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To estimate changes in resource usage, hospitalization rates, and costs in actual practice in Sweden for schizophrenia patients after switching to long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal Consta).
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Thirteen patients with schizophrenia received injections of 25, 50, or 75 mg of long-acting risperidone every 2 wk. Brain D2 receptor occupancy was assessed with [11C]raclopride 2 wk after the last (fifth) injection (day 71) in seven subjects and 2 wk after the third injection (day 44) in one subject. Stable plasma concentrations were reached after the third injection and steady-state concentrations of the active moiety (risperidone + 9-hydroxyrisperidone) after the fourth injection. Steady-state plasma concentrations were maintained for 4-5 wk after the last injection and then declined rapidly. After injections of 25, 50 and 75 mg on day 44 or day 71, D2 receptor occupancy ranged from 25-48%, 59-83% and 62-72% respectively, while plasma active-moiety levels ranged from 4.4-8.8, 15.0-31.1 and 22.5-26.3 ng/ml respectively. The results indicate that brain D2 receptor occupancy at steady state after injections of long-acting risperidone was in the range found in patients effectively treated with 2-6 mg of oral risperidone.
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The database for the analyses comprised 22 studies including 16 open-label and six placebo-controlled studies. Based on the quality, sample size, and study design of studies prior to 2000, the database was then restricted to articles published after the year 2000. Effect sizes were calculated for each reported measure within a study to calculate an average effect size per study.
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Schizophrenia is a chronic disease characterized by psychotic symptoms as well as negative symptoms such as affective flattening, social withdrawal and occupational dysfunction. Anti-psychotic medications reduce the risk of psychotic exacerbations and hospitalization. Poor compliance is common among patients with schizophrenia. Long-acting medications have such advantages as stabilizing drug levels and improving compliance. Second generation anti-psychotic medications were found to be more effective and tolerable compared to first generation drugs. These medications cause less extra-pyramidal symptoms, and compliance with them was shown to be better. Until recently there were only first generation long-acting anti-psychotics in use. Recently a new second generation long-acting anti-psychotic drug was introduced in Israel. We present our experience with a first schizophrenic patient treated with long-acting Risperidone (Risperdal Consta). The patient was treated in the past with several first generation anti-psychotics and suffered severe extra-pyramidal symptoms. His compliance with treatment was poor. Under treatment with oral Risperidone a considerable improvement was recorded, however compliance remained poor. Under treatment with long-acting Risperidone, Intramuscularly 25 Mg every two week, both positive and negative symptoms improved substantially, as well as compliance with treatment. The results of this case study encourage us to believe that many more patients will benefit from the advantages of both a second-generation anti-psychotic and a long-acting preparation.
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Patients with psychoses/schizophrenia using atypical antipsychotics in tablet form perceive generic versions of their antipsychotics as being significantly different. This perceived difference lowers their intention of continuing to take the medication, thus possibly jeopardizing treatment outcome. Caution with the generic substitution of atypical antipsychotics in the pharmacy is therefore recommended. Generic substitution should take place only with the knowledge and agreement of the psychiatrist and the patient.
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A retrospective chart review within-subject mirror-image study using actual practice chart review data was used to compare annual hospital bed-days and annual hospital episodes for adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder before and after switching to Risperdal Consta in the period 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2005. Secondary endpoints included mean length of hospital stay per episode, the cost of hospitalization, and the cost of antipsychotic treatment. The base case analytical approach allocated all hospital episodes overlapping the switch date entirely to pre-switch treatment. In order to investigate the impact of inpatient care ongoing at the time of the switch, the change in bed-days per year was also estimated using an alternative analytical approach inspired by economic modelling.
