Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ropinirole.
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication.
Generic Requip is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, poor muscle control.
Requip is also known as Ropinirole, Ropidon, Adartrel, Ropark.
Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Generic Requip has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease.
Generic name of Generic Requip is Ropinirole.
Brand names of Generic Requip are Requip, Requip XL.
Take Generic Requip orally.
Take Generic Requip with or without food.
The dose and timing of Generic Requip in treating Parkinson's disease is different from the dose and timing in treating RLS.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Requip suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Requip and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Requip overdosage: nausea, vomiting, weakness, fainting, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, muscle twitching, tingly feeling, chest pain.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Requip are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Requip if you are allergic to Generic Requip components.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you have heart disease, high or low blood pressure, mental illness or compulsive behaviors, kidney or liver disease.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are taking levodopa, ciprofloxacin (Cipro), fluvoxamine (Luvox), metoclopramide (Reglan), omeprazole (Prilosec); medication used to treat nausea and vomiting or mental illness, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), mesoridazine (Serentil), perphenazine (Trilafon), thioridazine (Mellaril), promazine (Sparine), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), thiothixene (Navane), or haloperidol (Haldol); estrogen such as Premarin, Prempro, Estratest, Ogen, Estraderm, Climara, Vivelle, estradiol and others.
Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position. Get up slowly and steady yourself to prevent a fall.
Avoid alcohol and smoking.
Avoid machine driving.
It can be dangerous to stop Generic Requip taking suddenly.
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The risk of aberrant sexual behaviour such as hypersexuality, exhibitionism, or pederasty may be underestimated in Parkinson's disease and its therapy with high-dosage L-dopa or dopamine agonists. We describe two legal cases which are representative of the forensic assessment of these side effects. The first case brought to court was a 45-year-old man suffering for 20 years from Parkinson's disease who developed hypersexuality and exhibitionism under high-dose therapy with ropinirol. The second patient, a 57-year-old man with an 11-year history of Parkinson's disease, developed increased libido and pederasty under therapy with L-dopa and bromocriptine. We discuss the present literature concerning hypersexuality and sexually deviant behaviour in Parkinson's disease and dopaminergic therapy in the German legal context. Doctors treating Parkinson patients should be aware of increased sexual impulses or reduced behavioural control and ask specifically about them during anamnesis, and counteractive therapeutic strategies should be considered to prevent the occurrence of illegal sexually aberrant behavioural disorders.
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Long-term levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease is complicated by the development of motor fluctuations and abnormal involuntary movements. One approach is to add a dopamine agonist at this stage of the disease to reduce the time the patient spends immobile or off and to reduce the dose of levodopa in the hope of reducing such problems in the future.
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Subjects receiving concomitant l-dopa received once-daily ropinirole PR 4, 8, 12, 16 or 24 mg, or placebo, up-titrated for 13 weeks, maintained for 4 weeks.
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The drug MDMA, commonly known as ecstasy, produces a specific and distinct open hearted mental state, which led to the creation of a new pharmacological class, "entactogens". Extensive literature on its mechanisms of action has come to characterize MDMA as a "messy" drug with multiple mechanisms, but the consensus is that the distinctive entactogenic effects arise from the release of neurotransmitters, primarily serotonin. I propose an alternative hypothesis: The entactogenic mental state is due to the simultaneous direct activation of imidazoline-1 (I1) and serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptors by MDMA. This hypothesis emerges from "mental organ" theory, which embodies many hypotheses, the most relevant of which are: "Mental organs" are populations of neurons that all express their defining metabotropic receptor, and each mental organ plays a distinct role in the mind, a role shaped by evolution as mental organs evolve by duplication and divergence. Mental organs are the mechanism by which evolution sculpts the mind. Mental organs can be in or out of consciousness. In order for a mental organ to enter consciousness, three things must happen: The mental organ must be activated directly at its defining receptor. 5-HT2 must be simultaneously activated. One of the functions of activated 5-HT2 is to load other simultaneously activated mental organs fully into consciousness. In some cases THC must be introduced to remove long-term blocks mediated by the cannabinoid system. I propose the "primer/probe" method to test these hypotheses. A "primer" is a drug that selectively activates 5-HT2 (e.g. DOB or MEM) or serotonin-1 (5-HT1) and 5-HT2 (e.g. DOET or 2C-B-fly). A "probe" is a drug that activates a receptor whose corresponding mental organ we wish to load into consciousness in order to understand its role in the mind. The mental organ is loaded into consciousness when the primer and probe are taken together, but not when taken separately. For example, the blood pressure medications rilmenidine and moxonidine are selective for imidazoline-1 and can be used to test the hypothesis that the entactogenic mental effects of MDMA are due to loading the imidazoline-1 mental organ into consciousness. The primer/probe method is not limited to testing the specific hypothesis about MDMA and imidazoline, but is a general method for studying the role of mental organs in the mind. For example, the role of dopamine mental organs can be studied by using Parkinson's drugs such as ropinirole or pramipexole as probes.
