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PPIs have emerged as the treatment of choice for acid-related diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and peptic ulcer disease. Although these drugs-omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole-share a common structure (all are substituted benzimidazoles) and mode of action (inhibition of H+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase]), each differs somewhat in its clinical pharmacology.
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HPE and IL-1beta induced a significant increase in IL-8 production by MKN45 and HUVEC, respectively, along with NFkappaB activation, which was significantly inhibited by PPI. PPI also inhibited the IL-8-induced transendothelial migration of PMN and the fMLP-induced cytosolic calcium increase in PMN.
The high rates of head injury and head injury followed by LOC among treatment-seeking survivors of torture indicates the need for torture treatment centers to assess for possible brain injury. Our findings suggest that patients with possible traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be at a higher risk of negative physical outcomes than those without possible TBI.
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Pretreatment with H2RA had no significant influence on the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy.
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Patients with functional dyspepsia, which involves no organic disease and no reflux, do not benefit from lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Any improvement seen is probably related to a placebo effect. Prescribing proton pump inhibitors for these patients just for their placebo effect is going to further raise health care costs. Antacids and H2 blockers are less expensive alternatives.
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BID PPI appears to be more effective than QD PPI in achieving clinical symptom response in suspected LPR. More response was achieved at 4 months compared with 2 months. Therefore, aggressive acid suppression with BID PPI for at least 4 months is warranted for treatment of LPR.
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Proton pump inhibitors, the treatment of choice for acid-related disorders, are often coadministered with other medications, sometimes with potentially adverse interactions. Although all agents studied may potentially interact with one proton pump inhibitor or another, a literature review documented adverse interactions for 10 medications in particular. Furthermore, 44% of people using proton pump inhibitors received another gastrointestinal drug. Although documented interactions involving these agents have been reported infrequently, the authors advise that physicians and pharmacists should recognize this possibility and watch for potentially problematic combination therapy.
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H. pylori-positive patients (n=228) were randomized to receive one of the 1-week regimens: lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 1 g (LAC), or lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg and metronidazole 500 mg (LMC), each given twice daily. H. pylori status was assessed by 13C-urea breath test and culture at diagnosis and by 13C-urea breath test 6 weeks after therapy. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test (n=98).
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Subjects maintained intragastric pH >4 for a significantly greater mean percentage of the 14-hour daytime period with esomeprazole 20 mg compared with any of the PPI comparators at OTC dosages. Geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) for esomeprazole 20 mg versus the comparators were: 1.45 (1.14-1.85; p = 0.003) versus omeprazole 20 mg; 2.50 (2.01-3.11; p < 0.0001) versus pantoprazole 20 mg; and 1.69 (1.46-1.97; p < 0.0001) and 1.89 (1.05-3.37; p = 0.03) versus lansoprazole 15 mg. A greater proportion of subjects had better pH control with esomeprazole than with the other PPIs (range: 69-97%).
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Mean healing rates pooled from clinical trials are as follows: on omeprazole (OME) 20 mg vs. H2-receptor antagonist. H2RA (cimetidine (CIM) 1.6 g or ranitidine (RAN) 300 mg) (eight studies) at 4 weeks, 67% vs. 37%: at 8 weeks, 81% vs. 49%: on lansoprazole (LAN) 30 mg vs. H2RA (three studies), 83% vs. 47% and 91% vs. 63% at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The benefit is greatest in severe disease because the H2RAs are disproportionately less effective. Heartburn is more rapidly relieved and in a higher proportion: at 4 weeks, on OME 20 mg vs. H2RA. 77% vs. 47% and on LAN 30 mg vs. H2RA, 81% vs. 46%. Both PPIs are effective in H2RA-refractory disease, approximately 80% healing occurring in 8 weeks. Relapse rates after healing vary from 25% to 85% at 6 months. Maintenance therapy sustains remissions: relapse at 1 year is, on OME 20 mg vs. RAN 300 mg (2 studies), 12% vs. 79%, and 28% vs. 55% (and 38% on OME 10 mg); on LAN 30 mg vs. 10 mg vs. RAN 600 mg, 20% vs. 31% vs. 68%. The effectiveness of the lower dose allows for dose titration.
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If cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status affects the response rates of therapy, then it may be possible to predict Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. We aimed to evaluate the response to eradication treatment of H. pylori infection in CagA-positive and CagA-negative patients. A total of 184 patients (93 males, 91 females, mean age 42.6 +/- 12.8 years) with H. pylori-positive chronic gastritis were studied. Subjects underwent a gastroscopy and biopsy specimens were taken from the gastric antrum, body, and fundus. Before the eradication therapy was given all patients were tested for CagA, TNF-alpha and gastrin levels. They were then prescribed lansoprazole (30 mg bid), clarithromycin (500 mg bid), and amoxicillin (1.0 mg bid) for one week. On the 8th week a second endoscopy was performed and further biopsy specimens were obtained from the same sites as in the initial endoscopy. One hundred and twenty-seven patients (69.1%) were found to be CagA positive and 57 patients (30.9%) were CagA negative. The total eradication rate was 82.6%. In the CagA-positive group this rate was 87.4%, and in the CagA-negative group it was 71.9% (P = 0.019). TNF-alpha levels were higher in the CagA-positive than in the CagA-negative group (P = 0.001). However, gastrin levels were not different between groups (P = 0.421). Our findings revealed that CagA-negative status might be a risk factor for failure of H. pylori triple therapies. The CagA pathogenicity island gives a growth advantage to H. pylori strains and has been associated with an increase in the inflammatory response at the gastric mucosal level. These properties could make CagA-positive H. pylori strains more susceptible to antibiotics.