Paliperidone, or 9-hydroxyrisperidone (Invega(®), Janssen, Antwerp, Belgium) is the major active metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone (Risperdal(®), Janssen). It possesses a similar, though not identical, receptor pharmacology to the parent molecule. There are additional differences in terms of its predominant renal metabolism, lower protein binding and decreased inhibition of P-glycoprotein leading to decreased potential for drug-drug interactions. Paliperidone is approved as an extended release (ER) tablet based on an osmotic-controlled release oral Push-Pull™ delivery system (Oral Osmotic System, OROS(®), Alza Corporation) for the treatment of schizophrenia. The ER formulation results in decreased fluctuations in plasma drug levels and allows for once-daily administration with initial tolerability that permits treatment initiation at a clinically effective dose without the need for titration. This achieves therapeutic levels rapidly and simplifies dosing regimens, leading to potentially better adherence and improved outcome. The present review focuses on the clinical implications of the pharmacology and formulation of paliperidone ER.
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Eleven olanzapine ODT examples and orodispersible risperidone strengths were evaluated in vitro for formulation composition, manufacturing method, disintegration and dissolution characteristics, and formulation differences in comparison with freeze dried Zydis(®) ODT. Automated dissolution test equipment captured ODT dissolution rates by measuring real-time release of active ingredient. A high-speed video camera was used to capture tablet disintegration times in warm simulated saliva.
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Generic atypical antipsychotics in tablet form differ in name, appearance and packaging from the innovator brand antipsychotics. These differences might cause anxiety, confusion and misperceptions in some ambulant patients with psychoses/schizophrenia, especially if the brand atypical antipsychotic is substituted in the pharmacy without the acknowledgement of the patient and treating psychiatrist. Furthermore, generic substitution of branded oral atypical antipsychotics in the pharmacy might cause nonadherence and potentially lead to suboptimal treatment outcomes if patients perceive the medicines to be clinically different.
Expected average costs/per patient treated were €5377 for PP-LAI, €6118 for RIS-LAI, and €6537 for OLZ-LAI. Respective QALYs were 0.817, 0.809, and 0.811; ER visits were 0.127, 0.134, and 0.141; hospitalizations were 0.252, 0.298, and 0.289. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses. PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI and OLZ-LAI in 90.2% and 92.1% of simulations, respectively. Results were insensitive to drug prices but sensitive to adherence and hospitalization rates.
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Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, usually necessitating lifelong treatment. Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved outcomes in schizophrenia, their clinical potential remains limited by patients' nonadherence to medication. Long-acting antipsychotics were developed in the 1960s to enhance treatment adherence and simplify the medication process. However, although conventional long-acting agents assure medication delivery, they are associated with similar side effects to their oral equivalents. The need for an agent combining the advantages of a long-acting formulation with those of an atypical antipsychotic was highlighted in 1997 by the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia. The first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta, Johnson & Johnson), has since been developed. This article discusses the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and suggests possibilities for how its role in clinical practice may change over the next 5 years.
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The two risperidone formulations are bioequivalent. The test formulation may be used for generic substitution where applicable.
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Polycaprolactones (PCL) were used as polymers to prepare microspheres. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of variable molecular weights: PCL-14000, PCL-45000, PCL-80000 or the blends of these polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order drug-releasing properties without the lag phase. In the present study, the sustained release risperidone microspheres were prepared by o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique and the yield was determined. Microspheres were evaluated for their drug content and in vitro drug release. Microspheres prepared using a blend of PCL-45000 and PCL-80000 at a ratio of 1:1 resulted in the release of the drug in a time frame of 90 days, demonstrated zero-order drug release without lag time and burst release. This formulation was considered optimized formulation. Optimized formulation was characterized for solid state of the drug using differential scanning calorimetry, surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy and in vivo drug release in rats.
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The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.
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According to bioequivalence tests suggested by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States (90% confidence interval for the difference of long transformed mean pharmacokinetic parameters), the formulations Risperdal and Spiron, cannot be considered interchangeable.
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Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivate and is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses in adults and children. Although there are a few reports in the literature regarding the pharmacokinetic characteristics of risperidone, insufficient data on its pharmacokinetic properties in a Chinese population are available.
