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Precose (Acarbose)

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Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Acarbose.


Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.


Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

precose 100 mg

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (acarbose), combined with a low-carbohydrate diet on the treatment of naturally occurring diabetes mellitus in cats. Eighteen client-owned cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus were entered into the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed prior to and 4 months after feeding the diet to determine total body composition, including lean body mass (LBM) and percent body fat. Each cat was fed a commercially available low-carbohydrate canned feline diet and received 12.5mg/cat acarbose orally every 12h with meals. All cats received subcutaneous insulin therapy except one cat in the study group that received glipizide (5mg BID PO). Monthly serum glucose and fructosamine concentrations were obtained, and were used to adjust insulin doses based on individual cat's requirements. Patients were later classified as responders (insulin was discontinued, n=11) and non-responders (continued to require insulin or glipizide, n=7). Responders were initially obese (>28% body fat) and non-responders had significantly less body fat than responders (<28% body fat). Serum fructosamine and glucose concentrations decreased significantly in both responder and non-responder groups over the course of 4 months of therapy. Better results were observed in responder cats, for which exogenous insulin therapy was discontinued, glycemic parameters improved, and body fat decreased. In non-responders, median insulin requirements decreased and glycemic parameters improved significantly, despite continued insulin dependence. The use of a low-carbohydrate diet with acarbose was an effective means of decreasing exogenous insulin dependence and improving glycemic control in a series of client-owned cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.

precose 50 mg

In NIDDM patients inadequately controlled on conventional oral agents, acarbose in moderate doses resulted in beneficial effects on glycemic control, especially postprandial glycemia, and mean body weight. Additional use of acarbose can be considered as a useful alternative in such patients if they are reluctant to accept insulin therapy.

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Characterization of polyphenolic compounds in the stems of P. multiflorum was conducted using HPLC, high resolution LC-MS and LC-MSn. Proanthocyanidins in particular were isolated in 4.8% yield using solvent extraction followed by Sephadex LH-20 fractionation. HPLC analysis using a diol column revealed oligomers (from dimer to nonamer) as minor components, with (epi)catechin monomeric units predominating, and oligomers with higher degree of polymerization being dominant. Thiolysis treatment of the proanthocyanidins using mercaptoacetic acid produced thioether derivatives of (epi)catechin as the major product and a mean value of the degree of polymerization of 32.6 was estimated from the ratio of terminal and extension units of the (epi)catechin. The isolated proanthocyanidins were shown to strongly inhibit α-amylase with an acarbose equivalence (AE) value of 1,954.7 µmol AE/g and inhibit α-glucosidase with an AE value of 211.1 µmol AE/g.

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Ascorbic acid (1), a natural antioxidant, was modified by employing transglycosylation activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus maltogenic amylase with maltotriose and acarbose as donor molecules to enhance its oxidative stability. The transglycosylation reaction with maltotriose as donor created mono- and di-glycosyl transfer products with an alpha-(1,6)-glycosidic linkage. In addition, two acarviosine-glucosyl transfer products were generated when transglycosylation was performed with acarbose as a donor. All transfer products were observed by TLC and HPLC, and purified by Q-sepharose anion exchange and Biogel P-2 gel permeation chromatographies. LC/MS and (13)C NMR analyses revealed that the structures of the transfer products were 6-O-alpha-D-glucosyl- (2) and 6-O-alpha-D-maltosyl-ascorbic acids (3) in the reaction of maltotriose, and 6-O-alpha-acarviosine-D-glucosyl- (4) and 2-O-alpha-acarviosine-D-glucosyl ascorbic acids (5) in the reaction of acarbose. The stability of the transglycosylated ascorbic acid derivatives was greatly enhanced against oxidation by Cu(2+) ion and ascorbate oxidase. Among them, compound 3 proved to be the most stable against in vitro oxidation. The antioxidant effects of glycosyl-derivatives of ascorbic acid on the lipid oxidation in cooked chicken breast meat patties indicated that they had antioxidant activities similar to that of ascorbic acid. It is suggested that the transglycosylated ascorbic acids can possibly be applied as effective antioxidants with improved stability in food, cosmetic, and other applications.

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The validity of the results of the STOP-NIDDM trial is seriously flawed. The clinical benefit of Acarbose and of the reduction of post-prandial glycaemia is unproven.

