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Reglan (Metoclopramide)

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Generic Reglan is used for short term treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in certain patients who do not respond to other therapy. It is used to treat symptoms of a certain digestive problem in diabetic patients (diabetic gastroparesis).

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Also known as:  Metoclopramide.


Generic Reglan is a gastrointestinal stimulant and anti-nauseant. It works by increasing the movement of the stomach and intestines to help move food and acid out of the stomach more quickly. It also works in certain areas in the brain to decrease nausea.

Generic name of Generic Reglan is Metoclopramide.

Reglan is also known as Metoclopramide, Maxolon, Degan, Maxeran, Primperan, Pylomid.

Brand name of Generic Reglan is Reglan.


Take Generic Reglan by mouth 30 minutes before meals unless.

It may take several days to weeks for Generic Reglan to work.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Reglan suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Reglan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Reglan if you are allergic to Generic Reglan components.

Be careful with Generic Reglan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Do not take Generic Reglan if you have seizures (e.g., epilepsy), bleeding, blockage, or perforation in your stomach or intestines, or tumors on your adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma).

Do not take Generic Reglan if you are taking cabergoline or pergolide, medicines, such as phenothiazines (e.g., chlorpromazine), that may cause extrapyramidal reactions (abnormal, involuntary muscle movements of the head, neck, or limbs).

Be careful with Generic Reglan usage in case of having depression, asthma, heart failure, high blood pressure, diabetes, Parkinson disease, blood problems (eg, porphyria), kidney problems, or low levels of an enzyme called methemoglobin reductase.

Be careful with Generic Reglan usage in case of taking Cisapride or droperidol because side effects, such as muscle rigidity, increased heart rate, and altered mental abilities, may occur; Anticholinergic medicine (eg, hyoscyamine), certain antihistamines (eg, diphenhydramine), or narcotic pain medicines (eg, codeine) because they may decrease Reglan 's effectiveness; Acetaminophen, alcohol, levodopa, phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), sedatives (eg, zolpidem), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (eg, fluoxetine), succinylcholine, or tetracycline because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Reglan; Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (eg, phenelzine) because the risk of serious side effects (eg, high blood pressure, seizures) may be increased; Cabergoline, digoxin, or pergolide because their effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Reglan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Generic Reglan suddenly.

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A systematic literature search using PubMed from January 01, 2009 through January 06, 2015 with a restriction to papers in English was conducted.

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Nineteen Chinese patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced cancer were studied for chemotherapy-induced acute nausea and vomiting. The chemotherapy consisted of cisplatinum 100 mg/m2 i.v. infusion over 4 h on day 1 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 1000 mg/m2 120-h continuous infusion from day 2 to day 6, repeated every 3 weeks. At the first course of chemotherapy the patients were randomized to receive either low-dose metoclopramide and chlorpromazine or high-dose metoclopramide, and then crossed over for the second course. In the high-dose metoclopramide group there was a suggestion of an earlier onset of emesis, with slightly more frequent retching and vomiting and less food consumed. However, the duration of emesis was shorter in the high-dose group. These differences were not statistically significant. There were no major side effects. Mild salutary drowsiness was noticed in patients receiving low-dose metoclopramide and chlorpromazine. This trial suggests that, in the dosage, route and schedule described, high-dose metoclopramide is no more effective than low-dose metoclopramide together with chlorpromazine in preventing cisplatinum-induced nausea and vomiting. The low-dose scheme is more economic and suitable for patients with advanced cancer.

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Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, is a common cause of chronic nausea and vomiting as seen in a gastroenterology practice. Diabetic, postsurgical, and idiopathic causes remain the three most common forms of gastroparesis. In addition to nausea and vomiting, symptoms of gastroparesis may include early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Physiologic changes that may explain symptoms in patients with gastroparesis, in addition to delayed gastric emptying, include impaired fundic accommodation, antral hypomotility, gastric dysrhythmias, pylorospasm, and perhaps visceral hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of gastroparesis is best determined using a radioisotope-labeled solid meal with scintigraphic imaging for at least 2 hours, and preferably 4 hours, postprandially. Most commonly, a 99mTc sulfur colloid-labeled egg sandwich with imaging at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours is used. Extension of the gastric emptying test to 4 hours improves the accuracy of the test, but unfortunately, this is not commonly performed at many centers. Emptying of liquids remains normal until the late stages of gastroparesis and is less useful. The aims of treatment should be to control symptoms and maintain adequate nutrition and hydration. Patients should be advised to eat small meals and to limit their intake of fat and fiber. Additional dietary recommendations may include increasing caloric intake in the form of liquids. For diabetic patients, control of blood glucose levels is important, as symptom exacerbation is frequently associated with poor glycemic control. Specific treatment often begins with metoclopramide, 10 mg, up to four times daily, after a discussion of possible side effects with the patient. An antiemetic agent, such as prochlorperazine, 5 to 10 mg orally or 25 mg by suppository, can be added on an as-needed basis every 4 to 6 hours to control nausea. If these antiemetic medications are not effective, or if side effects develop, orally dissolving ondansetron, 8 mg every 8 to 12 hours, can be tried on an as-needed basis. If this regimen is unsuccessful, then alternative prokinetic agents--erythromycin, 125 mg, or tegaserod, 6 mg, prior to meals--can be tried. For cases refractory to these treatments, referral to a center with US Food and Drug Administration permission to use domperidone should be considered. Alternatively, symptom modulators such as low-dose tricyclic antidepressants can be tried to reduce symptoms, but these do not improve gastric emptying. In patients for whom all medical therapy fails, other options that are tried at experienced centers include the injection of botulinum toxin into the pylorus, placement of a feeding jejunostomy, and/or placement of a gastric electrical stimulator.

