmeterol (FP/S) Diskus® in maintaining lung function and asthma control.

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serevent overdose 2017-11-27

Twice-daily treatment with SFC and FBC over 6 months significantly improved asthma symptoms and lung function in patients with persistent asthma. The rate of exacerbations was significantly reduced over time on both treatments but SFC was buy serevent found to be significantly superior to FBC in reducing the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations with sustained treatment.

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Both treatments led to similar control of eosinophilic airway inflammation, although PEF and symptom control were better with buy serevent SFC. STUDY NUMBER: SAM40030 (SOLTA).

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The aim of the clinical study reported here was to investigate the efficacy of salmeterol, a new long-acting selective beta 2-agonist, in patients with bronchial asthma. Twenty-four children with moderate asthma were enrolled in the longitudinal study, consisting of a run-in period of 2 weeks followed by a treatment period of 4 weeks. Maintenance treatment consisted of inhaled corticosteroid and disodium cromoglycate, or both, at the same daily dose throughout the study. During the run-in period, the patients continued to inhale salbutamol when needed and some of them (37%) also received theophylline. They were subsequently treated with salmeterol 50 micrograms twice daily and prn salbutamol for 4 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated using symptom scores and pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity parameters, pulmonary volumes, airway resistance and specific airway conductance that were measured sensitively by a whole body plethysmograph. As a result, salmeterol produced significant improvement in morning and evening peak expiratory flow rates, vital capacity, airway resistance, conductance and asthma symptoms versus salbutamol and theophylline. Adverse reactions were judged to be mild and few buy serevent .

serevent diskus dose 2015-08-10

A high level of asthma control was maintained with both approaches. The use of SFC step-down resulted in somewhat better respiratory function, with no worsening of airway inflammation. However, halving the dose of SFC and switching to buy serevent FP alone are both optimal step-down approaches.

serevent diskus cost 2015-05-08

Baseline FENO, CRP, IL-6, and IL-8 showed no correlations to FEV1 responses to ICS. ICS responders (increase in FEV1 > or = 200 mL after four weeks of ICS) did have significantly higher baseline FENO levels compared with non-responders (46.5 parts per billion [ppb] vs. 25 ppb, p = 0.028). The receiver operating characteristic curve for FENO to discriminate responders from non-responders had an area under curve of 0.72. Baseline serum inflammatory buy serevent markers did not differ between responders and non-responders.

serevent drug classification 2016-09-04

We used an open, randomized, cross-over design to compare the buy serevent effects of salbutamol (200 micrograms q.i.d.) and salmeterol (50 micrograms b.i.d.) on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), blood eosinophil count and serum levels of ECP as a measure of eosinophil activity in 20 mild atopic asthmatics.

generic serevent diskus 2017-04-24

Controlled parallel design clinical trials on patients of any age and severity of asthma were included if they randomised patients to treatment with regular formoterol versus regular salmeterol (without randomised inhaled corticosteroids), and were of at least 12 weeks buy serevent duration.

serevent accuhaler dosage 2016-10-14

The addition of salmeterol therapy to patients who remain buy serevent symptomatic while using a low dose of FP was clinically and statistically superior to increasing the dose of FP.

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To examine whether treatment with inhaled corticosteroids plus long-acting beta(2)-agonists reduced the number of exacerbations associated with upper respiratory buy serevent tract infections versus inhaled corticosteroids alone.

serevent drug category 2016-07-13

Clinical trials of a combination therapy buy serevent of an inhaled corticosteroid, fluticasone propionate (FP), with a long-acting beta2-agonist, salmeterol (Sal), have demonstrated a greater improvement in lung function and in quality of life measures after the combination compared with either component of alone. In a subanalysis of the data of the TRISTAN study, Sal/FP reduced exacerbation rates in COPD patients with a baseline FEV1 < 50% of predicted. A combination therapy of budesonide and formoterol improved quality of life and FEV1, and reduced exacerbations better than either component alone. In studies of FP or of Sal/FP in COPD, there was a reduction in all-cause mortality by 25% relative to placebo. Sal/FP has anti-inflammatory effects in COPD airways. FP inhibits markers of systemic inflammation, and it is not known whether Sal/FP has an advantage over FP alone. While long-acting beta2-agonists such as Sal can be recommended for treatment of moderate COPD, addition of inhaled steroid therapy such as FP should be considered in more severe disease.

