A systematic literature search using PubMed from January 01, 2009 through January 06, 2015 with a restriction to papers in English was conducted.
Nineteen Chinese patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced cancer were studied for chemotherapy-induced acute nausea and vomiting. The chemotherapy consisted of cisplatinum 100 mg/m2 i.v. infusion over 4 h on day 1 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 1000 mg/m2 120-h continuous infusion from day 2 to day 6, repeated every 3 weeks. At the first course of chemotherapy the patients were randomized to receive either low-dose metoclopramide and chlorpromazine or high-dose metoclopramide, and then crossed over for the second course. In the high-dose metoclopramide group there was a suggestion of an earlier onset of emesis, with slightly more frequent retching and vomiting and less food consumed. However, the duration of emesis was shorter in the high-dose group. These differences were not statistically significant. There were no major side effects. Mild salutary drowsiness was noticed in patients receiving low-dose metoclopramide and chlorpromazine. This trial suggests that, in the dosage, route and schedule described, high-dose metoclopramide is no more effective than low-dose metoclopramide together with chlorpromazine in preventing cisplatinum-induced nausea and vomiting. The low-dose scheme is more economic and suitable for patients with advanced cancer.
reglan nausea medication
Gastroparesis, or delayed gastric emptying, is a common cause of chronic nausea and vomiting as seen in a gastroenterology practice. Diabetic, postsurgical, and idiopathic causes remain the three most common forms of gastroparesis. In addition to nausea and vomiting, symptoms of gastroparesis may include early satiety, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain. Physiologic changes that may explain symptoms in patients with gastroparesis, in addition to delayed gastric emptying, include impaired fundic accommodation, antral hypomotility, gastric dysrhythmias, pylorospasm, and perhaps visceral hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of gastroparesis is best determined using a radioisotope-labeled solid meal with scintigraphic imaging for at least 2 hours, and preferably 4 hours, postprandially. Most commonly, a 99mTc sulfur colloid-labeled egg sandwich with imaging at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours is used. Extension of the gastric emptying test to 4 hours improves the accuracy of the test, but unfortunately, this is not commonly performed at many centers. Emptying of liquids remains normal until the late stages of gastroparesis and is less useful. The aims of treatment should be to control symptoms and maintain adequate nutrition and hydration. Patients should be advised to eat small meals and to limit their intake of fat and fiber. Additional dietary recommendations may include increasing caloric intake in the form of liquids. For diabetic patients, control of blood glucose levels is important, as symptom exacerbation is frequently associated with poor glycemic control. Specific treatment often begins with metoclopramide, 10 mg, up to four times daily, after a discussion of possible side effects with the patient. An antiemetic agent, such as prochlorperazine, 5 to 10 mg orally or 25 mg by suppository, can be added on an as-needed basis every 4 to 6 hours to control nausea. If these antiemetic medications are not effective, or if side effects develop, orally dissolving ondansetron, 8 mg every 8 to 12 hours, can be tried on an as-needed basis. If this regimen is unsuccessful, then alternative prokinetic agents--erythromycin, 125 mg, or tegaserod, 6 mg, prior to meals--can be tried. For cases refractory to these treatments, referral to a center with US Food and Drug Administration permission to use domperidone should be considered. Alternatively, symptom modulators such as low-dose tricyclic antidepressants can be tried to reduce symptoms, but these do not improve gastric emptying. In patients for whom all medical therapy fails, other options that are tried at experienced centers include the injection of botulinum toxin into the pylorus, placement of a feeding jejunostomy, and/or placement of a gastric electrical stimulator.
reglan liquid dose
Drugs for symptom control in the terminal phase of palliative patients may be used in pump systems.
reglan 10 mg
Metoclopramide exposure, especially in high doses may alter endometrial receptivity by effecting integrin expression on decidual tissue which can decrease pregnancy rates. This drug should only be recommended for use during pregnancy when benefit outweighs the risk.
reglan dosing information
One hundred patients scheduled for minor surgery were given either saline, metoclopramide 0.1 mg.kg-1 or 0.2 mg.kg-1, or prochlorperazine 0.1 mg.kg-1 or 0.2 mg.kg-1 before induction of anaesthesia with a fixed rate infusion of propofol. Neither metoclopramide nor prochlorperazine reduced the induction dose of propofol. The possibility that these agents increased the induction dose could not be excluded.