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Drugs for symptom control in the terminal phase of palliative patients may be used in pump systems.

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Metoclopramide exposure, especially in high doses may alter endometrial receptivity by effecting integrin expression on decidual tissue which can decrease pregnancy rates. This drug should only be recommended for use during pregnancy when benefit outweighs the risk.

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One hundred patients scheduled for minor surgery were given either saline, metoclopramide 0.1 or 0.2, or prochlorperazine 0.1 or 0.2 before induction of anaesthesia with a fixed rate infusion of propofol. Neither metoclopramide nor prochlorperazine reduced the induction dose of propofol. The possibility that these agents increased the induction dose could not be excluded.

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The differences in pain and nausea scores for the metoclopramide + placebos group versus the other three groups were tested using exact nonparametric (Mann-Whitney) statistical procedures. The metoclopramide + placebos group had significantly better relief of pain compared with the placebos + ibuprofen and placebos + placebos groups. The metoclopramide + placebos group had significantly better relief of nausea than the ibuprofen + placebos group; nausea scores for the placebos + placebos group could not be analyzed due to excessive variance from the other groups at baseline. The differences between the metoclopramide + placebos group and the metoclopramide + ibuprofen group were not statistically significant with regard to either pain or nausea.

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In order to elucidate the effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying and the sites of their action in the stomach, changes in gastric emptying after administration of these drugs were determined in healthy adults by means of radioisotopic technique, by setting 3 regions of interest, i.e., the whole stomach, the proximal area and the antral area. Following results were obtained. 1. With metoclopramide administration, no particular movement of gastric contents was found for several minutes after ingestion. Once the movement of emptying was initiated, the gastric contents were transferred more efficiently from the proximal area to the antral area in comparison with the corresponding movement observed in persons given no metoclopramide. On the other hand, the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum exceeded the inflow from the proximal area to the antral area. 2. With domperidon administration, transfer of gastric contents was markedly increased, but the outflow from the antral area did not exceed the inflow. Domperidone caused overall facilitation of gastric emptying, mainly by enhancing the emptying movement in the proximal area. 3. With aclatonium napadisilate administration, marked transfer of the gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was noted, and the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum was equal to the inflow within 10 min, then exceeded the inflow. 4. With trimebutine maleate administration, transfer of gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was conspicuous, and the outflow from the antral area exceeded the increased inflow, resulting in overall faciliation of gastric emptying.

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Two commercially available tests, an antigen-capture ELISA for use on fecal samples, and a peroral nylon string test for use in dogs, were compared with a zinc sulfate fecal concentration technique (ZSCT) for detection of giardiasis in dogs. Of 77 dogs and 164 fecal samples (from these dogs), 33 and 52, respectively were found to be Giardia-positive on the basis of results of the ZSCT. The ELISA gave false-negative results for 10 and 14% of ZSCT-positive dogs and fecal samples, respectively, and false-positive results (relative to the ZSCT test results) in 13 and 10% of ZSCT-positive dogs and fecal samples, respectively. Of the 18 string-tested dogs, 14 were positive by results of the ZSCT. Of the 4 dogs that were Giardia-negative by ZSCT, 2 were Giardia-positive by ELISA. Dogs were sedated and given water and metoclopramide to aid passage into the duodenum of the capsule containing a nylon string. Of the 21 string tests performed on the 18 dogs, only 5 strings reached the duodenum, and 0 of the 5 yielded positive results for Giardia sp. Because the string broke in 1 dog (leaving most in the gastrointestinal tract and, therefore, producing a risk of string foreign body) further string tests were not done.

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This new technology allowed clear image interpretation, and the real-time viewer was useful for detecting gastric transit abnormalities and determining a need for metoclopramide administration in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy.

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Prospective, double blind, randomised clinical study comparing two rates of intravenous infusion of metoclopramide over a period of six months at a tertiary university hospital ED.

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Peripheral venous plasma free and sulfoconjugated catecholamines, dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) were measured in normal men (n = 6-7) during conditions significantly altering adrenal and sympathoadrenal function (influence of corticotropin, furosemide, hypoglycaemia and clonidine), after dopamine receptor blockade with metoclopramide and after meals. Median (range) basal plasma free DA concentration was 0.13 (0-0.72) nmol/l and median (range) basal plasma conjugated DA concentration was 15.16 (6.34-45.03) nmol/l. Meals increased plasma sulfoconjugated DA markedly from a median value of 14.97 nmol/l during fasting experiments to a median value of 33.01 nmol/l (p less than 0.05). Plasma free DA did not change in the meal experiments. No changes in plasma DA were observed after administration of corticotropin, furosemide, clonidine, and metoclopramide or during hypoglycaemia. The results suggest that plasma sulfoconjugated DA is derived at least in part from the gastrointestinal tract and not from the sympathoadrenomedullary system as hitherto proposed.

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We administered a mixture of uracil and tegafur (UFT)/cisplatin (CDDP) chemotherapy in 28 patients with scirrhous gastric cancer. In the regimen, UFT was orally administered at a dose of 200 mg/m2 twice a day. The CDDP was administered at a dose of 90 mg/m2 by 24-hour continuous infusion every 4 weeks. As a result, antitumor effects for primary gastric foci were achieved in 14 of the 28 patients (50%). Ascites from peritoneal dissemination disappeared completely in eight of 13 patients (62%). Total gastrectomy was performed in ten patients after 2 to 3 courses of chemotherapy. Histological response grades assessed on the resected specimen were Grade 2 in four, Grade 1b in three, Grade 1a in one and Grade 0 in two patients. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is feasible against scirrhous gastric cancer and a subsequent prospective randomized trial should be prepared to clarify the survival benefit of the treatment.