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To assess safety, tolerability, and efficacy outcomes of an overnight switch from oral ropinirole, pramipexole, or cabergoline to rotigotine, a dopaminergic agonist with transdermal delivery over 24 hours in subjects with established Parkinson disease (PD).
Ropinirole flux decreased dramatically in the presence of competing ions. This effect was observed even when the molar fraction of the two competing cations was kept constant. Anodal flux of mannitol decreased with drug concentration, indicating a possible alteration of the skin permselectivity. In the absence of competing co-ions, ropinirole transport number reached a maximum value (8-13%). In these conditions, the main factor controlling drug delivery was the intensity of current applied.
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Positron-emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers have been developed which may be considered surrogate markers for remaining dopaminergic neurons. In a randomised controlled trial in patients with early Parkinson's disease, the Parkinson Study Group used 123I-beta-CIT SPECT (JAMA 2002; 287: 1653-61). Those patients given pramipexole had significantly reduced loss of striatal uptake at 46 months compared with those given levodopa (16.0% vs 25.5%). In a similar trial, Alan Whone and colleagues used 18F-DOPA PET (Neurology 2002; 58 [suppl 3]: A82-83). Patients given ropinirole had significantly reduced loss of striatal uptake at 24 months compared with those given levodopa (13% vs 20%). These studies suggest that agonist monotherapy may be neuroprotective and/or that levodopa is toxic. This work has been criticised as the SPECT results may have resulted from a differential effect of the agonist and levodopa on the regulation of the dopamine transporter, thereby influencing the imaging outcome measure. Other criticisms include insufficient data on the use of the potential neuroprotectant selegiline and patients on pramipexole in the SPECT study appear to have been clinically slow progressors. Single clinical trials with each of the four modern agonists compared with levodopa show that as monotherapy the agonists delay the onset of involuntary movements, although at the expense of poorer treatment of motor impairments and disability and more dopaminergic adverse events. The only health-related quality of life data show no difference between pramipexole and levodopa after 4 years. No information on health-economics measures is available but agonists cost two to three times as much as levodopa. WHERE NEXT? Young patients should be treated with agonist monotherapy since the trials included predominantly younger patients who have a higher incidence of motor complications. Those with significant co-morbidity, dementia, or a short life-expectancy should be treated with the lowest dose of levodopa required to maintain motor function. For the vast majority though, no clear guidance can be given. Further large-scale pragmatic trials in large numbers of patients over prolonged periods are urgently required.
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At doses achieved in this trial, increased dopaminergic tone via ropinirole+PT was generally well tolerated but did not show any improvement over and above the effects of PT alone.