reglan 10mg medication
The differences in pain and nausea scores for the metoclopramide + placebos group versus the other three groups were tested using exact nonparametric (Mann-Whitney) statistical procedures. The metoclopramide + placebos group had significantly better relief of pain compared with the placebos + ibuprofen and placebos + placebos groups. The metoclopramide + placebos group had significantly better relief of nausea than the ibuprofen + placebos group; nausea scores for the placebos + placebos group could not be analyzed due to excessive variance from the other groups at baseline. The differences between the metoclopramide + placebos group and the metoclopramide + ibuprofen group were not statistically significant with regard to either pain or nausea.
reglan generic cost
In order to elucidate the effects of various gastrokinetic drugs on gastric emptying and the sites of their action in the stomach, changes in gastric emptying after administration of these drugs were determined in healthy adults by means of radioisotopic technique, by setting 3 regions of interest, i.e., the whole stomach, the proximal area and the antral area. Following results were obtained. 1. With metoclopramide administration, no particular movement of gastric contents was found for several minutes after ingestion. Once the movement of emptying was initiated, the gastric contents were transferred more efficiently from the proximal area to the antral area in comparison with the corresponding movement observed in persons given no metoclopramide. On the other hand, the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum exceeded the inflow from the proximal area to the antral area. 2. With domperidon administration, transfer of gastric contents was markedly increased, but the outflow from the antral area did not exceed the inflow. Domperidone caused overall facilitation of gastric emptying, mainly by enhancing the emptying movement in the proximal area. 3. With aclatonium napadisilate administration, marked transfer of the gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was noted, and the outflow from the antral area to the duodenum was equal to the inflow within 10 min, then exceeded the inflow. 4. With trimebutine maleate administration, transfer of gastric contents from the proximal area to the antral area was conspicuous, and the outflow from the antral area exceeded the increased inflow, resulting in overall faciliation of gastric emptying.
Two commercially available tests, an antigen-capture ELISA for use on fecal samples, and a peroral nylon string test for use in dogs, were compared with a zinc sulfate fecal concentration technique (ZSCT) for detection of giardiasis in dogs. Of 77 dogs and 164 fecal samples (from these dogs), 33 and 52, respectively were found to be Giardia-positive on the basis of results of the ZSCT. The ELISA gave false-negative results for 10 and 14% of ZSCT-positive dogs and fecal samples, respectively, and false-positive results (relative to the ZSCT test results) in 13 and 10% of ZSCT-positive dogs and fecal samples, respectively. Of the 18 string-tested dogs, 14 were positive by results of the ZSCT. Of the 4 dogs that were Giardia-negative by ZSCT, 2 were Giardia-positive by ELISA. Dogs were sedated and given water and metoclopramide to aid passage into the duodenum of the capsule containing a nylon string. Of the 21 string tests performed on the 18 dogs, only 5 strings reached the duodenum, and 0 of the 5 yielded positive results for Giardia sp. Because the string broke in 1 dog (leaving most in the gastrointestinal tract and, therefore, producing a risk of string foreign body) further string tests were not done.
reglan generic drug
This new technology allowed clear image interpretation, and the real-time viewer was useful for detecting gastric transit abnormalities and determining a need for metoclopramide administration in patients undergoing capsule endoscopy.
reglan 5mg dosage
Prospective, double blind, randomised clinical study comparing two rates of intravenous infusion of metoclopramide over a period of six months at a tertiary university hospital ED.
reglan maximum dosage
Peripheral venous plasma free and sulfoconjugated catecholamines, dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (A) were measured in normal men (n = 6-7) during conditions significantly altering adrenal and sympathoadrenal function (influence of corticotropin, furosemide, hypoglycaemia and clonidine), after dopamine receptor blockade with metoclopramide and after meals. Median (range) basal plasma free DA concentration was 0.13 (0-0.72) nmol/l and median (range) basal plasma conjugated DA concentration was 15.16 (6.34-45.03) nmol/l. Meals increased plasma sulfoconjugated DA markedly from a median value of 14.97 nmol/l during fasting experiments to a median value of 33.01 nmol/l (p less than 0.05). Plasma free DA did not change in the meal experiments. No changes in plasma DA were observed after administration of corticotropin, furosemide, clonidine, and metoclopramide or during hypoglycaemia. The results suggest that plasma sulfoconjugated DA is derived at least in part from the gastrointestinal tract and not from the sympathoadrenomedullary system as hitherto proposed.