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Phenoxazine (PNZ), 2-chlorophenoxazine (CPN) and 2-trifluoromethylphenoxazine (TPN) were used as new class of spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of nanoamounts of nitrite in presence of cisapride (CSP) and metaclopramide (MCP) as new electrophilic coupling reagents. The methods were based on the oxidation of CSP or MCP by nitrite in hydrochloric acid medium and coupling with PNZ, CPN or TPN to yield red color derivatives which were stable for about 3h and having an absorbance maximum in the range 520-530 nm. Beer's law is obeyed for nitrite in the concentration range 0.08-0.80 and 0.13-1.60 microg ml(-1) for phenoxazine-cisapride and phenoxazine-metaclopramide, respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other important analytical parameters were established to enhance the sensitivity of these methods. Interference due to various non-target ions was also investigated. The methods were applied to the analysis of nitrite in environmental samples. The performance of proposed methods were evaluated by Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test indicated the significance of proposed methods over the reference spectrophotometric method (Association of Official Analytical Communities (AOAC) method for the determination of nitrite in water samples).

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Twenty patients with moderate or severe pain of suspected myocardial infarction received nalbuphine 50 mg intravenously as analgesia in 2 divided doses of 30 mg and 20 mg with 10 mg metoclopramide and were observed for 2 hours. Eighteen patients received nalbuphine outside hospital. The median time from onset of pain to treatment was 73 minutes. Within 30 minutes of the drug's administration 90% of all patients reported satisfactory pain relief (grade 0 or 1). For those with definite myocardial infarction 83% reported satisfactory pain relief at 30 minutes. There were no significant adverse cardiorespiratory effects observed or serious side-effects reported. Nalbuphine is effective and safe when used in this higher dose, although no additional analgesic effect was demonstrated when compared with lower established doses used early in acute myocardial infarction.

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Poor production of breast milk is the most frequent cause of breast lactation failure. Often, physician prescribe medications or other substances to solve this problem. The use of galactogogues should be limited to those situations in which reduced milk production from treatable causes has been excluded. One of the most frequent indication for the use of galactogogues is the diminution of milk production in mothers using indirect lactation, particularly in the case of preterm birth. The objective of this review is to analyze to the literature relating to the principal drugs used as galactogogues (metoclopramide, domperidone, chlorpromazine, sulpiride, oxytocin, growth hormone, thyrotrophin releasing hormone, medroxyprogesterone). Have been also analyzed galactogogues based on herbs and other natural substances (fenugreek, galega and milk thistle). We have evaluated their mechanism of action, transfer to maternal milk, effectiveness and potential side effects for mother and infant, suggested doses for galactogogic effect, and recommendation for breastfeeding.

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Pretreatment with small, per se ineffective doses of the selective D1 antagonist SCH 23390 inhibited hyperactivity induced by cocaine. On the other hand, the classic neuroleptic haloperidol and the selective D2 antagonist metoclopramide prevented the stimulatory effects of cocaine on locomotion only at hypokinetic doses, while the atypical neuroleptic (-)-sulpiride, a selective D2 antagonist, did not produce significant effects when administered at the hypokinetic dose of 12 mg/kg. Finally, at low doses (-)-sulpiride dose-dependently potentiated the locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine, an effect that is not shared either with haloperidol or with metoclopramide. These results are discussed in terms of different roles of DA receptor subtypes in the modulation of the stimulant effects of cocaine on locomotion.

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1. The pharmacological properties of RS 23597-190 (3-(piperdine-1-yl)-propyl-4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy benzoate hydrochloride) have been studied in vitro and in vivo. 2. RS 23597-190 competitively antagonized 5-HT4 receptor-mediated relaxations of rat, carbachol precontracted oesophageal muscularis mucosae, (pA2 = 7.8 +/- 0.1; Schild slope = 1.2 +/- 0.2). Affinity estimates (-log KB) at 5-HT4 receptors using either renzapride or SC-53116 as agonists yielded a -log KB value of 8.0 +/- 0.01. In contrast, RS 23597-190 failed to antagonize contractile responses to 5-HT of guinea-pig ileal 5-HT3 receptors, even at concentrations up to 10 microM. 3. Increases in short-circuit current, induced by 5-HT, were studied in guinea-pig ileal mucosal sheets. Concentration-response curves to 5-HT were biphasic, with the high potency phase to 5-HT inhibited by RS 23597-190 and mimicked by 5-methoxytryptamine. The -log KB value for RS 23597-190 at the high potency phase was 7.3 confirming that 5-HT4 receptors mediated the high potency phase. 4. In rat isolated vagus nerve, 5-HT elicited a slow, maintained depolarization at low concentrations and a rapid, transient depolarization at higher concentrations. The high potency, slow depolarizing phase to 5-HT was abolished selectively in the presence of 1 microM RS 23597-190 and the low potency phase was abolished selectively in the presence of 1 microM ondansetron. These data confirm that 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 receptors mediated slow and fast depolarization responses, respectively. 5. At 5-HT3 binding sites in membranes from NG 108-15 cells, labelled by [3H]-quipazine, RS 23597-190 exhibited an apparent affinity (- log Ki) of 5.7 +/- 0.1. At 5-HT3 receptors in membranes from rat cerebral cortex, labelled by [3H]-RS 42358-197, the apparent affinity (- log Ki) of RS 23597-190 was also 5.7 +/- 0.1. In both studies, Hill coefficients were not significantly different from unity. At 5-HT1A, 5-HT2,muscarinic M1, M2, M3, M4 and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, RS 23597-190 exhibited low apparent affinities, with all - log Ki values less than 5.5.6. Intravenous infusion of RS 23597-190 in the conscious, restrained rat antagonized the von Bezold Jarisch reflex induced by 2-methyl 5-HT, with an ID50 of 300 microg kg-1 min-1, i.v. In the anaesthetized,bilaterally vagotomized micropig, RS 23597-190 (6 mg kg-1, i.v.) antagonized 5-HT-induced tachycardia with a half-life of 77 (63-99) min. Transient arrhythmic effects were noted after administration of the compound.7. In conclusion, RS 23597-190 acts as a high affinity, selective competitive antagonist at 5-HT4 receptors. Thus, the compound appears to be a useful tool for 5-HT4 receptor identification in vitro. In vivo, the compound is rapidly metabolized in pigs such that 5-HT4 blockade is not maintained. However,in the rat, when given by infusion, RS 23597-190 antagonizes 5-HT3 mediated responses, at doses consistent with a low affinity 5-HT3 receptor. These data suggest that, under appropriate experimental conditions, RS 23597-190 may also be used in vivo to characterize further 5-HT4 receptor function.