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Different families of dopaminergic agents have allowed to increase the availability of dopamine within the central nervous system by different mechanisms of action. Each drug family has specific efficacious properties, as well as a different profile of adverse events. The knowledge in detail of these specificities is mandatory to avoid severe systemic or neuropsychiatric complications. Despite these limitations, the development of new drugs within the past 20 years has prolonged survival in Parkinson's disease, increasing the time with preserved daily day functionality compared with the levodopa era, when this drug was the only dopaminergic drug available. The correct combination of dopaminergic drugs with different mechanisms of action allows the management of Parkinson's disease motor symptoms within safety dose ranges, and up to day, this appears as the best algorithm to maintain functionality for longer periods of time.
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Rotigotine was well tolerated at doses up to 16 mg/24 h and showed similar efficacy to ropinirole except that the application site reaction was much higher in the rotigotine group.
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Although task-specific motor impairment could explain the symptoms of these patients, it is noteworthy that loss of visual feedback was central to both of these presentations. Given that early kinaesthetic deficits are known to be present in patients with PD, we postulate that removing visual feedback can expose such deficits in early PD, even when not detectable on routine examination. These two patients suggest that sensorimotor control can be impaired early in PD and may be the first symptom. Once the visual compensatory mechanism is not available, it becomes difficult or impossible to perform complex hand movements.
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Simple and reproducible spectrophotometric methods have been developed for determination of dopaminergic drugs used for Parkinson's disease, cabergoline (CAB) and ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP), in pharmaceutical preparations. The methods are based on the reactions between the studied drug substances and ion-pair agents [methyl orange (MO), bromocresol green (BCG) and bromophenol blue (BPB)] producing yellow colored ion-pair complexes in acidic buffers, after extracting in dichloromethane, which are spectrophotometrically determined at the appropriate wavelength of ion-pair complexes. Beer's law was obeyed within the concentration range from 1.0 to 35 microg ml(-1). The developed methods were applied successfully for the determination of these drugs in tablets.
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Dopamine agonists widely used for the management of PD significantly increase the risk of sudden uncontrollable somnolence in a dose-related manner. Greater attention to this potentially serious adverse effect will be necessary to improve the safety of use of this important category of PD drugs.
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Following the line of our earlier investigations, we made an open pilot study using a polysomnograph to objectively show the efficacy of Ropinirole in the treatment of chronic insomnia secondary to the restless legs syndrome (RLS).
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The aims of the study were to report the case of a male patient who developed a first episode of Pisa syndrome (PS) to the right side and a second episode to the left side and to discuss the hypothesis that states that denervation is one of the main mechanisms implicated in the development of PS.
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Fibrotic valvular heart disease (VHD) has been reported in association with ergot dopamine agonists (DAs), but the current database is insufficient regarding clinical relevance and comparison to data on non-ergot DAs. We evaluated the effects of four DAs (pergolide, cabergoline, ropinirole, pramipexole) on morphology and function of heart valves in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of DA-induced VHD. A total of 85 patients treated with ergot or non-ergot DAs and 38 age-matched controls were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. Valvular pathology was assessed by established criteria of valvular regurgitation and a VHD scoring system. Both grading systems revealed increased frequency of VHD in ergot DA patients compared to both non-ergot DA patients and controls with 22% of ergot DA patients having moderate VHD versus 3% of non-ergot DA patients and none of controls (P = 0.001). We did not find correlations of echocardiographic findings with duration/cumulative dose of treatment, age, or vascular risk factors. Our data suggest that ergot DAs are associated with higher prevalence of VHD compared to non-ergot DAs and controls. Standard echocardiography seems sufficient to detect VHD in PD patients treated with DAs.
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In our effort to develop multifunctional drugs against Parkinson's disease, a structure-activity-relationship study was carried out based on our hybrid molecular template targeting D2/D3 receptors. Competitive binding with [(3)H]spiroperidol was used to evaluate affinity (K(i)) of test compounds. Functional activity of selected compounds in stimulating [(35)S]GTPγS binding was assessed in CHO cells expressing either human D2 or D3 receptors. Our results demonstrated development of highly selective compounds for D3 receptor (for (-)-40K(i), D3 = 1.84 nM, D2/D3 = 583.2; for (-)-45K(i), D3 = 1.09 nM, D2/D3 = 827.5). Functional data identified (-)-40 (EC(50), D2 = 114 nM, D3 = 0.26 nM, D2/D3 = 438) as one of the highest D3 selective agonists known to date. In addition, high affinity, nonselective D3 agonist (-)-19 (EC(50), D2 = 2.96 nM and D3 = 1.26 nM) was also developed. Lead compounds with antioxidant activity were evaluated using an in vivo PD animal model.