We administered a mixture of uracil and tegafur (UFT)/cisplatin (CDDP) chemotherapy in 28 patients with scirrhous gastric cancer. In the regimen, UFT was orally administered at a dose of 200 mg/m2 twice a day. The CDDP was administered at a dose of 90 mg/m2 by 24-hour continuous infusion every 4 weeks. As a result, antitumor effects for primary gastric foci were achieved in 14 of the 28 patients (50%). Ascites from peritoneal dissemination disappeared completely in eight of 13 patients (62%). Total gastrectomy was performed in ten patients after 2 to 3 courses of chemotherapy. Histological response grades assessed on the resected specimen were Grade 2 in four, Grade 1b in three, Grade 1a in one and Grade 0 in two patients. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is feasible against scirrhous gastric cancer and a subsequent prospective randomized trial should be prepared to clarify the survival benefit of the treatment.
reglan headache medication
Phenoxazine (PNZ), 2-chlorophenoxazine (CPN) and 2-trifluoromethylphenoxazine (TPN) were used as new class of spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of nanoamounts of nitrite in presence of cisapride (CSP) and metaclopramide (MCP) as new electrophilic coupling reagents. The methods were based on the oxidation of CSP or MCP by nitrite in hydrochloric acid medium and coupling with PNZ, CPN or TPN to yield red color derivatives which were stable for about 3h and having an absorbance maximum in the range 520-530 nm. Beer's law is obeyed for nitrite in the concentration range 0.08-0.80 and 0.13-1.60 microg ml(-1) for phenoxazine-cisapride and phenoxazine-metaclopramide, respectively. The optimum reaction conditions and other important analytical parameters were established to enhance the sensitivity of these methods. Interference due to various non-target ions was also investigated. The methods were applied to the analysis of nitrite in environmental samples. The performance of proposed methods were evaluated by Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test indicated the significance of proposed methods over the reference spectrophotometric method (Association of Official Analytical Communities (AOAC) method for the determination of nitrite in water samples).
Twenty patients with moderate or severe pain of suspected myocardial infarction received nalbuphine 50 mg intravenously as analgesia in 2 divided doses of 30 mg and 20 mg with 10 mg metoclopramide and were observed for 2 hours. Eighteen patients received nalbuphine outside hospital. The median time from onset of pain to treatment was 73 minutes. Within 30 minutes of the drug's administration 90% of all patients reported satisfactory pain relief (grade 0 or 1). For those with definite myocardial infarction 83% reported satisfactory pain relief at 30 minutes. There were no significant adverse cardiorespiratory effects observed or serious side-effects reported. Nalbuphine is effective and safe when used in this higher dose, although no additional analgesic effect was demonstrated when compared with lower established doses used early in acute myocardial infarction.
reglan drug class
Poor production of breast milk is the most frequent cause of breast lactation failure. Often, physician prescribe medications or other substances to solve this problem. The use of galactogogues should be limited to those situations in which reduced milk production from treatable causes has been excluded. One of the most frequent indication for the use of galactogogues is the diminution of milk production in mothers using indirect lactation, particularly in the case of preterm birth. The objective of this review is to analyze to the literature relating to the principal drugs used as galactogogues (metoclopramide, domperidone, chlorpromazine, sulpiride, oxytocin, growth hormone, thyrotrophin releasing hormone, medroxyprogesterone). Have been also analyzed galactogogues based on herbs and other natural substances (fenugreek, galega and milk thistle). We have evaluated their mechanism of action, transfer to maternal milk, effectiveness and potential side effects for mother and infant, suggested doses for galactogogic effect, and recommendation for breastfeeding.