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The patient was a 67-year-old male. A diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made both by transbronchial lung biopsy and by scalene node biopsy. The findings of his chest roentgenogram were categorized as the group II. There were no symptoms during follow-up period of one year at the out-patient clinic with no medication. The chest X-ray findings of the patient were slowly progressive. Intractable hiccup developed one year after his first visit to the hospital. With administration of prednisolone, serum angiotensin converting enzyme level decreased promptly, and the incidence of the hiccup attack decreased. As the dose of prednisolone was tapered, the hiccup recurred. All the drugs used for hiccup including quinidine sulfate and metoclopramide was not effective. A thoracic CT revealed slight enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. A brain CT and a brain MRI demonstrated no abnormalities. Acetazolamide, which induces acidosis in brain extra-cellular fluid, worsened the symptoms. As prednisolone was given again, infiltrates on the chest roentgenogram began to resolve and the incidence of hiccup decreased. We concluded that the long-standing hiccup observed in this patient may be brought by the lesion in central nervous system due to sarcoidosis.

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Nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms which are experienced commonly during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia and can also occur in the period following the procedure. 

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The completion rate was significantly higher in the real-time group as compared with that in the conventional group (72.5 vs. 90.0%). Our protocol yielded a significantly improved image quality of the distal small bowel [image quality score = 1.6 vs. 3.0 (max 4.0)]. The detection rate of lesions in the distal small bowel was higher in the real-time group than in the conventional group.

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The development of complications related to GI dysmotility (eg, gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration) have been associated with increased mortality risk. Institution of prophylaxic therapy is recommended in high-risk patients, however, no consensus exists regarding optimal timing of initiating prophylaxic measures, preference of treatment, or duration of therapy. The prognosis for affected small animal patients remains unknown.

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To investigate whether exogenous hypercalcemia influences the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary, 25 microgram TRH were injected iv in six healthy subjects who were pretreated orally with either 10 mg metoclopramide or placebo and infused iv with either calcium or saline. Under normocalcemic conditions, TRH raised the serum TSH level from 1.1 +/- 0.1 to 8.0 +/- 3.3 microU/ml (P less than 0.01). Exogenous hypercalcemia reduced this TSH response to TRH by 37 +/- 11% (P less than 0.02). Although metoclopramide was without effect on basal TSH release in an additional five healthy subjects and also left TRH-stimulated TSH release unaffected under normocalcemic conditions, oral pretreatment with the drug counteracted the inhibitory effect of hypercalcemia and restored a normal TSH response to TRH in hypercalcemic subjects. These results indicate that exogenous hypercalcemia may potentiate dopaminergic TSH inhibition in normal individuals.

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1. The in-vitro binding of four drugs with differing physiochemical properties to two commercial charcoal preparations and two anionic binding resins was studied at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. 2. The two charcoal preparations (Carbomix and Medicoal) behaved similarly and adsorbed metoclopramide and antipyrine to a greater degree than warfarin or paracetamol. 3. Cholestyramine had a significantly greater maximum adsorption capacity (K2) for warfarin and significantly lower adsorption capacity for paracetamol and metoclopramide than did the charcoals. 4. Colestipol behaved similarly but also bound metoclopramide to a significantly greater extent than did either cholestyramine or charcoal and antipyrine to a significantly lesser extent than did Carbomix. 5. There appeared to be no consistent relationship between the maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbents for the drugs tested and the physicochemical properties of those drugs (e.g. basic or acidic structure, pKa or molecular weight).

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This study was carried out using a dopaminergic agonist (carbidopa plus levodopa, CD + LD) and antagonist (metoclopramide, MCP) respectively for dynamic tests to observe the variations of serum prolactin (PRL), thyrotropin (TSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in 7 normal women and 11 women with pituitary prolactinoma. It was shown that CD + LD resulted in minimal suppression of serum PRL (18.4 +/- 3.4%) in tumor patients, with this being significantly less than that in normal women (80.7 +/- 4.6%). However, similar degrees of TSH and LH suppression were observed after CD + LD in patients (23.8 +/- 4.2% and 28.2 +/- 2.1%, respectively) and in normal women (27.9 +/- 2.4% and 34.7 +/- 9.0%, respectively). MCP greatly increased PRL levels in the normal women as compared with the patients (892.1 +/- 195.3%, 16.4 +/- 6.5%), but increased TSH and LH levels were much higher in the patients than in the normal women (291.4 +/- 36.1% vs 19.9 +/- 3.3% and 96.9 +/- 7.4% vs 24.9 +/- 5.5%, respectively). It was also found that the levels of TSH or LH after MCP strongly correlated with basal PRL levels in the patients (r = 0.858, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.737, P less than 0.01, respectively). These results indicate that synthesis, turnover and release of hypothalamic dopamine are normal and the hypothalamic tone is relatively high in patients with PRL-secreting pituitary tumors.