serevent 25 mg 2017-10-01

Inhaled salmeterol improves lung function in stable patients with moderate-to-severe and poorly reversible COPD. The magnitude of improvement in FEV1 observed in this study is similar to that found in longer and larger studies on similar populations of patients. In those studies, that improvement was associated with a better buy serevent quality of life and less symptoms. Theophylline determined a smaller improvement in FEV1 with more unpleasant side effects that both doses of inhaled salmeterol, though there was no significant difference. It is concluded that salmeterol is an effective and well tolerated therapy, potentially preferable to theophylline, at least in the short-term management of stable COPD.

serevent dosage forms 2017-11-10

41 patients with COPD participated in a randomised, double blind, buy serevent double dummy, three way crossover study with 2 week washout periods between treatments. Lung function assessment included plethysmography and spirometry. The primary end point was post-dose specific airways conductance (sGaw) area under the curve (AUC(0-4 h)) on day 14.

serevent online 2016-05-23

A total of 1,068 patients, aged 18-70 yrs, with mild to moderate reversible airways disease, were recruited into a multicentre, double-blind, parallel group study in 76 European centres. Following a 2 week run-in period, the 692 patients fulfilling the entry criteria were randomized to 4 weeks treatment with either salmeterol 12 Pamelor Generic .5, 50 or 100 micrograms or placebo b.d. all given by pressurized inhaler, with assessments of symptoms and ventilatory lung function prior to dosing. All three doses of salmeterol had significant efficacy, manifested by increased morning and evening peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (by 35-59 l.min-1 and 11-38 l.min-1, respectively), by reduced diurnal variation in PEFR, and by reduced requirement for additional bronchodilator for symptomatic relief. These effects were dose-related. Daytime asthma symptoms and nocturnal awakenings were significantly reduced by salmeterol treatment, although these reductions were not dose-related. The incidence of adverse events was low. Pharmacologically predictable events (e.g. tremor) were more frequent after treatment with 100 micrograms b.d. than with placebo. On the basis of the efficacy and side-effect information, 50 micrograms b.d. is considered to be the optimum dose for the treatment of this group of asthmatics.

serevent maximum dose 2015-04-11

It has been previously established Amaryl Pills that montelukast provides protection against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) after a single dose. The present objective was to assess the onset and duration of this protective action in a trial that included both positive and negative controls.

serevent medication guide 2016-04-01

The aim of this study was to assess an influence of 4-week treatment with salmeterol on quality Lioresal Online of life in asthmatic patients. It was a double blind, placebo controlled study. On the first visit spirometer parameters and PC20H were measured. Within one week of observation all patients recorded scores of asthma symptoms and after that time 22 patients were randomised to the treatment with salmeterol or placebo. On the fourth visit 4-week salmeterol or placebo therapy was finished and all parameters were carried out as on the first visit. Symptoms severity recorded in diary cards was reduced after 4-week of salmeterol therapy. Four week treatment with salmeterol did not change PC20H. Treatment with salmeterol reduced severity of asthma symptoms and use of short-acting beta 2-agonists. The reduction of asthma severity and the use of bronchodilators was more pronounced in the group of patients treated with salmeterol than in the placebo group, but the differences were not significant.

serevent drug card 2017-05-18

The duration Cleocin Pill of bronchodilator action of the long-acting beta agonist salmeterol when administered in the evening has not been investigated. In this study we have investigated whether a single evening dose of salmeterol, administered from the combination salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) Accuhaler significantly attenuates the circadian rhythm in airway tone over 24 h.