reglan nausea dose
Pretreatment with small, per se ineffective doses of the selective D1 antagonist SCH 23390 inhibited hyperactivity induced by cocaine. On the other hand, the classic neuroleptic haloperidol and the selective D2 antagonist metoclopramide prevented the stimulatory effects of cocaine on locomotion only at hypokinetic doses, while the atypical neuroleptic (-)-sulpiride, a selective D2 antagonist, did not produce significant effects when administered at the hypokinetic dose of 12 mg/kg. Finally, at low doses (-)-sulpiride dose-dependently potentiated the locomotor-stimulating effects of cocaine, an effect that is not shared either with haloperidol or with metoclopramide. These results are discussed in terms of different roles of DA receptor subtypes in the modulation of the stimulant effects of cocaine on locomotion.
reglan user reviews
1. The pharmacological properties of RS 23597-190 (3-(piperdine-1-yl)-propyl-4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxy benzoate hydrochloride) have been studied in vitro and in vivo. 2. RS 23597-190 competitively antagonized 5-HT4 receptor-mediated relaxations of rat, carbachol precontracted oesophageal muscularis mucosae, (pA2 = 7.8 +/- 0.1; Schild slope = 1.2 +/- 0.2). Affinity estimates (-log KB) at 5-HT4 receptors using either renzapride or SC-53116 as agonists yielded a -log KB value of 8.0 +/- 0.01. In contrast, RS 23597-190 failed to antagonize contractile responses to 5-HT of guinea-pig ileal 5-HT3 receptors, even at concentrations up to 10 microM. 3. Increases in short-circuit current, induced by 5-HT, were studied in guinea-pig ileal mucosal sheets. Concentration-response curves to 5-HT were biphasic, with the high potency phase to 5-HT inhibited by RS 23597-190 and mimicked by 5-methoxytryptamine. The -log KB value for RS 23597-190 at the high potency phase was 7.3 confirming that 5-HT4 receptors mediated the high potency phase. 4. In rat isolated vagus nerve, 5-HT elicited a slow, maintained depolarization at low concentrations and a rapid, transient depolarization at higher concentrations. The high potency, slow depolarizing phase to 5-HT was abolished selectively in the presence of 1 microM RS 23597-190 and the low potency phase was abolished selectively in the presence of 1 microM ondansetron. These data confirm that 5-HT4 and 5-HT3 receptors mediated slow and fast depolarization responses, respectively. 5. At 5-HT3 binding sites in membranes from NG 108-15 cells, labelled by [3H]-quipazine, RS 23597-190 exhibited an apparent affinity (- log Ki) of 5.7 +/- 0.1. At 5-HT3 receptors in membranes from rat cerebral cortex, labelled by [3H]-RS 42358-197, the apparent affinity (- log Ki) of RS 23597-190 was also 5.7 +/- 0.1. In both studies, Hill coefficients were not significantly different from unity. At 5-HT1A, 5-HT2,muscarinic M1, M2, M3, M4 and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, RS 23597-190 exhibited low apparent affinities, with all - log Ki values less than 5.5.6. Intravenous infusion of RS 23597-190 in the conscious, restrained rat antagonized the von Bezold Jarisch reflex induced by 2-methyl 5-HT, with an ID50 of 300 microg kg-1 min-1, i.v. In the anaesthetized,bilaterally vagotomized micropig, RS 23597-190 (6 mg kg-1, i.v.) antagonized 5-HT-induced tachycardia with a half-life of 77 (63-99) min. Transient arrhythmic effects were noted after administration of the compound.7. In conclusion, RS 23597-190 acts as a high affinity, selective competitive antagonist at 5-HT4 receptors. Thus, the compound appears to be a useful tool for 5-HT4 receptor identification in vitro. In vivo, the compound is rapidly metabolized in pigs such that 5-HT4 blockade is not maintained. However,in the rat, when given by infusion, RS 23597-190 antagonizes 5-HT3 mediated responses, at doses consistent with a low affinity 5-HT3 receptor. These data suggest that, under appropriate experimental conditions, RS 23597-190 may also be used in vivo to characterize further 5-HT4 receptor function.