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Seventy-three patients were enrolled. Groups were similar regarding clinical characteristics, despite better control during the acute phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in group A (P = 0.04). Complete delayed protection from nausea and vomiting (DCPNV) from day 2 to 5 was similar in both groups (30% vs. 32%; P = 0.5). Analyzing DCPNV by logistic regression multivariate analyses, acute complete protection from nausea and vomiting (P = 0.001) and study group (P = 0.06) were independently associated with DCPNV. Selecting patients who achieved acute complete protection from nausea and vomiting, we observed that group B had a superior DCPNV (85% vs. 50%, P = 0.02).

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Prospective, randomized, double-blinded study.

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Pregnant women ≥18 years of age with NVP starting antiemetic therapy with promethazine, prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, or ondansetron at ≤ 16 weeks gestational age were eligible. The study recruited 29 women with complete data and sampling who returned for their one week follow-up and were genotyped for HTR3A and HTR3B polymorphisms. Severity of NVP was captured (using Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) and Quality of Life (QOL) tools) upon enrollment and after one week of antiemetic therapy. These measures were correlated with pharmacogenetic variability.

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Intranasal (IN) administration is a promising approach for rapid-onset delivery of medications and to circumvent their first-pass elimination when taken orally. Metoclopramide (MCP) is a potent antiemetic, effective even for preventing emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. The feasibility of developing an efficacious intranasal formulation of metoclopramide has been undertaken in this study. The nasal absorption of MCP was studied in anesthetized rats over 60min using the in vivo in situ technique. The influence of several formulation variables, vis., pH and the addition of preservative, viscosity and absorption enhancing agents on the nasal MCP absorption was examined. The data obtained showed that MCP was well absorbed nasally where almost 90% of the drug was absorbed after 60min from the rat nasal cavity. The MCP absorption was pH-dependant such that the apparent first-order rate constant of absorption (K(app)) was almost tripled when the pH of the solution was increased from 5 to 8. However, deviation from the classical pH-partition theory was observed pointing to the role of aqueous pore pathway in MCP nasal absorption. The K(app) was significantly increased (P<0.05) by incorporation of 0.01% of the preservative benzalkonium chloride. Conversely, increasing the solution viscosity by the use of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose adversely affected the rate of absorption. The use of enhancers namely sodium deoxycholate, sodium cholate, chitosan low and high molecular weight, protamine sulphate and poly-l-arginine resulted in significant increase in MCP absorption. The highest promoting effect was observed with the bile salt sodium deoxycholate where about 92% of the drug was absorbed in 25min from the rat nasal cavity and the K(app) showed more than two-fold increase as compared to control (from 0.0452 to 0.1017min(-1)).

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The effect of powdered ginger root was compared with metoclopramide and placebo. In a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured in 120 women presenting for elective laparoscopic gynaecological surgery on a day stay basis. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was similar in patients given metoclopramide and ginger (27% and 21%) and less than in those who received placebo (41%). The requirement for postoperative antiemetics was lower in those patients receiving ginger. The requirements for postoperative analgesia, recovery time and time until discharge were the same in all groups. There was no difference in the incidence of possible side effects such as sedation, abnormal movement, itch and visual disturbance between the three groups. Zingiber officinale is an effective and promising prophylactic antiemetic, which may be especially useful for day case surgery.

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reglan pediatric dose 2017-08-19

To determine if systematic use of metoclopramide associated with opioids (Morphine sulfate SR) decreases the incidence of nausea and vomiting (N&V), established adverse effects of opioids buy reglan .

reglan iv dose 2015-03-17

A peer-reviewed search of databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL) was carried out to identify randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of interventions for acute pain relief in adults presenting with migraine to emergency settings. Where possible, data were pooled into meta-analyses. buy reglan

reglan medicine 2017-07-12

In a prospective cohort study of antiemetic therapy conducted in Malaysia, a total of 94 patients received low emetogenic chemotherapy (LEC) with or without granisetron injections buy reglan as the primary prophylaxis for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This study is a retrospective cost analysis of two antiemetic regimens from the payer perspective.

reglan drug 2015-03-11

A retrospective cohort of 108 TS patients was studied. Most of the patients were not psychotic; most patients were being treated either for a mood disorder with atypical antipsychotics or for a gastrointestinal disturbance with metoclopramide. Patients were stratified on the basis of reversibility, and statistical tests were used for subgroup comparisons of relevant clinical variables. Logistic regression was buy reglan undertaken to identify clinical variables predictive of reversibility.

reglan pediatric dosing 2015-10-27

Zinc content was determined separately in buy reglan spermatozoa taken from epididymal caput and cauda in rats. It was revealed that spermatozoa transported from the epididymal caput to the cauda reduce about 54% of zinc. This reduction is significantly inhibited in spermatozoa of rats receiving metoclopramide. That is also accompanied by a fall of testosterone level in blood serum and of delta 5, 3 beta-HSD activity in Leydig cells. It was found out that the reduction of zinc in spermatozoa at the time of their passage through the epididymis is the process that depends on androgens.

reglan generic drug 2016-10-28

Data were available for 399 patients (202 receiving TDF, 197 receiving placebo), of buy reglan whom 199 (50%) completed the study. TDF provided significantly better pain relief than placebo, as demonstrated by the primary outcome measure (area under the curve for VAS scores -20 in the TDF group versus -14.6 in the placebo group; P = 0.007). TDF was also associated with significantly better overall WOMAC scores and pain scores. The most common adverse events were nausea, vomiting, and somnolence, and these occurred more often in the TDF group.