serevent pediatric dose 2017-10-26

The mean admission PEFR was 26.1 +/- Buspar 5 Mg 11.7% of the predicted value and was not different between the two groups. MD was more frequent with SB (6/9 patients) than with SM (4/10). The severity of MD, expressed in l/min fall in PEFR, was higher in SB than in SM (106 +/- 25 vs 55 +/- 37; p < 0.05).

serevent buy online 2016-06-12

The aim of the present study was to assess the response of high-dose salmeterol/fluticasone combination (SFC) and low-dose SFC compared with regimens without inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) plus long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) in a large cohort with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma. Subjects were administered low-dose SFC (100/50 or 250/50 microg) or high-dose SFC (500/50 microg), and a control group received medications that could include ICS or LABA but not both. The present authors calculated unadjusted and propensity score-adjusted differences in outcomes consistent with components of asthma control, comparing high-dose and low-dose SFC cohorts with controls. The low-dose SFC cohort had higher asthma-related quality of life and fewer asthma control problems compared with controls. The high-dose SFC cohort had higher forced expiratory volume in one second but higher odds of having severe asthma compared with controls. The present results support the evidence that some asthmatics achieve better outcomes while receiving a low-dose salmeterol/fluticasone combination, but also suggest that those on a high-dose salmeterol/fluticasone combination fail to achieve significant improvement in many control-related health outcomes as compared with similar patients not receiving salmeterol/fluticasone combination. These findings suggest a limited value of high-dose salmeterol/fluticasone combination compared with the alternatives. While additional studies are needed, the present findings call for alternative therapeutic approaches in severe/difficult-to-treat asthma for those unable to attain asthma control with or without salmeterol/fluticasone combination. Depakote Loading Dose

generic serevent inhaler 2016-06-11

Measurements of bronchial caliber and airway sensitivity were performed 4 times during the day (at 9, 11, 16, and 22 hr) at basal conditions (baseline), following the first inhalation of 50 micrograms salmeterol (acute) and at the 21st, 90th and 150th day after the initiation of an uninterrupted long-term treatment with inhaled salmeterol (50 micrograms b.i.d., at 10 and 22 hr). In each period of the protective effect was assessed by computing the increase of the methacholine dose able to induce a 20% fall of the forced expiratory volume in the first second (PD20FEV1) in terms of doubling dose (DD), either against the respective 9-hour PD20FEV1 value (DD9hr) or against the corresponding baseline PD20FEV1 value (DDbaseline). After the first dose of salmeterol the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) increased significantly as compared with the 9-hour FEV1 and the corresponding baseline FEV1 at each observation time (p < 0.01). During regular treatment FEV1 was higher than baseline at the 21st and 90th day at each observation time (p < 0.05), whereas at the 150th day no significant FEV1 increments were observed at 9 hr and 22 hr. The acute protective effect exerted by salmeterol amounted to about 2 DD9hr (p < 0.05) and 2 DDbaseline (p < 0.05) at each observation time. At the 21st, 90th, and 150th day, however, no significant increase of DD9hr was found, although a mild decrease of airway sensitivity of 1 DDbaseline of magnitude was observed for all periods at each observation time. We conclude that in mild to moderate asthma salmeterol appears to rapidly Zofran Medication lose its ability to improve bronchial responsiveness while it is effective in maintaining a well-sustained bronchodilation despite a small degree of tachyphylaxis.