A total of 1679 patients aged 18-79 years with primary moderate-to-severe RLS who received ropinirole (835 patients) or placebo (844 patients).
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and objectives Ropinirole is a non-ergoline, selective dopamine D(2) agonist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ropinirole as an adjunct to levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) complicated by motor fluctuations.
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65 patients with RLS and PLMS.
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The objective of the study was to model this phenomenon using a rodent slot machine task (rSMT) in order to investigate the neurobiological basis underlying such behavioural changes.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a circadian disorder of sensory-motor integration that may be related to genetically determined dysregulation of iron transport across the blood-brain barrier. Dopamine agonists (DAs) have been considered the first-line therapy, but with the growing appreciation of problems associated with long-term treatment, particularly augmentation and impulse control disorder, alpha-2-delta drugs, such as gabapentin, are now considered the first line of treatment in patients with troublesome RLS. Opioids can be considered as an alternative therapy, particularly in patients with DA-related augmentation. In more severe cases, a combination therapy may be required. Intravenous iron therapy may be considered on those patients with refractory RLS.
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Only in the last three decades, the restless legs syndrome (RLS) has been examined in randomized controlled trials. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to perform an evidence-based review of the medical literature on treatment modalities used to manage patients with RLS. The task force performed a search of the published literature using electronic databases. The therapeutic efficacy of each drug was classified as being either efficacious, likely efficacious, investigational, nonefficacious, or lacking sufficient evidence to classify. Implications for clinical practice were generated based on the levels of evidence and particular features of each modality, such as adverse events. All studies were classed according to three levels of evidence. All Level-I trials were included in the efficacy tables; if no Level-I trials were available then Level-II trials were included or, in the absence of Level-II trials, Level-III studies or case series were included. Only studies published in print or online before December 31, 2006 were included. All studies published after 1996, which attempted to assess RLS augmentation, were reviewed in a separate section. The following drugs are considered efficacious for the treatment of RLS: levodopa, ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, pergolide, and gabapentin. Drugs considered likely efficacious are rotigotine, bromocriptine, oxycodone, carbamazepine, valproic acid, and clonidine. Drugs that are considered investigational are dihydroergocriptine, lisuride, methadone, tramadol, clonazepam, zolpidem, amantadine, and topiramate. Magnesium, folic acid, and exercise are also considered to be investigational. Sumanirole is nonefficacious. Intravenous iron dextran is likely efficacious for the treatment of RLS secondary to end-stage renal disease and investigational in RLS subjects with normal renal function. The efficacy of oral iron is considered investigational; however, its efficacy appears to depend on the iron status of subjects. Cabergoline and pergolide (and possibly lisuride) require special monitoring due to fibrotic complications including cardiac valvulopathy. Special monitoring is required for several other medications based on clinical concerns: opioids (including, but not limited to, oxycodone, methadone and tramadol), due to possible addiction and respiratory depression, and some anticonvulsants (particularly, carbamazepine and valproic acid), due to systemic toxicities.
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To describe how subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and reduction in dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) allowed rapid resolution of dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) with severe behavioral disorder in a patient with late stage Parkinson disease (PD).
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To examine the economic impact of reducing dyskinesias using ropinirole instead of levodopa plus benserazide in PD was examined. The research question addressed was: is the added cost of ropinirole offset by savings due to avoided cases of dyskinesia?
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Ropinirole was effective and well tolerated as monotherapy for 12 months in patients with early Parkinson disease.
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