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin deficiency but in particular by insulin resistance. Patients where it is not possible to achieve positive results within 4-12 weeks by optimalization of the lifestyle are candidates for treatment with oral antidiabetics. At present the following main groups of oral antidiabetics are discussed: insulin secretagogues (SU derivatives and methiglinide derivatives), biguanides (Metformin), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) and insulin sensitizers (thiazolindiones). Traditional SU therapy improves the insulin plasma levels by releasing insulin from the pancreas. This implies further stress on the b-cells and the function of these cells declines reversibly. Biguanides, such as metformin, are effective substances reducing the blood sugar level, they are however associated with the problem of tolerability and are contraindicated in some diabetics. A new approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes are thiasolinediones, insulin-sensitizing substances, the molecular basis of their action being via activation of PPAR gamma-nuclear receptors with subsequent change in expression of genes participating in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

precose medication

We are studied 92 patients with diabetes type 2, treated with Acarbose alone or with insuline or oral anti-diabetics We are determined the values of HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides and microalbuminuria, before and after or the treatment with acarbose.

precose drug interactions

Acarbose, a competitive α-glucosidase inhibitor, is clinically and widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. In order to improve the industrial acarbose productivity by Actinoplanes sp. A56, the classical fermentation conditions such as total sugar concentration in broths, pH value and dissolved oxygen (DO) level were systematically investigated in a 30000-l fermenter, respectively. It was observed that a high-concentration total sugar (75-80 g/l), 7.0-7.2 of pH value and 40-50% of DO concentration were favorable for acarbose production. As a result, the final acarbose yield was elevated to approximately 5000 mg/l at 168 h of fermentation.

precose generic name

To assess the cost-effectiveness of metformin-based dual therapies associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a Chinese population with type 2 diabetes.

precose dose

Helicteres isora (Sterculiaceae) root juice has been used in the treatment of diabetes by several ethnic groups in different parts of India. A program was initiated to elucidate the scientific basis for the antidiabetic activity of H. isora. Ethanolic extract of H. isora root caused significant reduction in plasma glucose, triglyceride and insulin levels at 300 mg/kg dose after 9 days of administration to insulin resistant and diabetic C57BL/KsJdb/db mice. In normoglycemic and mildly hypertriglyceridemic Swiss albino mice, the extract also showed significant reduction in plasma triglyceride and insulin levels, without affecting plasma glucose level. An ethanolic extract showed activity distinctly different from glybenclamide and acarbose but similar to troglitazone in these models. In high fat fed hamster model, the extract showed significant reduction in plasma lipid levels. In order to identify the active pharmacophore, the ethanolic extract was further subjected to sequential partitioning with low, medium and high polarity solvents, which yielded a semipurified fraction having both euglycemic and lipid-lowering activity. Our study suggests that the extract of H. isora has insulin-sensitizing and hypolipidemic activity and has the potential for use in the treatment of type-2 diabetes.

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Eight randomized controlled trials with 2628 participants were included. Acarbose decreased the occurrence of T2DM (number needed to treat [NNT], 6.7). Compared with the control (placebo and/or lifestyle intervention), the incidence of T2DM was significantly lower in the Eastern group (NNT, 5.9) than in the Western group (NNT, 11.1) (P < 0.0001, I(2) = 94.7%). At the end of follow-up, reversal of prediabetes to normal glucose tolerance was more likely in the Eastern group (NNT, 4.3) than in the Western group (NNT, 25) (P = 0.004, I(2) = 92%). Among those remaining prediabetic, there was no significant difference between the subtotal estimates for the subgroups (P = 0.17, I(2) = 46.5%). There was no positive correlation between preventive effect and dose, and no difference in studies with varying follow-up durations within and across either ethnic group.

precose drugs

Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) and intermittent hypoxia related to the sleep apnea syndrome are important predictors of cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of intermittent hypoxia on pathological changes in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium caused by PPH in lean mice and evaluated the influence of acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor. Male C57BL/6J mice aged 8 weeks were exposed to intermittent hypoxia (8 h/day during the daytime) or kept under normoxia. PPH was induced by restriction of feeding to 1-h periods twice a day, with the restricted diet (RD) mice receiving either standard chow or chow containing 0.02% acarbose. Another group of mice were fed standard chow ad libitum (AL). Plasma glucose levels after food intake were significantly elevated in RD but not in AL mice, and glucose levels were suppressed by acarbose. Intermittent hypoxia exacerbated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis in the LV myocardium of RD mice. Superoxide production and expression of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in the LV myocardium with intermittent hypoxia were increased in RD mice, but not AL mice. In addition, expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) mRNA was increased in hypoxic RD mice. Treatment with acarbose inhibited oxidative stress and TNF-α mRNA expression and preserved the histological architecture of the LV myocardium.