The patient was a 67-year-old male. A diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made both by transbronchial lung biopsy and by scalene node biopsy. The findings of his chest roentgenogram were categorized as the group II. There were no symptoms during follow-up period of one year at the out-patient clinic with no medication. The chest X-ray findings of the patient were slowly progressive. Intractable hiccup developed one year after his first visit to the hospital. With administration of prednisolone, serum angiotensin converting enzyme level decreased promptly, and the incidence of the hiccup attack decreased. As the dose of prednisolone was tapered, the hiccup recurred. All the drugs used for hiccup including quinidine sulfate and metoclopramide was not effective. A thoracic CT revealed slight enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. A brain CT and a brain MRI demonstrated no abnormalities. Acetazolamide, which induces acidosis in brain extra-cellular fluid, worsened the symptoms. As prednisolone was given again, infiltrates on the chest roentgenogram began to resolve and the incidence of hiccup decreased. We concluded that the long-standing hiccup observed in this patient may be brought by the lesion in central nervous system due to sarcoidosis.
reglan brand name
Nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms which are experienced commonly during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia and can also occur in the period following the procedure.
reglan 50 mg
The completion rate was significantly higher in the real-time group as compared with that in the conventional group (72.5 vs. 90.0%). Our protocol yielded a significantly improved image quality of the distal small bowel [image quality score = 1.6 vs. 3.0 (max 4.0)]. The detection rate of lesions in the distal small bowel was higher in the real-time group than in the conventional group.
The development of complications related to GI dysmotility (eg, gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration) have been associated with increased mortality risk. Institution of prophylaxic therapy is recommended in high-risk patients, however, no consensus exists regarding optimal timing of initiating prophylaxic measures, preference of treatment, or duration of therapy. The prognosis for affected small animal patients remains unknown.
reglan 10mg dosage
To investigate whether exogenous hypercalcemia influences the release of TSH from the anterior pituitary, 25 microgram TRH were injected iv in six healthy subjects who were pretreated orally with either 10 mg metoclopramide or placebo and infused iv with either calcium or saline. Under normocalcemic conditions, TRH raised the serum TSH level from 1.1 +/- 0.1 to 8.0 +/- 3.3 microU/ml (P less than 0.01). Exogenous hypercalcemia reduced this TSH response to TRH by 37 +/- 11% (P less than 0.02). Although metoclopramide was without effect on basal TSH release in an additional five healthy subjects and also left TRH-stimulated TSH release unaffected under normocalcemic conditions, oral pretreatment with the drug counteracted the inhibitory effect of hypercalcemia and restored a normal TSH response to TRH in hypercalcemic subjects. These results indicate that exogenous hypercalcemia may potentiate dopaminergic TSH inhibition in normal individuals.
1. The in-vitro binding of four drugs with differing physiochemical properties to two commercial charcoal preparations and two anionic binding resins was studied at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. 2. The two charcoal preparations (Carbomix and Medicoal) behaved similarly and adsorbed metoclopramide and antipyrine to a greater degree than warfarin or paracetamol. 3. Cholestyramine had a significantly greater maximum adsorption capacity (K2) for warfarin and significantly lower adsorption capacity for paracetamol and metoclopramide than did the charcoals. 4. Colestipol behaved similarly but also bound metoclopramide to a significantly greater extent than did either cholestyramine or charcoal and antipyrine to a significantly lesser extent than did Carbomix. 5. There appeared to be no consistent relationship between the maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbents for the drugs tested and the physicochemical properties of those drugs (e.g. basic or acidic structure, pKa or molecular weight).
reglan 5mg medication
This study was carried out using a dopaminergic agonist (carbidopa plus levodopa, CD + LD) and antagonist (metoclopramide, MCP) respectively for dynamic tests to observe the variations of serum prolactin (PRL), thyrotropin (TSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in 7 normal women and 11 women with pituitary prolactinoma. It was shown that CD + LD resulted in minimal suppression of serum PRL (18.4 +/- 3.4%) in tumor patients, with this being significantly less than that in normal women (80.7 +/- 4.6%). However, similar degrees of TSH and LH suppression were observed after CD + LD in patients (23.8 +/- 4.2% and 28.2 +/- 2.1%, respectively) and in normal women (27.9 +/- 2.4% and 34.7 +/- 9.0%, respectively). MCP greatly increased PRL levels in the normal women as compared with the patients (892.1 +/- 195.3%, 16.4 +/- 6.5%), but increased TSH and LH levels were much higher in the patients than in the normal women (291.4 +/- 36.1% vs 19.9 +/- 3.3% and 96.9 +/- 7.4% vs 24.9 +/- 5.5%, respectively). It was also found that the levels of TSH or LH after MCP strongly correlated with basal PRL levels in the patients (r = 0.858, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.737, P less than 0.01, respectively). These results indicate that synthesis, turnover and release of hypothalamic dopamine are normal and the hypothalamic tone is relatively high in patients with PRL-secreting pituitary tumors.