serevent diskus dosage 2017-03-03

In study A, a single inhalation of SFC and FBC produced a sustained bronchodilation at 16 hours with an adjusted mean increase in FEV1 from pre-dose of 0.22 L (95% CI 0.19, 0.35 L Tegretol Generic ) for SFC and 0.25 L (95% CI 0.21, 0.37 L) for FBC, which was significantly greater than placebo for both treatments (-0.05 L; p < 0.001). In study B, the slope of decline in FEV1 from 2-24 hours post dose was -16.0 ml/hr for SFC and -14.2 ml/hr for FBC. The weighted mean AUC over 24 hours was 0.21 Lxmin and 0.22 Lxmin and mean change from pre-dose FEV1 at 12 hours was 0.21 L for SFC and 0.20 L for FBC respectively

serevent generic 2015-08-30

To analyze the frequency of occurrence for an event of interest in a crossover design, we propose a semi-parametric approach. We develop two point estimators and four interval estimators in closed forms for the treatment effect under a random effects multiplicative risk model. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we evaluate these estimators and compare the four interval estimators with the classical interval estimator suggested elsewhere in a variety of situations. We note that the point estimator using the ratio of two arithmetic averages of mean frequencies under a Buspar Zoloft Alcohol multiplicative risk model can be comparable to the point estimator using the ratio of two geometric averages of mean frequencies. We note that as long as the number of patients per group is large, all the four interval estimators developed here can perform well. We also note that the classical interval estimator derived under the commonly assumed Poisson distribution for the frequency data can be conservative and lose precision if the Poisson distribution assumption is violated. We use a double-blind randomized crossover trial comparing salmeterol with a placebo in exacerbations of asthma to illustrate the practical use of these estimators.

serevent maximum dosage 2017-06-08

We enrolled 21 patients in this prospective study of the efficacy of an inhaled corticosteroid plus β2-agonist against persistent cough following pulmonary resection. After baseline evaluation of the severity of the postoperative persistent cough using a visual analog scale (VAS), treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid plus β2-agonist was initiated and continued for 2 weeks. At the end of the 2 weeks, the cough severity was evaluated again using a VAS.

serevent inhaler reviews 2015-05-12

Addition of fine lactose with a volume median diameter (VMD) of 7.9 microm to a SX-lactose carrier and carrier-free mixture resulted in significantly better dispersion (16.8% for 20% added fine lactose) than fractions with VMD of 3.0, 17.7 and 33.3 microm (less than 9.1% for 20% fine lactose). Using the carrier-free mixtures, particle sizing of the aerosol cloud using the Spraytec, coupled with the application of the Aerosizer using differing dispersion energies and SEMs of the samples, indicated that an open packed, agglomerate structure improved SX dispersion. The highest extent of SX dispersion occurred when SX and fine lactose were detached from the surface, usually in the form of loose agglomerates.

serevent inhaler generic 2015-04-06

Compared with SX-I, SX-II exhibited a lower enthalpy of fusion, a higher equilibrium solubility, a higher intrinsic dissolution rate, a lower enthalpy of solution (based on van't Hoff solubility plots), and a different FTIR spectrum (reflecting differences in intermolecular hydrogen bonding). Solubility ratio plot yielded a transition temperature (-99 degrees C) below the melting points of both polymorphs. MSX showed essentially the same crystal form as SX-I (confirmed by PXRD and FTIR), but a distinctly different thermal behaviour. Mild trituration of SX-I afforded a similar DSC profile to MSX while prolonged grinding of SX-I gave rise to an endotherm at -109 degrees C, corresponding to solid-solid transition of SX-I to SX-II. Surface analysis of MSX, SX-I, and SX-II by IGC revealed significant differences in surface free energy in terms of both dispersive (nonpolar) interactions and specific (polar) acid-base properties.

serevent inhaler dosage 2017-11-05

We compared the efficacy and safety of the long-acting anticholinergic tiotropium with salmeterol and placebo added to an ICS in B16-Arg/Arg patients with asthma that was not controlled by ICSs alone.

serevent mdi dosage 2015-02-14

Triple therapy using SFC250 + TIO was well tolerated and gave a greater improvement in bronchodilation compared with TIO and SFC250 alone in Japanese patients with COPD. There was improvement in few symptoms, but no mean change was seen in patient-reported outcomes measured by rescue medication use.