precose acarbose tablets

Drug repositioning can reduce the time, costs and risks of drug development by identifying new therapeutic effects for known drugs. It is challenging to reposition drugs as pharmacological data is large and complex. Subnetwork identification has already been used to simplify the visualization and interpretation of biological data, but it has not been applied to drug repositioning so far. In this paper, we fill this gap by proposing a new Physarum-inspired Prize-Collecting Steiner Tree algorithm to identify subnetworks for drug repositioning.

precose dosage

A series of hesperidin derivatives were prepared and identified by IR, (1)H NMR, and MS spectra. These compounds were evaluated in vitro and in vivo based on α-glucosidase inhibition, glucose consumption of HepG2 cells, and blood glucose level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results revealed that all the compounds exhibited anti-hyperglycemic activities. The inhibition at 10(-3) M of compounds 3 and 7a on α-glucosidase were 55.02% and 53.34%, respectively, as compared to 54.80% by acarbose. Treated by compound 3 and the reference drug metformin, glucose consumption of HepG2 cell were 1.78 and 2.11 mM, respectively. After the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were oral administrated with compound 3 at 100 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 10 days, the blood glucose level of 3 treated mice (13.23 mM, P<0.05) showed significant difference when compared to model control (23.03 mM). Thus, compound 3 exhibited promising anti-hyperglycemic activity.

precose user reviews

Acarbose, a pseudo-oligosaccharide, is widely used clinically in therapies for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In the present study, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was added to selected media in order to investigate its effect on acarbose fermentation by Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB- 08196. Acarbose titer was seen to increase markedly when concentrations of SAM were added over a period of time. The effects of glucose and maltose on the production of acarbose were investigated in both batch and fed-batch fermentation. Optimal acarbose production was observed at relatively low glucose levels and high maltose levels. Based on these results, a further fed-batch experiment was designed so as to enhance the production of acarbose. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose level of 10 g/l and an initial maltose level of 60 g/l. Then, 12 h post inoculation, 100 micromol/l SAM was added. In addition, 8 g/l of glucose was added every 24 h, and 20 g/l of maltose was added at 96 h. By way of this novel feeding strategy, the maximum titer of acarbose achieved was 6,113 mg/l at 192 h. To our knowledge, the production level of acarbose achieved in this study is the highest ever reported.

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To investigate exenatide, a GLP-1 analogue, compared with acarbose, for intra-abdominal fat reduction in patients with obesity and type-2 diabetes.

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Median HbA1c was 66 ± 1 mmol/mol (8.2 ± 0.07%) in the metformin group at baseline, and 66 ± 1 mmol/mol (8.2 ± 0.07%) in the acarbose group. After 24 weeks of monotherapy, 79.8% of participants in the metformin group achieved glycaemic targets compared with 78.7% of those in the acarbose group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that BMI and fasting blood glucose were significant independent predictors for the maintenance of good glycaemic control in the metformin group, whereas phase I insulin secretion (Insulin/Glucose at 30 min, I30/G30) and duration of diabetes were associated with good glycaemic control in the acarbose group.

precose drug class

In patients with IGT, doxazosin given in combination with acarbose seemed to improve glycaemic and lipid control compared with placebo, with the benefits observed appearing to extend beyond those expected from improvements in blood pressure. Patients in this study also benefited from acarbose therapy, which restored all patients from IGT to normal glucose tolerance status.

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Gestational diabetes is considered as a carbohydrate intolerance, first diagnosed during pregnancy. A previous stage of carbohydrate impairement may precede its abnormality; therefore it may be convenient to establish some management in order to avoid the gestational diabetes. Six pregnant women who had moderate elevated level of blood glucose at fasting and postprandial were treated with acarbose, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor agent, given three times a day before meals. In all patients fasting and postprandial glucose levels were normalized; pregnancies went uneventful and the newborns were considered normal. Acarbose was associated with intestinal discomfort which persisted during the whole pregnancy.