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Six trials (1343 participants) of risperidone as monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment to lithium, or an anticonvulsant, were identified. Permitted doses were consistent with those recommended by the manufacturers of Haldol (haloperidol) and Risperdal (risperidone) for treatment of mania and trials involving haloperidol allowed antiparkinsonian treatment. Risperidone monotherapy was more effective than placebo in reducing manic symptoms, using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (weighted mean difference (WMD) -5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) -7.46 to -4.04, P<0.00001; 2 trials) and in leading to response, remission and sustained remission. Effect sizes for monotherapy and adjunctive treatment comparisons were similar. Low levels of baseline depression precluded reliable assessment of efficacy for treatment of depressive symptoms. Risperidone as monotherapy and as adjunctive treatment was more acceptable than placebo, with lower incidence of failure to complete treatment (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.82, P = 0.0003; 5 trials). Overall risperidone caused more weight gain, extrapyramidal disorder, sedation and increase in prolactin level than placebo. There was no evidence of a difference in efficacy between risperidone and haloperidol either as monotherapy or as adjunctive treatment. The acceptability of risperidone and haloperidol in incidence of failure to complete treatment was comparable. Overall risperidone caused more weight gain than haloperidol but less extrapyramidal disorder and comparable sedation.
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Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug with potent serotonin and moderate dopamine antagonistic properties. It possesses good bioavailability following oral administration. Risperidone is primarily converted by the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes to 9-hydroxyrisperidone, its active metabolite with equivalent potency to the parent compound.
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Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioural symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence and hyperglycaemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.
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The patient was referred for further medical investigation, as he was demonstrating signs suggestive of a psychiatric disorder. The patient was diagnosed with schizophrenia by a psychiatrist and was prescribed Risperdal.
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The primary objective was to determine clinicians' approaches to the use of RLAI in patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia by examining the prescribing patterns of antipsychotic and other psychotropic medications. Other objectives were to evaluate the overall safety of switching patients to RLAI from previous antipsychotic therapy and to determine patients', caregivers' and relatives' attitudes towards RLAI treatment.
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Solid SELF of risperidone with improved dissolution and digestion profile was successfully prepared using Neusilin® US2 as an adsorbent carrier.
Psychotic patients (n=88; initial BPRS=93+/-5) were treated for 6 months with clinically chosen oral medication and then converted to biweekly RLAI for the first 6 months (6-6 months matched mirror comparison) and then for another 18 months. Clinical status in the two treatment periods and in the 18 months of follow-up was compared with measures including BPRS improvement (primary outcome), CGI variants and SF-36 ratings.
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For over 40 years, antipsychotic drugs have been used as long-term maintenance treatment to control symptoms and reduce relapse rates in patients with schizophrenia. 'First-generation' oral agents such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine are associated with high levels of unwanted neurological effects and poor rates of patient adherence.1,2 Long-acting ('depot') injections of antipsychotics were developed to try to improve adherence. 'Second-generation' antipsychotic agents (also known as atypical antipsychotics) were introduced into clinical practice over 16 years ago. Although these agents have a lower propensity to cause extrapyramidal side effects, they are associated with a range of other unwanted effects (e.g. weight gain and its sequelae).1,3,4 Initially, second-generation agents were only available as orally administered medicines. Three long-acting injectable formulations of second-generation antipsychotics are now available in the UK: olanzapine embonate injection (ZypAdhera), paliperidone injection (Xeplion) and risperidone injection (Risperdal Consta). In this article we review the evidence for these agents and discuss the practical implications of their use.
As part of a long-term management strategy aimed at improving treatment adherence in schizophrenic patients, RLAI was prescribed to a wide spectrum of patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia during hospitalization and at the time of discharge from emergency/acute care facilities. RLAI was well tolerated in the study population and the overall impression of patients, primary caregivers and relatives to RLAI therapy was positive.
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A single-dose, randomized, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in 23 healthy Thai male volunteers. Blood samples were collected predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h following an oral administration of 2 mg risperidone. The plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Test and Reference were obtained by noncompartmental analysis.
To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market.