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"Per protocol" eradication with LCM was achieved in 41 of 47 (87%). By using "intention to treat" analysis, LCM eradicated HP infection in 43 of 53 patients (81%). By using "per protocol" analysis, LCB eradicated HP infection in 40 of 47 patients (85%). On an "intention to treat" basis, LCB led to HP eradication in 42 of 52 (81%). The most common significant side effects observed with LCM were altered taste (39%) and abdominal pain (19%). With LCB, the most common significant side effects were altered taste (23%) and dark stools (23%).
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Thirty-two patients treated with proton pump inhibitors for gastroesophageal reflux and/or duodenal ulcer were studied. No patient had a gastric ulcer. The studied parameters were serum gastrin levels, fundic argyrophil cell density, the degree of fundic argyrophil cell hyperplasia, the grade of fundic atrophic gastritis and the presence of Helicobacter pylori. The first point of the study was 7 months (range: 0-42 months) and the last point 33 months (range: 7-72 months) after the beginning of the treatment.
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The combination of lansoprazole with antibiotics either as double or triple therapy has demonstrated an H. pylori eradication rate of between 80 and 90%. With the aim of providing a complete revision of the results of these clinical studies and a quantification of the efficacy of lansoprazole in eradicating H. pylori and healing peptic ulcers, we have undertaken a meta-analysis of all the controlled studies published in the literature.
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A total of 103 patients with H. pylori infection who had gastritis, duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric ulcer (GU) received 1 week's triple therapy of lansoprazole 30 g once daily (OD), amoxycillin 250 mg qid and clarithromycin 250 mg tid. The status of H. pylori infection was determined using the CLO test and histology (gram stain) of biopsy specimens during endoscopic examination.
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Patients with high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers after successful endoscopic therapy were randomly assigned as oral lansoprazole or intravenous esomeprazole group. Primary outcome of the study was re-bleeding rate within 14 days. Secondary outcome included hospital stay, volume of blood transfusion, surgical intervention and mortality within 1 month.
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Esomeprazole was more effective than lansoprazole and pantoprazole in suppressing gastric acidity at both intragastric distal and proximal (area of the acid pocket) sites in Hispanics with GERD. Future studies are warranted to understand better the role of the acid pocket in GERD (Clinical trial numbers: D9612L00106; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00410592).
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Patients (N=305) with frequent, moderate-to-very severe nocturnal heartburn and associated sleep disturbances were randomized 1:1 in a double-blind fashion to receive dexlansoprazole MR or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the percentage of nights without heartburn. Secondary end points were the percentage of patients with relief of nocturnal heartburn and of GERD-related sleep disturbances over the last 7 days of treatment. At baseline and week 4/final visit, patients completed questionnaires that assessed sleep quality, work productivity, and the severity and impact of nocturnal GERD symptoms.
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A single blind, prospectively randomised, parallel group, comparative, multicentre study. After a positive CLO test, patients underwent histology, H pylori culture, and a 13C urea breath test to confirm H pylori status. Treatment with one of four regimens: LAC, LAM, LCM, or OAM, where L is 30 mg of lansoprazole twice daily, A is 1 g of amoxycillin twice daily, M is 400 mg of metronidazole twice daily, C is 250 mg of clarithromycin twice daily, and O is 20 mg of omeprazole twice daily, was assigned randomly. A follow up breath test was done at least 28 days after completing treatment.
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Fifty-four patients with endoscopically documented therapy-resistant erosive reflux esophagitis were treated with lansoprazole, a new proton pump inhibitor, for up to 12 weeks. Prior to entry, all had remained unhealed after treatment with at least two histamine2-receptor antagonists, at therapeutic doses or higher, for at least 12 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive either 30 or 60 mg lansoprazole once daily. Endoscopy was performed and symptoms assessed at weeks 2,4,6,8 and 12. Fifty-nine percent of the 50 evaluable patients were healed (ie, no evidence of erosions) after only two weeks of lansoprazole. Cumulative endoscopic healing rates were 82% and 92% by week 4 and week 8, respectively, and the two doses were equally effective in healing. The 30- and 60-mg doses effected a decrease in the overall symptom score from 5.30 and 4.85 to 2.35 and 1.67, respectively, by the final treatment visit (P = 0.001). No clinically significant adverse events or changes in laboratory parameters were observed, and no patients withdrew prematurely from the study. This study demonstrates that lansoprazole therapy is highly effective in healing erosive reflux esophagitis resistant to therapy with histamine H2-receptor antagonists.
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In a phase I/II, open-label, multicenter (11 sites) study, children with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), erosive esophagitis (> or = grade 2), and/or esophageal pH < 4 for > 4.2% of the 24-hour period were assigned, on the basis of body weight, to lansoprazole 15 mg (< or = 30 kg) or 30 mg (> 30 kg) once daily for 8 to 12 weeks. At the discretion of the investigator, the dosage of lansoprazole was increased up to 60 mg daily in children who continued to be symptomatic after 2 weeks of treatment. Safety for all study participants was monitored by adverse event reports and laboratory evaluations.
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Current treatment for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic disease is based on the combination of antibiotic and anti-acid regimens. Multiple combinations have been investigated, however no consensus has been reached regarding the optimal duration and medications.