reglan ppi medication 2017-07-25

The study included the prokinetic drugs metoclopramide (20 mg/kg), domperidone (20 mg/kg) and erythromycin (6 mg/kg), as well as insulin (2 IU/kg), which was individually effective in decreasing SIT, enhancing GE and increasing xylose absorption significantly in diabetic mice. Erythromycin tended to decrease blood glucose level and increase serum insulin level after 1 wk of daily administration in diabetic mice. Erythromycin potentiated the effect of insulin on blood glucose level and serum insulin level whereas other prokinetic agents failed to do so after repeated dose administration in diabetic mice. Metoclopramide or erythromycin in combination with insulin significantly decreased SIT, in diabetic mice, to lower levels buy reglan than with insulin alone. Administration of prokinetic drugs along with insulin antagonized the action of insulin on xylose absorption. These combinations also increased the rate of glucose absorption from the gut.

reglan 25 mg 2016-05-08

Metoclopramide is buy reglan very useful in hematology. This French drug has been continuously used for twenty years as a powerful inhibitor of nausea and vomiting induced by numerous antineoplastic associations. When administered intravenously in patients under sequential chemotherapy for leukemia or lymphoma, metoclopramide prevents digestive discomfort. After each infusion, the ingestion of solution or tablets prolongs the antiemetic action for several hours without any side-effects. Conversely, corticosteroid therapy is well tolerated in ulcerous and gastritic patients and tolerance is preserved in others when they are submitted for the first time to high doses of metoclopramide, because of the acceleration of gastric evacuation.

reglan suspension 2017-07-19

The pharmacokinetics of metoclopramide in healthy volunteers was evaluated to determine if previously repeated doses of ranitidine inhibit the metabolism of the gastrointestinal prokinetic drug. Metoclopramide 20 mg (tablets) in combination with ranitidine 150 mg (tablets) were administered to 14 healthy human volunteers in a two treatment study design, separated by 5 days in which the ranitidine alone was administrated in single p.o. doses twice daily. Plasma concentrations of metoclopramide were determined during a 24 hour period following drug administration. Metoclopramide plasma concentrations were determined by a validated RP-HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with compartmental and non-compartmental analysis. In the two periods of treatments, the mean peak plasma concentrations Cmax were buy reglan 44 ng/ml (metoclopramide alone) and 49.2 ng/ml (metoclopramide and ranitidine). The time taken to reach the peak, Tmax, was 1.15 hrs, and 1.21 hrs, respectively. The total areas under the curve (AUC) was 314.3 and 354.06, respectively. The half-life (T 1/2) was 5.6 hr and 6.7 hr. A statistically significant difference was observed for both AUC and half-life of metoclopramide when administered alone or after 5 days of treatment with ranitidine. The experimental data proved the pharmacokinetic interaction between ranitidine of metoclopramide, and suggest monitoring adverse effects in patients.

reglan 5mg dosage 2017-01-03

Ninety patients undergoing upper limb producer were buy reglan randomly allocated to the three groups to receive 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 ml (Group L, n = 30) or 10 mg metoclopromide plus 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 ml (group LM, n = 30) or 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total dose of 40 ml plus 10 mg metoclopromide intravenously (Group IM, n = 30).

reglan generic cost 2016-03-11

The 14-bed intensive care unit of a tertiary referral hospital adopted a guideline to start docusate sodium with sennosides when enteral nutrition was started. This replaced a guideline to start aperients after 24h of enteral nutrition if no bowel action had occurred. We sought to determine buy reglan the effect of this change on the incidence of diarrhoea and constipation in intensive care.

reglan 8 mg 2016-11-16

There have been numerous studies on the influence of ethanol on neurotransmitters, with conflicting results for the individual transmitters. It also refers to dopamine Hunt and Majchrowicz have found that dopamine circulation lowers after a prolonged administration of ethanol. The results of other experiments point out that such a long-lasting activity of ethanol has no influence on dopamine circulation. Tabakoff and Hoffman indicated that dopamine synthesis is lowered during the symptoms of ethanol abstinence. Griffiths et al. as well as Wajda et al. have proved that the level of dopamine in the striatum occurring at ethanol abstinence increases and comes back again to its initial value after 18 or 48 hrs. Fadda et al., while examining the prolonged influence of ethanol upon dopamine metabolism, has shown that after 24 hrs since the stop in ethanol administration, there has been an increase of dopamine level in the rat's frontal lobe of cortex cerebri. In other structures of the brain the dopamine level has not been changed. Darden and Hunt obtained the results showing a considerable decrease of dopamine liberation in the striatum during abstinence periods. In view of the biochemical research it is difficult to estimate explicitly the role of dopaminergic system in the appearance of dependence and symptoms of ethanol abstinence in buy reglan the experimental animals. Some behavioral observations carried out on animals during the ethanol abstinence suggest that the prolonged administering of ethanol brings about hypofunction of central dopaminergic neurons.

reglan normal dose 2015-06-21

We test the hypothesis that intravenous magnesium sulfate is an effective adjunctive medication buy reglan for treatment of acute migraine.

reglan medication 2017-05-30

The prokinetic effects of metoclopramide, bethanechol and L-364,718 on a semisolid meal and solid pellet gastric emptying were evaluated and compared. Each compound increased the rate of meal emptying as measured 90 min post-dose. L-364,718, a non-peptide CCK antagonist, was the most potent of these three agents with statistically significant activity observed at 0.03, 0 buy reglan .1 and 0.3 mg/kg p.o. Only metoclopramide significantly enhanced pellet emptying in a dose-dependent manner (3-30 mg/kg p.o.). The effects of each test agent and the potential physiologic role of cholecystokinin in regulating gastric emptying are discussed.