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To compare the health and economic outcomes of using acarbose, an intensive lifestyle modification programme, metformin or no intervention to prevent progression to diabetes in Canadian individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

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Nineteen plants from Fabaceae family, which were used in Thai traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes, were determined of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity via enzymatic reaction. In this reaction, α-glucosidase was used as enzyme, which, reacted with the substrate, p-nitrophenol-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG). After that the product, p-nitro phenol (pNP) will be occurred and observed the yellow colour at 405 nm. In this study, acarbose was used as positive standard which, inhibited this enzyme with IC₅₀ as 331 ± 4.73 μg/ml. Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves showed the highest activity with IC₅₀ as 436.97 ± 9.44 μg/ml. Furthermore, Bauhinia malabarica leaves presented moderately activity with IC₅₀ as 745.08 ± 11.15 μg/ml. However, the other plants showed mild to none activity of α-glucosidase inhibition. Accordingly, this study can support anti-diabetes of these plants in traditional medicine and it will be the database of the biological activity of Fabaceae plant.

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precose cost 2015-11-11

Inhibitors of intestinal alpha-glucosidases are used therapeutically to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Bacteria such as Actinoplanes sp. naturally produce potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitor compounds, including the most widely available drug acarbose. It is not known whether lactic acid bacteria (LAB) colonising the buy precose human gut possess inhibitory potential against glucosidases. Hence, the study was undertaken to screen LABs having inherent alpha- and beta-glucosidase inhibitory potential.

precose dosing 2017-03-17

Of the 12 093 residents who received postal invitations, 118 participants were randomized. The mean difference of the post-load plasma glucose after 3 years, was - 1.16 mmol/L (95% CI: - 2.03; - 0.17). The absolute risk reduction for diabetes was 6% (95% CI: - 9; 21). No effect was seen on insulin secretion and buy precose insulin sensitivity.

precose 25 mg 2017-02-06

This study investigated the effects of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, on glycemic control and insulin secretion in thalassemic patients with impaired glucose tolerance. The safety and tolerability of the drug were also evaluated. Nine patients (4 men and 5 women, aged 20-34 years) with beta-thalassemia major received a standardized nutritional test load prior to and following 3 months treatment with acarbose 100 mg t.i.d. Blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels were measured at 0, 60, 90 and 120 min post-loading. Plasma glucose levels after 3 months of acarbose treatment tended to be slightly lower than pre-treatment levels. Although fasting serum insulin and plasma C-peptide levels were unchanged after acarbose therapy, postprandial serum levels of both hormones were markedly reduced (by 24-47% and 19-32%, respectively, at 60-120 min post-loading). Body mass index, liver enzymes and serum lipids were unaltered following acarbose treatment. Gastrointestinal disturbances were mild and tended to decrease during the course of acarbose therapy. Acarbose is a well-tolerated agent for the management of thalassemic patients with glucose intolerance and normal or increased insulin secretion. It is possible that acarbose may prevent or buy precose delay progression from impaired glucose homeostasis to frank insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

precose generic 2015-07-31

The total inhibitory rate of maltose absorption was improved by the combination of GA (0.1g/L-1.0 g/L) and acarbose (0.1 mmol/L-2.0 mmol/L) throughout their effective duration (P <0.05, U test of Mann-Whitney), although the improvement only could be seen at a low dosage during the first hour. With the combination, inhibitory duration buy precose of acarbose on maltose absorption was prolonged to 3h and the inhibitory effect onset of GA was fastened to 15 min. GA suppressed the intestinal mobility with a good correlation (r = 0.98) to the inhibitory effect of GA on maltose absorption and the inhibitory effect of 2 mmol/L (high dose) acarbose on maltose hydrolysis was dual modulated by 1g/L GA in vivo indicating that the combined effects involved the functional alteration of intestinal barriers.

precose drugs 2017-05-10

A TIMELY TOPIC: Liver toxicity remains a common problem despite adequate information for physicians and drug watch programs. The number of recent publications reporting severe drug-induced liver disease emphasizes the need for prudence. ACUTE AND CHRONIC HEPATOTOXICITY: Cases of acute drug-induced liver disease have been described for nearly all drug classes: a few examples concern hepatitis subsequent to administration of fluoxetin, acarbose, riluzole, coumarin, or orlistat. Fulminant hepatitis is fortunately an exceptional event but has been described after administration of ketoprofene, nimesulid, and clarithyromycin. Chronic liver disease has also resulted from the use of mesalazine, minocyclin or fibrates. Nevirapin prescribed for HIV infection can cause severe liver disease. OTHER AGENTS: Certain herbal agents, such as chelidoin for example, can cause cholestasis. Certain excipients can also be toxic for the liver. Ecstasy appears to be a frequent cause of sometimes severe buy precose liver disease in younger subjects.

precose dose 2016-11-03

Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, buy precose Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control.

precose 100 mg 2017-08-23

Type I diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease caused by chronic immune attack against the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. It has recently been shown that the clinical course of this disease can be interrupted by immune ablation and PBSCT. In this report, we describe our experience with this treatment modality in a series of eight cases buy precose . Patients with newly diagnosed type I diabetes were received treatment consisting of two to three plasmaphereses, hematopoietic stem cell mobilization with CY and G-CSF, collection of at least 3 × 10(6) per kg of CD34+ cells, and conditioning with CY and anti-thymocyte globulin followed by stem cell infusion. All patients became independent of exogenous insulin after the transplantation. One patient resumed low-dose insulin 7 months after transplantation. Six out of eight patients were given acarbose for better glycemic control after transplantation. All patients exhibited good glycemic control: the average HbA1c concentrations were 12.3% at diagnosis, and 5.6 and 6.2% at 3 and 6 months after transplantation, respectively. We conclude that at least temporary independence of exogenous insulin can be achieved in type I diabetes patients following immunoablation and reconstitution of the immune system with autologous PBSCs.

buy precose online 2015-09-15

When rats consume a high cornstarch (raw) diet containing the alpha glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, they transport a large portion of buy precose the undigested starch into the large bowel, causing massive distention of the lower GI tract. In the present study we compare the effects of acarbose (50 mg per 100 g diet) when mixed in a raw cornstarch diet to its effects when mixed in a cooked cornstarch diet of otherwise identical composition. Controls received the respective diets but without the drug. In contrast to its effects when mixed in the raw cornstarch, mixed in the cooked cornstarch diet, acarbose consumption was not accompanied by any significant fecal losses of dietary starch. The intestinal distention induced by the drug was also much smaller in the rats eating the cooked cornstarch than the raw cornstarch. When either diet contained acarbose, fat depot weights were significantly lower than when the diets did not contain the drug. However, the difference was consistently greater with the raw cornstarch diet.

precose medication 2017-11-30

This study had a multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled parallel-group comparison design. The trial lasted 31 weeks and consisted of a buy precose 1-week screening period, a 6-week placebo pretreatment period, and a 24-week period of acarbose or placebo, with a forced titration from 25-50 mg t.i.d. and a titration of 50-100 mg tid that was based on glucose control. The primary efficacy variable was the mean change from baseline in HbA1c. Secondary efficacy variables included mean changes from baseline in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, serum insulin, and triglyceride levels.

acarbose precose medication 2017-12-31

The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is an efficacious medicine for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the response of gut microbiota to acarbose is important, as the microbiota may have a critical role in the development of metabolic diseases, and acarbose is metabolized exclusively within the gastrointestinal tract. We explored the changes in the buy precose proportion and diversity of gut microbiota before and after treatment with acarbose in patients with prediabetes.

precose dosage 2016-08-25

The results of suggest that OA and MA may be used as potential buy precose supplements for treating postprandial hyperglycemia.

precose drug class 2016-07-18

Three new xanthones, oblongixanthone F-H buy precose (1-3), along with eight known xanthones (4-11), were isolated from an EtOAc extract of the twigs of Garcinia oblongifolia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The antidiabetic effects of all isolated compounds were evaluated by in vitro α-glucosidase and PTP1B inhibition assays. Compound 11 was the most active compound, and inhibited α-glucosidase and PTP1B with IC50 values of 1.7±0.5 and 14.1±3.5μM, respectively.

precose buy 2017-03-22

Unlike in western countries, premixed insulin is widely used as the starter insulin in Asian patients instead of basal insulin. The use of buy precose basal-bolus therapy as an intensification regimen is not common in Asia despite poor glycaemic control after starting insulin therapy. An alternative insulin intensification regimen with a similar efficacy and safety profile to basal-bolus therapy, but of higher convenience, is urgently needed. The efficacy and safety of insulin lispro mix thrice-daily was compared with basal-bolus therapy in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes who were insufficiently controlled on twice-daily premixed insulin.

precose reviews 2015-06-30

An additional Amoxil Suspension Glaxosmithkline amylase besides the typical alpha-amylase was detected in the cytoplasm of Bacillus subtilis SUH4-2, an isolate from Korean soil. The corresponding gene encoded a maltogenic amylase, which hydrolyzed cyclodextrin or starch to maltose and glucose; pullulan to panose; acarbose to glucose and acarviosine-glucose. Maltogenic amylase of B. subtilis SUH4-2 transferred sugar molecules to form various branched oligosaccharides upon the hydrolysis of substrates. The enzyme existed in a monomer-dimer equilibrium with a molar ratio of 3:2 in 50 mM KH(2)PO(4)-NaOH buffer (pH 7.0). The maltogenic amylase is most likely to be associated with carbohydrate metabolism in the cytoplasm, since the nucleotide sequence of the gene was highly homologous to the yvdF gene of B. subtilis 168, which is located in a gene cluster involved in maltose/maltodextrin utilization.

precose drug interactions 2017-04-03

The hypoglycemic effect of a glycoside hydrolase inhibitor (BAY g 5421) was tested in 10 non-insulin dependent, overweight diabetics by means of continuous in vivo glucograms. There was a highly significant reduction of serum glucose with a dosage of 3 x 100 mg glycoside hydrolase inhibitor, after dosage division to 6 x 50 mg there was an additional reduction of blood glucose. This difference, however, could not be determined statistically. Insulin, glucagon and lactate as well as the triglyceride concentration remained unchanged. There Sinemet Cr Dosing were no significant side-effects. Two of the 10 patients complained of meteorism, after specific questioning three more patients offered similar complaints. Discontinuation of the preparation was not necessary.

precose drug 2016-10-12

The more Mestinon Pills than 3 million type II diabetics in Germany constitute a true therapeutic challenge. Type II diabetes mellitus is part of the so-called metabolic syndrome characterized by the problem of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia. Treatment of type II diabetes aims at reducing insulin resistance. Oral antidiabetic management must be based on diabetic diet, in conjunction--if needed--with monotherapy with acarbose or metformin. Only after exhausting these principles of management, acarbose or metformin may be combined with sulfonylurea. Primary monotherapy with insulinotropically acting sulfonylureas is, in most cases, no longer appropriate as we are learning more about the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome.

precose tablet 2016-06-01

The thiazolidinediones have been in clinical use for the management of type 2 diabetes for the past five years. These agents reduce insulin resistance by acting as ligands that regulate gene expression related to the proliferation and differentiation of adipose tissue. Overall, data from several clinical studies suggest that their hypoglycaemic efficacy is slightly less than sulphonylureas and metformin but greater than acarbose and the glinides. In the short term, treatment with thiazolidinediones is associated with weight gain, expansion of plasma volume, fluid retention, peripheral oedema, an increased risk of congestive heart failure when combined with insulin, and an idiosyncratic hepatotoxic reaction to troglitazone. The long term consequences of these effects are not known. Contrary to expectations, despite being insulin sensitisers these agents do not favourably influence the other components of the metabolic syndrome that are believed to be aggravated by insulin resistance. Dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure, which are major risk factors of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes, are not favourably improved with thiazolidinedione treatment. Unlike the Anafranil And Alcohol sulphonylureas and metformin, which have been shown in recent long term randomised studies to reduce cardiovascular risk substantially, there is no data on the long term cardiovascular safety of the thiazolidinediones. At present, in the absence of long term data, the thiazolidinediones in clinical use are moderately effective hypoglycaemic drugs with no particular advantage over existing treatments in type 2 diabetes.

precose online 2015-07-27

In this small, open-label study in patients with established CAD who were newly diagnosed with IGT or mild T2DM, 12 months of treatment with acarbose was associated with a beneficial effect in terms of preventing the progression of carotid IMT compared with control, although it was not associated with a significant decrease in IMT from baseline. UMIN (University Hospital Medical Information Network) Clinical Voltaren 25mg Dosage Trials Registry identifier: UMIN000000544.

precose generic name 2016-07-05

Miglitol, the first pseudomonosaccharide alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, smooths postprandial peak plasma glucose levels and thus improves glycaemic control, which is reflected in a reduced glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level. This oral antihyperglycaemic agent is indicated for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Miglitol is generally well tolerated and, unlike the sulphonylurea agents, is not associated with bodyweight gain or hypoglycaemia when administered as monotherapy. The drug is systemically absorbed but is not metabolised and is rapidly excreted via the kidneys. Clinical trials with miglitol (usually 50 or 100 mg 3 times daily) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus consistently demonstrated a significant improvement in glycaemic control for periods of 6 to 12 months. There were also marked reductions in postprandial serum insulin levels, although miglitol generally had no effect on fasting insulin levels. In comparative studies miglitol had similar efficacy to acarbose, but at lower therapeutic doses (50 and 100 mg 3 times daily, respectively). In addition, although sulphonylurea agents provided superior reductions in HbA1c levels, miglitol provided similar or superior reductions in fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels. In combination with other oral antidiabetic agents or insulin, miglitol improved glycaemic control in patients in whom metabolic control was suboptimal despite dietary and pharmacological intervention. Most adverse events associated with miglitol treatment involve disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract (most common effects are flatulence, abdominal pain and diarrhoea). These Zoloft 70 Mg symptoms are usually dose dependent, mild to moderate in severity, occur at the onset of treatment, decline with time and resolve promptly on discontinuation of the drug or with dosage adjustment. As monotherapy, miglitol is not associated with hypoglycaemia, but concomitant use with other oral antidiabetic agents may necessitate dosage adjustment of the other agents. Miglitol had no significant effects on renal, cardiovascular, respiratory or haematological parameters in long term studies. No dosage adjustments are required in elderly patients, in those with hepatic impairment or in those with mild to moderate renal insufficiency.

precose user reviews 2015-10-23

BAY g 5421 (acarbose) inhibits carbohydrate digestion in the gut, thereby reducing the rate of glucose absorption. This experiment tested whether long term administration of acarbose to developing Zucker "fatty" (fafa) rats would, by reducing several lipogenic factors, attenuate lipid deposition and reduce the hyperphagia and increased food motivated behavior of these animals. From 7 to 20 weeks of life groups of fatty and lean (FaFa) control rats were fed 0, 20 or 40 mg acarbose/100 g maintenance diet (45% carbohydrate, 35% fat, 20% protein calories), while an additional fatty and lean group were pair-fed to respective 40 mg acarbose groups. Lean groups fed acarbose exhibited dose dependent reductions of body weight, insulin, triglycerides, retroperitoneal and epididymal pad weight, adipocyte size, LPL activity/cell (retroperitoneal pad only), and lipid deposition both in total grams of fat and as a percentage of carcass weight. Fatty groups fed acarbose exhibited dose dependent reductions of insulin, blood glucose, retroperitoneal pad weight, and, at one of the two doses used, significantly lowered body weight, (40 mg), triglycerides (20 mg) and cholesterol (20 mg). However, acarbose-fed fatty groups failed to show significant reductions of adipocyte size, number or LPL activity/cell in retroperitoneal and epididymal fat pads, and maintained their obese body composition, on a percentage basis, at levels not significantly different from that of the 0 mg fatty control group. Acarbose administration led to an initial dose dependent reduction of food intake in both genotypes, which persisted for the lean groups. Fatties fed the 20 mg dose showed a gradual tendency (ns) towards increased daily intake, lever pressed at elevated rates for food pellets, and refed at faster rates following fasting. Fatties fed the 40 mg dose maintained their daily intake at fatty control levels, did not lever press at elevated rates, and showed significantly Glucotrol Overdose reduced refeeding following fasting. The 40 mg fatty and both lean acarbose treated groups had decreased sucrose solution preference. Possible bases for these differing effects of the drug on feeding behavior by the groups are considered.

precose acarbose tablets 2017-08-16

Dietary habits and food preferences in developed countries reveal lack of dietary plant fiber associated with the epidemiologic expansion of widespread noninfectious diseases (metabolic, cardiovascular and some malignant neoplasms). INHIBITORS OF INTESTINAL ALPHA-GLYCOSIDASES: These are substances which competatively and reversibly Stromectol Ivermectin Dose inhibit the intestinal alpha-glycosidases. The best known among them is acarbose, already in clinical usage for some time. Its wide application has been limited due to fairly distressing side effects.

precose tabs 2015-05-28

Four new polyketides: nectriacids A-C (1-3) and 12-epicitreoisocoumarinol (4), together with three known compounds: citreoisocoumarinol (5), citreoisocoumarin (6), and macrocarpon C (7) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Nectria sp. HN001, which was isolated from a fresh branch of the mangrove plant Sonneratia ovata collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were determined by the detailed analysis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of the stereogenic carbons for compound 4 was further assigned by Mosher's ester method. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory Avapro Dosage Range activity by UV absorbance at 405 nm, and new compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 23.5 and 42.3 μM, respectively, which were more potent than positive control (acarbose, IC50, 815.3 μM).

precose tablets 2017-02-13

The present study examined the ability of rats to develop aversions to familiar flavours and to flavours that they had previously acquired a preference for. Rats were first conditioned to prefer a CS+ flavour over a CS- flavour by pairing CS+ intake with the consumption of a starch solution (16% Polycose). A second group was exposed to the same training but preference conditioning was prevented by inhibiting starch digestion with the drug acarbose. The rats were next given aversion training; the CS+ flavour was now paired with toxicosis (LiCl injection) while the CS- flavour paired with a control treatment (NaCl injection). The Bystolic Max Dose results of two-choice tests revealed that aversion training produced significant avoidance of the CS+ flavours in both the group that had acquired a preference for this flavour as well as in the no-preference group. The value of using conditioned flavour preferences as targets for aversions to model the aversion therapy approach to alcoholism is discussed.

precose medicine 2016-12-28

Mean HbA Atarax Renal Dosing (1c) improved by 0.9%, fasting blood glucose by 32.4 mg/dL, and postprandial hyperglycaemia by 49.7 mg/dL during the observation period compared with baseline. Comparable results were obtained in combination with conventional, functional or intensive insulin therapy. Mean weight was reduced by 0.7kg. The incidence of acarbose-related side effects was low (6.9%) and consisted mostly of gastrointestinal complaints. The majority of patients assessed acarbose treatment positively.

precose patient review 2017-05-10

1. in both types of diabetes, acarbose is an effective drug and decreases the frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes, 2. NIDDM patients Artane Windows Reviews having diet in effectivity require sulfonylureas or insulin late if acarbose administered and 3. in IDDM patients acarbose subsides the postprandial hyperglycaemia and smoothes the daily blood-sugar profile.

precose 50 mg 2015-05-18

Two novel aminooligosaccharides were separated from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces coelicoflavus ZG0656. Their chemical structures were determined by acidic hydrolysis, electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), and NMR spectroscopy. The compounds were named acarviostatins III0(-1) and III23 according to the nomenclature of this group of metabolites. The two novel acarviostatins were both mixed noncompetitive inhibitors of porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). The inhibition constants (K(i)) for acarviostatins III0(-1) and III23 were 0.009 and 0.026 μM, respectively, 151 and 52 times more potent than acarbose.

precose cost 2015-01-23

Ultrasonographic scanning of carotid arteries allows non-invasive detection of atherosclerotic changes. This technique has been used to investigate changes in the thickness of the intimal plus medial (IM) complex, in patients with type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes and those in the pre-diabetic state of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). IM thickness (IMT) increases with age, but this process was found to be considerably accelerated in patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, IMT was significantly greater in patients with cerebral lacunar infarctions, and in those with detectable coronary artery stenosis. A study in patients with type 1 diabetes found that IMT correlates with duration of diabetes as well as age. The correlation with duration of diabetes suggests that hyperglycaemia contributes to the progression of atherosclerosis. IMT was also found to be increased in individuals with hyperinsulinaemic IGT, compared with control individuals with normal glucose tolerance. These results suggest that even relatively small increases in postprandial blood glucose levels can lead to increases in IMT and, hence, increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Further analysis revealed a correlation between hyperinsulinaemia (i.e. insulin resistance) and increased IMT. These results provide a clear rationale for the therapeutic use of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, such as acarbose, which attenuate postprandial hyperglycaemia-induced hyperinsulinaemia.

precose dosing 2016-11-09

To evaluate the impact of different hypoglycemic drugs on exercise-mediated blood glucose (BG) reduction.

precose 25 mg 2015-09-17

The presence of a complex phenotype of type 2 diabetes results from impaired insulin secretion and action, whereas the mechanism of action of sulfonylurea derivatives, most commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is based on their ability to directly inhibit the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP), which leads to b-cell depolarization, subsequent influx of calcium and then insulin exocytosis. It has recently been demonstrated in healthy subjects that molecular variants of the gene encoding for the KATP subunit - sulfonylurea receptor gene (SUR1) are associated with a decreased response of insulin secretion to intravenous injection of tolbutamide, a sulfonylurea derivative. In this study we tested whether a molecular variant of the SUR1 gene, 16-3t, has a different distribution in type 2 diabetic patients with early failure of sulfonylurea therapy, compared to patients treatable with sulfonylurea despite long diabetes duration.