reglan maximum dose
Seventy-three patients were enrolled. Groups were similar regarding clinical characteristics, despite better control during the acute phase of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in group A (P = 0.04). Complete delayed protection from nausea and vomiting (DCPNV) from day 2 to 5 was similar in both groups (30% vs. 32%; P = 0.5). Analyzing DCPNV by logistic regression multivariate analyses, acute complete protection from nausea and vomiting (P = 0.001) and study group (P = 0.06) were independently associated with DCPNV. Selecting patients who achieved acute complete protection from nausea and vomiting, we observed that group B had a superior DCPNV (85% vs. 50%, P = 0.02).
reglan pill identification
Prospective, randomized, double-blinded study.
reglan po dose
Pregnant women ≥18 years of age with NVP starting antiemetic therapy with promethazine, prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, or ondansetron at ≤ 16 weeks gestational age were eligible. The study recruited 29 women with complete data and sampling who returned for their one week follow-up and were genotyped for HTR3A and HTR3B polymorphisms. Severity of NVP was captured (using Pregnancy Unique Quantification of Emesis (PUQE) and Quality of Life (QOL) tools) upon enrollment and after one week of antiemetic therapy. These measures were correlated with pharmacogenetic variability.
reglan elixir suspension
Intranasal (IN) administration is a promising approach for rapid-onset delivery of medications and to circumvent their first-pass elimination when taken orally. Metoclopramide (MCP) is a potent antiemetic, effective even for preventing emesis induced by cancer chemotherapy. The feasibility of developing an efficacious intranasal formulation of metoclopramide has been undertaken in this study. The nasal absorption of MCP was studied in anesthetized rats over 60min using the in vivo in situ technique. The influence of several formulation variables, vis., pH and the addition of preservative, viscosity and absorption enhancing agents on the nasal MCP absorption was examined. The data obtained showed that MCP was well absorbed nasally where almost 90% of the drug was absorbed after 60min from the rat nasal cavity. The MCP absorption was pH-dependant such that the apparent first-order rate constant of absorption (K(app)) was almost tripled when the pH of the solution was increased from 5 to 8. However, deviation from the classical pH-partition theory was observed pointing to the role of aqueous pore pathway in MCP nasal absorption. The K(app) was significantly increased (P<0.05) by incorporation of 0.01% of the preservative benzalkonium chloride. Conversely, increasing the solution viscosity by the use of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose adversely affected the rate of absorption. The use of enhancers namely sodium deoxycholate, sodium cholate, chitosan low and high molecular weight, protamine sulphate and poly-l-arginine resulted in significant increase in MCP absorption. The highest promoting effect was observed with the bile salt sodium deoxycholate where about 92% of the drug was absorbed in 25min from the rat nasal cavity and the K(app) showed more than two-fold increase as compared to control (from 0.0452 to 0.1017min(-1)).
reglan 8 mg
The effect of powdered ginger root was compared with metoclopramide and placebo. In a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured in 120 women presenting for elective laparoscopic gynaecological surgery on a day stay basis. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was similar in patients given metoclopramide and ginger (27% and 21%) and less than in those who received placebo (41%). The requirement for postoperative antiemetics was lower in those patients receiving ginger. The requirements for postoperative analgesia, recovery time and time until discharge were the same in all groups. There was no difference in the incidence of possible side effects such as sedation, abnormal movement, itch and visual disturbance between the three groups. Zingiber officinale is an effective and promising prophylactic antiemetic, which may be especially useful for day case surgery.