reglan headache medication 2015-08-07

Thirty-five patients receiving chemotherapeutic regimens including cisplatin (CDDP) were entered into a randomized open cross-over trial. Sixteen patients had previously received chemotherapy. Metoclopramide (MCP) was given i.v. in 4 doses of 1 mg/kg over a period of 4 1/2 hr, dexamethazone (DXM) was administered i.m. in 4 doses of 8 mg over 24 hr and another 10 mg i.v. just prior to CDDP administration. Sixteen patients who expressed a positive opinion on both previous antiemetics were given placebo (PLC). No significant differences were found between MCP and DXM, considering the mean score of both emesis intensity and patient's opinion. The mean duration of the symptoms was significantly longer with MCP than with DXM (P less than 0.02). Both antiemetic agents were more effective than PLC. No significant Diovan Dosage Amounts side-effects were observed. The results of this study indicate that both MCP and DXM provide a similar protection against CDDP-induced nausea and vomiting.

reglan po dosage 2015-11-29

To assess the responses to a survey asking anesthesiologists to report their clinical practice patterns for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis. These practice patterns data may be useful for understanding how to optimize the Biaxin Xl Dosage decision to provide PONV prophylaxis.

reglan dosing 2015-10-08

The clinical research programme with granisetron has involved a total of 1,229 patients, 982 receiving granisetron, 233 receiving currently available combination regimens and 14 receiving placebo. The true efficacy of granisetron was evaluated in a placebo-controlled trial with granisetron given prophylactically and being available as rescue medication in the placebo group. Granisetron produced a complete anti-emetic response in 92.9% of patients and was effective as intervention for the emesis experienced by the patients in the 600 Mg Voltaren placebo group. Dose-finding studies have confirmed the wide therapeutic margin with four-fold increases in dose producing comparable results. In patients receiving high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy, two out of every three patients responded to a single prophylactic dose; which demonstrates granisetron's long duration of action (greater than 24 h). Additional granisetron also demonstrated benefit if the initial dose failed or delayed-onset emesis occurred. These results are also seen with other emetogenic regimens. Granisetron produces a greater degree of control than the anti-emetic combinations of metoclopramide/dexamethasone or dexamethasone/chlorpromazine. The side-effect profile in volunteers was favourable. The profile in patients is more difficult to define due to the range of potent drugs which cancer chemotherapy patients receive. Headache and constipation were the most common effects with granisetron, although the former was treatable with simple analgesics and the latter thought to be related to higher doses and subsided spontaneously. The future is promising, with the possible introduction of a fixed 3 mg i.v. dose administered over 5 min followed by oral maintenance therapy if and when required.

reglan 500 mg 2016-03-10

In spite of its risk, substantial numbers of US children use metoclopramide Seroquel Reviews Ocd chronically for symptoms suggestive of GERD.

reglan elixir suspension 2015-08-05

Treatment of manifestations: The first step in treating either acute neurovisceral attacks or cutaneous manifestations is to identify and remove exacerbating factors (see Agents/circumstances to avoid). Most acute neurovisceral attacks require hospital admission; the presence of seizures, motor neuropathy, and hyponatremia suggest severe disease that ideally should be managed in an ICU. Narcotic analgesics are usually required for pain. Ondansetron or a related drug can be used for nausea and vomiting; phenothiazines can be effective for nausea, agitation, and hallucinations. Although mild attacks (without seizures, weakness or hyponatremia and not requiring narcotics) can sometimes be treated in an outpatient setting with glucose loading, most attacks require Cipro Mg 050 treatment with intravenous hemin. Cutaneous symptoms are best managed by wearing protective clothing and avoiding exposure to sunlight. Symptoms may decrease when exacerbating factors are removed. No treatment is known to be effective in lowering porphyrin levels and reducing cutaneous symptoms. Analgesics may be needed for painful lesions and antibiotics for superimposed infection. Prevention of primary manifestations: Acute neurovisceral attacks are less likely to occur if exacerbating factors are corrected or avoided. Recurrent premenstrual acute attacks can be prevented with GnRH analogues; weekly or biweekly hemin infusions to prevent frequent noncyclical attacks may be effective, but data are lacking. Prevention of the skin manifestations requires protection from sunlight. Surveillance: Liver imaging at six-month intervals beginning at age 50 years in those who have experienced persistent elevations in porphobilinogen or porphyrins may detect early hepatocellular carcinoma. Agents/circumstances to avoid: Exacerbating factors that should be avoided include: barbiturates, sulfonamide antibiotics, griseofulvin, rifampin, most anticonvulsants including phenytoin and carbamazepine, alcohol, ergot alkaloids, metoclopramide, and progestins. Although birth control pills should generally be avoided, low-dose hormonal preparations may be tolerated. Concomitant illnesses should be treated effectively using drugs that are considered safe whenever possible. Updated lists of safe and unsafe drugs are maintained at the Web sites of the American Porphyria Foundation and the European Porphyria Network. Evaluation of relatives at risk: At-risk family members can be offered molecular genetic testing for the family-specific PPOX pathogenic variant to identify those who are heterozygous (for the purpose of counseling regarding appropriate use of drugs and avoidance of known exacerbating factors). Pregnancy management: Exacerbations during pregnancy have been treated successfully with heme arginate and heme hydroxide (hematin); while neither preparation has been studied extensively during pregnancy, limited data suggest that treatment during pregnancy is unlikely to produce adverse fetal effects.

reglan 800 mg 2015-09-06

The present study examined the hypothesis that altered motility of the gastrointestinal tract affects absorption of probe markers of intestinal permeability. Seven healthy subjects, aged 32-44 years, received saline, 600 micrograms atropine or 10 mg metoclopramide in randomized order at weekly intervals. After 10 min they ingested a test solution containing 5 g lactulose, 5 g mannitol and 2 g 3-O-methyl glucose in 100 ml Rulide Cost tap water. The molarity of the solution was 542 mmol l-1 and the dose administered was 80 ml m-2 body surface area. Gastric emptying was measured by ultrasound, mouth-to-caecum transit time by breath hydrogen analysis and sugar concentrations by gas-liquid chromatography. Gastric emptying half-times (min) were [mean (95% confidence intervals)] 14.9 (11:4-18.5) after saline, 22 (18.7-25.2) after atropine and 10.3 (7.0-12.6) after metoclopramide (P less than 0.002). Transit times (min) were 68.9 (52-85.2) after saline, 143 (126-159) after atropine and 38 (21.2-54.5) after metoclopramide; P less than 0.0001. Analysis of plasma levels of mannitol and 3-O-methyl glucose showed a significant within-subject effect of drug with time (P less than 0.03). Urinary excretion of mannitol in the first 5 h after ingestion of the test solution was 1256 (974-1620) mg after saline, 1560 (1210-2013) mg after atropine and 955 (740-1232) mg after metoclopramide (P less than 0.03). There were no significant differences in lactulose and 3-O-methyl glucose urinary excretion between drug treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

reglan 5 mg 2017-03-29

Pituitary testicular functions were evaluated in leprosy. Forty-three men with leprosy were studied by basal estimations of plasma LH, FSH, Prolactin, Testosterone, 17-beta estradiol, metoclopramide stimulated prolactin responses and hCG stimulated testosterone responses. Fifteen young healthy men with proven fertility were studied as control subjects. The hormone estimations were related to the histologic changes observed in the testicular biopsies of leprous hypogonadism. In lepromatous leprosy (n:18) the basal plasma gonadotropin levels were significantly increased (FSH 29.5 +/- 2.3 mlU/ml; LH 21.5 +/- 1.9 mlU/ml, mean +/- SE). The plasma gonadotropins were in the normal range in tuberculoid leprosy. In borderline leprosy, the basal mean plasma FSH was normal, whereas LH levels were significantly increased (22.5 +/- 1.2 mlU/ml). The basal plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased in lepromatous leprosy (1.6 +/- 0.12 ng/ml Duphaston Medicine Uses ), tuberculoid leprosy (4.2 +/- 1.7 ng/ml) and borderline leprosy (1.8 +/- 0.18 ng/ml). The basal plasma 17-beta estradiol levels were significantly elevated in all the three types of leprosy. The basal plasma prolactin levels in plasma were significantly increased in lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy. During hCG stimulation tests, the peak plasma testosterone responses were significantly reduced in both lepromatous leprosy and tuberculoid leprosy subjects. The blunted testosterone responses during hCG stimulation tests in leprosy correlated with the high basal 17-beta estradiol levels (r = 0.58; P less than 0.05). These results strongly suggest that hypogonadism in leprosy results from primary testicular failure. The significant elevation of plasma 17-beta estradiol levels in lepromatous, tuberculoid and borderline leprosy could play a role in hypogonadism of leprosy.

reglan pill identification 2017-06-25

It is reported on a 61-year-old patient in whom since 1959 has been existing a diabetes mellitus in need of insulin. 1973 in the endoscopic control of roentgenological findings of a stomach suspect to tumour by means of the Wolf-Schindler gastroscope the suspicion to a gastric carcinoma was expressed. In May 1975 he was again admitted to hospital on account of a hypoglycemic shock. Roentgenologically large filling defects in the stomach were found, gastroscopically macroscopically no clearly explained whitish yellow masses (Histology: remains of food, chronic superficial gastritis, extended settlement of fungi). Only after several days of food carency and daily gastric lavages gastroscopically normal findings could be made. Together with the roentgenological findings of the stomach the diagnosis gastroparesis diabeticorum was made. Therapeutically an optimum stopping of diabetes is recommended and the application of metoclopramide. A surgical intervention is not advisable. Cipro Tablets

reglan tablet 2017-09-09

An analysis was carried out of the efficiency of using sound waves, drugs and electrostimulation on the motor activity of the duodenum in 45 patients with chronic duodenal obstruction of functional genesis. Excellent and good results were obtained in 80% of patients treated with sound waves complexly with other methods, in 40% when only drugs were used and 53% when only electric stimulation was used. The advantages of sound in the treatment are emphasized as concerns early effect, long-term results, absence of side-effects, low incidence of recurrences of the disease.

reglan drug class 2017-01-20

A prospective, multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial.

reglan dosing information 2016-01-29

Following magazine training, food-restricted male Wistar rats lever pressed for food reward in 15 min daily operant conditioning sessions.

reglan 10mg dosage 2017-10-19

Movement disorders as an adverse effect of metoclopramide have been described on a regular basis over the past decades. Case reports such as this confirm there is under-recognition of adverse effects and emphasize the need to take a comprehensive medication history and recognize well known side effects of medications such as metoclopramide.

reglan 5mg medication 2017-03-15

We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. All analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat method. We present risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

reglan generic 2015-03-13

Intraluminal distention of the jejunum followed by decompression increased mucosal permeability and injury and decreased responses to prokinetic agents. Horses with intraluminal intestinal distention may have a decreased response to prokinetic agents.

reglan 4 mg 2016-02-13

Medical treatment is effective in the majority of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Lifestyle modifications are often recommended for patients with GERD, although the data supporting lifestyle recommendations are limited. Antacids are often used to treat the symptoms of GERD, but their effect is short-lived. H2-receptor antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors provide more effective options for remission of GERD symptoms and healing of esophagitis. Prokinetic medications (e.g., metoclopramide) have not been proven to help in the control of symptoms. Baclofen, which inhibits transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations, provide an additional option for patients with persistent symptoms related to GERD; however its use is limited by side effects. Long-term medical therapy for GERD should be tailored to each patient to provide symptomatic control and maintain esophageal mucosal healing.

reglan oral dose 2017-08-17

To compare the effect of erythromycin and metoclopramide on feeding intolerance of critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU).