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Persantine (Dipyridamole)

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Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants. Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement. Generic Persantine keeps blood flowing smoothly by preventing blood cells from clumping together (coagulating).

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Argatroban, Plavix, Salagen, Arixtra


Also known as:  Dipyridamole.


Generic Persantine is a coumarin anticoagulants.

Generic Persantine is indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement. Generic Persantine keeps blood flowing smoothly by preventing blood cells from clumping together (coagulating).

Persantine is also known as Dipyridamole.

Generic name of Generic Persantine is Dipyridamole.

Brand name of Generic Persantine is Persantine.


You can take Generic Persantine with or without food.

The recommended Generic Persantine dose is 75-100 mg four times daily.

Try to take this Generic Persantine at the same time each day.

Do not store in the bathroom.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Persantine suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Persantine and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Persantine overdosage: warm feeling, flushes, sweating, restlessness, weakness, dizziness.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Persantine are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Persantine if you are allergic to Generic Persantine components.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you have unstable angina.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you have had recently sustained myocardial infarction or hypotension.

Be careful with Generic Persantine if you use anticoagulants ("blood thinners"), aspirin, valproic acid.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Persantine taking suddenly.

persantine 25mg tabs

The choice of hemopoietic differentiation by polypotent bone marrow stem cells was studied by morphological and chemiluminescent methods. This choice occurred on day 7 after heterotopic bone marrow transplantation and dipyridamole administration, under the effect of oxidative homeostasis imbalance in the plasma. Dipyridamole increased total antioxidant activity and 10-fold reduced the intensity of free radical oxidation. Disaggregation therapy with dipyridamole reduced platelet count in the peripheral blood and decreased total plasma antioxidant activity.

persantine 10 mg

Patients were stratified according to time after transplantation (group I, up to 2 years after transplantation; group II, 2 to 4 years after transplantation; group III, more than 4 years after transplantation). Changes of the diameter of proximal, mid and distal segments of the left anterior descending coronary artery and the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery were investigated after endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh, 50 and 100 micrograms i.c.) and nitroglycerin 0.3 mg i.c. Coronary flow changes were assessed endothelium-dependently (ACh 50 and 100 micrograms i.c.) and endothelium-independently (dipyridamole 0.56 mg/kg i.v.) utilizing an 8 F Judkins-style Doppler catheter.

persantine 75 mg

The activity of volume-sensitive Cl- channels was studied in human tracheal epithelial cells (9HTEo-) by taurine efflux experiments. The efflux elicited by a hypotonic shock was partially inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonists, by alpha,beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (alphabetaMeADP), an inhibitor of the 5'-ectonucleotidase, and by adenosine deaminase. On the other hand, dipyridamole, a nucleoside transporter inhibitor, increased the swelling-induced taurine efflux. Extracellular ATP and adenosine increased taurine efflux by potentiating the effect of hypotonic shock. alphabetaMeADP strongly inhibited the effect of extracellular ATP but not that of adenosine. These results suggest that anion channel activation involves the release of intracellular ATP, which is then degraded to adenosine by specific ectoenzymes. Adenosine then binds to purinergic receptors, causing the activation of the channels. To directly demonstrate ATP efflux, cells were loaded with [3H]AMP, and the release of radiolabeled molecules was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. During hypotonic shock, cell supernatants showed the presence of ATP, ADP, and adenosine. alphabetaMeADP inhibited adenosine formation and caused the appearance of AMP. Under hypotonic conditions, elevation of intracellular Ca2+ by ionomycin caused an increase of ATP and adenosine in the extracellular solution. Our results demonstrate that volume-sensitive anion channels are regulated with an autocrine mechanism involving swelling-induced ATP release and then hydrolysis to adenosine.

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Human adipocytes are of limited viability (7 +/- 2% release of lactate dehydrogenase/h) and contain active ectophosphatases which are capable of sequentially degrading ATP to adenosine. At densities of 30,000-40,000 cells/ml, human fat cell suspensions accumulated adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine, and their concentrations were 38 +/- 8, 120 +/- 10, and 31 +/- 7 nmol/liter after 3 h of incubation. Dipyridamole (10 mumol/liter), an inhibitor of nucleoside transport, caused a 5-7-fold increase in adenosine accumulation which was reduced by 85% on inhibition of ectophosphatases by beta-glycerophosphate and antibodies against ecto-5'-nucleotidase or alpha, beta-methylene 5'-adenosine diphosphate (10 mumol/liter), respectively, indicating that most of the adenosine is produced in the extracellular compartment. Accordingly, the spontaneous accumulation of adenosine was reduced beyond 5 nmol/liter on inhibition of ectophosphatase activities or removal of extracellular AMP by AMP deaminase (4 units/ml). Added adenosine (30 nmol/liter) disappeared until its concentration approached 5 nmol/liter. Isoproterenol (1 mumol/liter) had no effect on adenosine accumulation regardless whether purine production from extracellular sources was minimized or not. In contrast to adenosine, the concentrations of inosine and hypoxanthine displayed only a modest decrease (30-50%) on inhibition of ectophosphatase activities. In addition, isoproterenol caused a 2-3-fold increase in inosine and hypoxanthine production which was concentration-dependent and could be inhibited by propranolol. It is concluded that the adenosine that accumulates in human adipocyte suspensions is almost exclusively derived from adenine nucleotides which are released by leaking cells. By contrast, inosine and hypoxanthine are produced inside the cells, and the release of these latter purines appears to be linked to ATP turnover via adenylate cyclase.

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Both safety and usefulness of dobutamine-atropine stress in myocardial perfusion imaging have been reported. However, no information exists on whether the magnitude ofhyperemia achieved with dipyridamole and dobutamine-atropine is comparable.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between QRS duration, artifactual perfusion abnormalities, and left ventricular function in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) using dipyridamole technetium-99m sestamibi electrocardiography-gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

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For patients with recent myocardial infarction, the main determinants of prognosis are: extent of transmural necrosis, state of the infarct-related artery and the presence and extent of myocardium at risk. The basic principle underlying the use of stress echocardiography states that myocardial ischaemia produces abnormalities of regional wall motion which are by themselves early, sensitive and specific markers of decreased perfusion. Dobutamine infusion allows for evaluation of myocardial contractile reserve by increasing inotropism. In low doses it gives us information on regional viability. In high doses, wall motion under increased oxygen demand, it becomes dependent on the ability of the coronary arteries to increase blood flow. Dipyridamole induces coronary vasodilation. In low doses it produces an increase in the blood flow. In high doses the steal effect deviates blood from the regions dependent on stenosed arteries. Ischaemia and regional wall motion abnormalities ensue. A negative stress echocardiogram, either under dobutamine or dipyridamole, has an excellent negative predictive value while a positive stress echocardiogram is predictive of an increased rate of events in the follow-up.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the manufacturing process on the physicochemical properties of three poorly water soluble compounds (carbamazepine, dipyridamole, and indomethacin) when processed with a polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP)) at a 1:2 drug to polymer ratio. Melt extrusion, spray drying, and ball milling techniques were used to prepare glass solutions. Product homogeneity, dissolution, physical stability, and drug/polymer interactions were investigated. Particular attention was paid to solid phase analysis using XRPD, modulated temperature DSC, optical microscopy, and Raman microscopy and the importance of using a combination of techniques was demonstrated. The latter technique when applied to freshly ball milled samples exhibited the presence of drug and polymer rich areas, indicating that complete glass solution formation had not occurred. The three compounds produced products with differing physical stability with indomethacin proving the most physically stable. These differences in physical stability were attributed to hydrogen bonding of drug and polymer. The manufacturing technique did not influence physical stability, but it did affect dissolution. The dissolution of the spray-dried material was generally poor, compared to melt extruded and ball milled products. This was probably due to rapid dissolution of PVP from the small particles of the spray-dried products.

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The diagnostic value of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) and previous acute myocardial infarction has not been evaluated.

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Measurements of the coronary sinus blood flow velocity with Doppler catheters (Medtronic Floscan; Millar DC201) were performed to assess coronary flow reserve and significance of coronary artery stenosis. In seven patients with normal coronary angiogram coronary sinus blood flow velocity (Doppler catheters) and coronary sinus blood flow volume (thermodilution) were simultaneously recorded. Coronary flow reserve was calculated as the quotient of the peak flow velocity (peak flow volume) and resting flow velocity (resting flow volume) after infusion of 0.5 mg/kg dipyridamole intravenously. The correlation coefficient was r = 0.88. Coronary sinus blood flow velocity was measured in 31 patients at resting conditions and after injection of contrast media during coronary angiography. At resting conditions blood flow velocity was 3.6 +/- 1.5 cm/s (n = 31), 3.5 +/- 1.8 cm/s (n = 9; controls), and 3.6 +/- 1.1 cm/s (n = 9; significant stenosis of the left anterior descending; not significant). After injection of contrast media flow velocity amounted to 2.2-fold resting flow in controls and to 1.5-fold resting flow in patients with stenoses of the left anterior descending artery (p less than 0.01). Measurement of coronary sinus blood flow velocity with Doppler catheters is a valuable adjunct for determination of coronary flow reserve and for assessment of stenosis severity of the left anterior descending artery. Continuous on-line monitoring of phasic flow velocity provides important information of the myocardial perfusion, e.g., during angioplasty.

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The basic aspect of cell behaviour that is the clue for viability recognition by stress echo is regional function. By definition, the function is depressed both in viable and in necrotic segments. However, only viable segments retain a contractile reserve; which can be evoked by an inotropic challenge, either cathecolaminic or flow-mediated, as consistently shown by several experimental studies. This is the basis of viability recognition by pharmacological stress echocardiography. Both dobutamine and dipyridamole exploit the same pathophysiological principle: viable tissue has a residual contractile reserve, which can be elicited by an appropriate inotropic stimulus. With dobutamine, the stimulus is a beta-receptor mediated effect on myocardial cell, which is later matched by an increase in flow. With dipyridamole, the primary stimulus is an adenosine A2-receptor mediated effect on the coronary arteriole smooth muscle cell, leading to an increase in flow. At that point, the increase in function is to be expected on the basis of the known relationship between myocardial contractility and coronary perfusion. From the technical point of view, the "viability window" is dose-related with dobutamine, and time-related with dipyridamole--where the same dose is associated to an early inotropic phase followed by a later ischemic response. In spite of the different pathophysiological background and technical modalities, dobutamine and and dipyridamole have shown a similar sensitivity and specificity for prediction of viability, with an overall accuracy only marginally lower than resting thallium. The practical, clinical impact of these observations is still blunted by relatively small numbers of observations in highly selected populations including a limited number of patients and studies in very few centers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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CAD defined as ≥70% stenosis was found in 152 patients (75%). During follow-up major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) occurred in 109 (54%) patients (10 deaths, 16 infarctions, 83 revascularizations). The presence of inducible WMA in DSE was associated with high risk of MACE [hazard ratio (HR): 5.4; 95% CI: 3.64-8.05, P<0.0001]. Cardiovascular complications were best predicted by the presence of any inducible abnormality-PD or WMA (HR: 6.1; 95% CI: 4.1-9.1, P<0.0001).

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These results suggest that dipyridamole, a potent coronary vasodilator, produces maldistribution of coronary blood flow in our dog models, whereas sevoflurane does not do this in animal or human studies.

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In an attempt to elucidate the types of nucleoside transporters present in bone marrow stem cells, this study examined the effect of nucleoside transport inhibitors on the toxicity of nucleoside analogs and on the salvage of thymidine by mouse bone marrow granulocyte and macrophage progenitor cells using the CFU-GM assay. Concentrations of NBMPR (nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside) as low as 10 nM protected these cells from the toxicity of the adenosine analog tubercidin and provided a partial block of thymidine-rescue of the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells from methotrexate toxicity. Dipyridamole had similar effects but generally required higher concentrations. These results suggested that the major nucleoside transporter in these cells is the NBMPR-sensitive equilibrative carrier, es. In contrast to the results with tubercidin, the toxicity of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine was increased 8- to 10-fold by 1 microM NBMPR. These results suggested that the bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells also have a concentrative nucleoside transporter that is capable of pumping 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine into the cells while efflux of the nucleoside via es is blocked by NBMPR.

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Twenty-four patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and 28 healthy subjects were studied. According to the pathology of liver biopsies, patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were divided into non-alcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis groups. Coronary diastolic peak flow velocities were measured at baseline, and then dipyridamole infusion was measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. The ratio of hyperemic to baseline diastolic peak velocities was calculated and the intima-media thicknesss of the carotid arteries were measured.

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Dipyridamole is a classic platelet inhibitor which has been a key medicine in clinical therapy of thrombosis and cerebrovascular disease. A rapid, selective and convenient method using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for determination of dipyridamole in human plasma. After protein precipitation of 200 microL plasma with methanol, dipyridamole and diazepam (internal standard) were chromatographed on an Ultimate XB-C(18) (50 x 2.1 mm i.d, 3 microm) column with the mobile phase consisting of methanol-ammonium acetate (5 mM; 80 : 20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive eletrospray ionization source (ESI(+)). The retention times of dipyridamole and diazepam were 1.4 and 1.2 min, respectively. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.0180-4.50 microg/mL (r(2) > or = 0.99) with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.0180 microg/mL for dipyridamole. The intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) of the assay at all three QC levels were 1.6-12.7% with an accuracy (RE) of -4.3-1.9%, which meets the requirements of the FDA guidance. The HPLC-MS/MS method herein described was proved to be suitable for pharmacokinetic study of sustained-release dipyridamole tablet in volunteers after oral administration.

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Isolated longitudinal muscle strip with Auerbach's plexus attached was used to study the stimulation-evoked release of 3H-acetylcholine (3H-ACh) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia reduced the release of ACh. Theophylline, a purinoceptor P1 antagonist and vinpocetine, an antiischemic compound partly reversed the effect of hypoxia. Unlike theophylline, the effect of vinpocetine was not mediated via adenosine action, since it failed to affect the presynaptic action of adenosine, and the effect of theophylline and vinpocetine was additive. When they were added together the effect of hypoxia was almost completely antagonized. Dipyridamole, an adenosine uptake inhibitor, potentiated the effect of hypoxia and the presynaptic inhibitory action of adenosine on ACh release. Evidence was obtained that the effect of hypoxia is at least partly due to adenosine formed from purine nucleotides.

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More than 7 million stress perfusion studies are performed in the United States annually, 44% with pharmacological vasodilator stress agents. Both adenosine and dipyridamole are nonselective coronary vasodilators that are commonly used for stress perfusion imaging. These agents are safe and provide an effective means to diagnose coronary artery disease. A newer agent, regadenoson, is an adenosine receptor agonist that is selective for coronary vasodilation. Regadenoson is noninferior to adenosine for the detection of ischemia and is better tolerated by patients. Recent trials such as INSPIRE (Adenosine Sestamibi Post-Infarction Evaluation) and the COURAGE (Results from Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Guideline-driven Drug Evaluation) Nuclear Imaging Substudy have established clearly that noninvasive risk stratification with vasodilator testing is an important and appropriate step in guiding medical therapy and invasive coronary intervention.

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Cardiovascular calcification, the formation of calcium phosphate deposits in cardiovascular tissue, is a common endstage phenomenon affecting a wide variety of bioprostheses. The purpose of the present paper is to study the possibility that some antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and persantine) and certain vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin B6, and vitamin E) and their combinations might prevent the mineralization of glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium (GABP) by modifying the pericardial surface. In this experimental protocol, we used Golomb and Wagner's (1991) in vitro model for studying GABP calcification and a diffusion cell with 2 compartments for evaluating the diffusion of calcium across the GABP. The results showed that a combination of aspirin and vitamins (0.5 mg% aspirin, 1.5 mg% vitamin C, 4 mg% vitamin B6, and 2 mg% vitamin E) in a metastable calcium phosphate solution not only reduced the transport of calcium ions through GABP, but along with the combinations of 0.5 mg% aspirin and 5 mg% persantine also produced significant reductions in GABP calcification. The exact mechanism of these changes in the calcification of GABP are still unknown. From these in vitro findings, it appears that a combined vitamin therapy with low doses of aspirin may be beneficial for platelet suppression and thereby prevent thrombosis. In addition, the vitamins may modify calcium transport and interfere with the adsorption at the surface, thus reducing GABP calcification. However, an important question that remains unanswered is whether this inhibitory effect would continue if the antiplatelet drugs and vitamins were discontinued. For the answer, more in vivo studies are needed to develop applications.

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The purpose of this study was to compare myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the detection of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with symptoms suggestive of CAD.

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MCE, which is a bedside technique, may be used to detect CAD in patients presenting with AHF without a prior history of CAD or evidence of acute myocardial infarction. Quantitative MCE may further risk-stratify patients with AHF but no CAD.

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A total of 103 patients with suspected or known stable coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent SPECT and accelerated high-dose dipyridamole (0.84 mg/kg intravenously for 4 minutes) atropine (up to 1 mg intravenously) stress real-time qualitative MCE. The presence of CAD was detected by coronary angiography.

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persantine generic names 2016-12-21

Previous studies have demonstrated that asynchronous ventricular activation due to right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing alters buy persantine regional myocardial perfusion and functions.

persantine dose 2017-03-23

After dipyridamole infusion, electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) changes were seen. We tried to investigate whether there is a relationship between hemodynamic, ECG and HR changes after dipyridamole infusion and gated myocardial perfusion SPECT findings. We studied 206 consecutive patients which underwent a 2-day protocol Dipyridamole Stress/Rest Tc99m-Sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), HR and ECG were recorded. HR was mildly increased while SBP and DBP were mildly decreased after Dipyridamole infusion. There was only statistically significant difference between ECG changes as well as transient ischemic dilation (TID) ratio between normal scans and scans with ischemia (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01 respectively). There was correlation between these variables and summed stress score (SSS) and summed difference score (SDS). Patients with ischemia in their scans, 44.3% had ST depression after Dipyridamole infusion. Also ST depression most frequently was seen in patients with left anterior descending artery disease. From patients with abnormal scan + ST depression after Dipyridamole infusion (33 patient), 27 patient (81.81%) had ischemia. There was an association between TID ratio as well as ECG changes after Dipyridamole infusion and SSS, SDS and coronary artery territory abnormality. Difference between calculated left ventricular ejection fraction using stress and rest images had significant buy persantine correlation with SSS and SDS. ST depression after Dipyridamole infusion and TID ratio had association with ischemia, SSS and SDS. So in equivocal Gated SPECT findings, they could be very useful for interpretation.

persantine and alcohol 2015-11-26

Fifty noninfarcted LBBB patients underwent dipyridamole stress test and coronary angiography for chest pain. To localize the site of ischemia, we considered four groups of conventional ECG leads (V1-V2-V3; V4-V5-V6; aVL-I; III-aVF-II), exploring the anteroseptal, lateral, high-lateral, and inferior left ventricular walls. ST-T changes and QTc intervals were estimated at rest and peak stress, lead by lead, in each group of buy persantine leads and the fractional percentage difference between rest-stress QTc intervals ([DELTA]QTc) was calculated. A [DELTA]QTc greater than -10% was used to define significant QTc-interval shortening. Coronary stenosis of more than 70% and more than 90% were considered 'significant' and 'severe'.

persantine dosage chart 2015-10-17

Numerous in buy persantine vivo and in vitro experiments, investigating the inhibition of platelet aggregation and the prevention of experimentally-induced thrombosis, suggest that anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin or the combination of aspirin, and dipyridamole or sulfinpyrazone, may be effective anti-thrombotic agents in man. Since 1971, seven randomized prospective trials and two case-control studies have been referenced in the literature or are currently being conducted, which evaluate the effects of aspirin, sulfinpyrazone, or dipyridamole in combination with aspirin in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. A critical review of these trials indicates a range of evidence from no difference to a favorable trend that anti-platelet drugs may serve as anti-thrombotic agents in man. To date, a definitive answer concerning the therapeutic effects of these drugs in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease is not available.

persantine medication 2017-08-22

Dipyridamole (DP) is clinically prescribed for its vasodilating and antiplatelet effects. DP also inhibits nucleoside transport and enhances cytostatic activity of antimetabolites. We obtained evidence for augmentation of the cytocidal effect of Adriamycin (ADM) by DP, both in vitro and in vivo. Nontoxic levels of DP enhanced the cytotoxicity of ADM against HeLa cells, and the 50% effective concentration of ADM was decreased 2.4-fold by DP. DP also increased the activity of ADM in clonogenic assays. Intracellular levels of ADM in the case of concomitant exposure to ADM and DP were 1.5-fold higher than in the case of exposure to ADM alone, determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Incorporation of ADM into the cells pretreated with DP was also increased (1.4-fold), while the efflux was little affected. The growth of Sarcoma 180 tumors was prominently suppressed by the combination of ADM and DP, compared to findings with ADM alone. DP also prolonged the survival of Sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing mice, when given in combination buy persantine with ADM. While the enhancement of cytostatic activity of antimetabolites has been attributed to a decrease in utilization of the salvage pathway by DP, our data show that the synergic effects of DP with ADM were the result of increased intracellular levels of ADM.

persantine 25mg tabs 2016-01-29

A consistent PEA signal was obtained in all patients. Overall mean (SD) baseline PEA was 0.26 (0.15) g (g = 9.8 m/s(2)), increasing to 0.5 (0.36) g at peak stress (+0.24 g, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.34 g; p < 0.01). PEA increased from 0.26 (0.16) to 0.37 (0.25) g in the dipyridamole group (+0.11 g, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.16 g; p < 0.01), and from 0.29 (0.1) to 0.93 (0.37 buy persantine ) g in the dobutamine group (+0.64 g, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.91 g; p < 0.01).

persantine 25 mg 2015-01-06

The effect of a newly developed free radical scavenger (OPC-15161) on the progression of nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis was evaluated. NTS nephritis rats were sacrificed immediately before and 1, 2 buy persantine , 3, 6, and 24 h and 13 and 19 days after intravenous injection of NTS. The tissue content of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, the activity of superoxide, the activity of superoxide dismutase in the renal cortex, and the serum malondialdehyde levels were measured. The phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide content in the renal cortex of OPC-15161-treated NTS nephritis rats was lower than that in the control rats 24 h after NTS injection. The activity of superoxide dismutase in OPC-15161-treated rats was sustained in contrast to the decrease in this activity in the control rats 6 h after injection of NTS. The effects of OPC-15161, dipyridamole, and prednisolone on NTS nephritis rats were investigated. OPC-15161 (20 mg/kg p.o.) showed a potent inhibitory effect on the urinary protein excretion, whereas dipyridamole (30 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg p.o.) had less suppressive effects. In view of these results, we conclude that OPC-15161 notably ameliorated the urinary protein excretion by way of the suppression of lipid peroxidation in the renal tissue of NTS nephritis rats.

persantine dosing chart 2017-05-12

To describe the limitation of physical activity buy persantine and symptoms of chest pain and dyspnea before and after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in relation to a history of diabetes.

persantine 75 mg 2015-10-23

Relative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is the standard imaging approach for the diagnosis and prognostic work-up of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, this technique may underestimate the extent of disease in patients with 3-vessel CAD. Positron emission tomography (PET) is also able to quantify myocardial blood flow. Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) is a valid PET tracer alternative in centers that lack a cyclotron. The aim of this study was to assess whether assessment of myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measured buy persantine with (82)Rb PET is an independent predictor of severe obstructive 3-vessel CAD.

persantine drug class 2017-04-11

Antiplatelet drugs are increasingly used in the prevention of arterial thrombosis. Aspirin in doses of circa 300 mg day may be recommended for the primary prevention of myocardial infarction, but only in subjects at moderate to high risk of cardiovascular disease. Antiplatelet agents are useless in stable angina, but aspirin reduced by about 50% the risk of myocardial infarction and the overall mortality rate among patients with unstable angina. A lower dose of aspirin (150 mg/day) also buy persantine reduces mortality by 23% in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. In doses of 300 mg/day, aspirin is useful in the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and reduces the overall mortality rate by 15%. Various antiplatelet agents, including aspirin (alone or combined with dipyridamole) and ticlopidine, have proved useful to avoid thrombosis in aorto-coronary grafts, provided treatment begins at the latest 6 hours after surgery. The usefulness of antiplatelets has been well established in the prevention of immediate reocclusion following coronary angioplasty, but not in the prevention of late reocclusion. Aspirin and ticlopidine are useful in the extracorporeal circulation techniques. In patients with cardiac valve prosthesis, antivitamin K anticoagulants are still indispensable, but their antithrombotic effect can be reinforced by dipyridamole or aspirin. Diuretics probably provide the best primary protection against cerebrovascular accidents, although medium doses of aspirin may be considered in elderly people at high risk of such accidents. Aspirin (alone or combined with dipyridamole) and ticlopidine may be recommended for the secondary prevention of cerebral ischaemic accidents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

persantine drug interactions 2015-02-26

A revival of interest in antithrombotic agents for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease has resulted in the widespread use of oral anticoagulants for the prophylaxis and therapy of the ischemic variety of stroke, and has generated enthusiasm for the use of platelet-suppressant agents such as aspirin, dipyridamole, and sulfinpyrazone. In delineating the several clinical types of focal ischemic disease and outlining the causes of cerebral ischemia and infarction, the study group considers the problems of data interpretation in the face of inconsistent terminology. The basic mechanisms of hemostasis and thrombogenesis are concisely detailed. Finally, the study group critically reviews extensive earlier reports of clinical buy persantine trials of anticoagulants, platelet function suppressants, and thrombolytic agents, and reassesses according to present-day statistical standards the significance of the results. The information contained in this report should familiarize the reader with sufficient data to permit him to utilize antithrombotic agents under a variety of circumstances and to appreciate the contraindications and potential dangers in their use.

persantine overdose 2016-05-17

The Nb rat prostate adenocarcinomas - androgen insensitive II and III - were utilized buy persantine in three experiments utilizing protamine sulfate, persantine (dipyridamole), and heparin-cortisone combination as agents evaluated for their ability to affect the incidence of systemic metastasis in this animal model. The results indicate that all agents tested were effective in reducing metastasis; protamine and persantine (10 mg/kg/day) being the most effective with 0% metastasis. In addition, animals treated with protamine had a statistically significant decrease in tumor volume. The mechanism responsible for this decrease remains unclear at present.

persantine dosage 2015-03-01

Erythromelalgia was the presenting symptom in 26 of 40 patients with thrombocythemia in its primary form or when associated with polycythemia vera. The localized painful burning, redness, and warm congestion in the extremities could be accurately documented with thermography. Skin punch biopsy samples taken from the affected areas showed typical arteriolar inflammation, fibromuscular intima proliferation, and buy persantine thrombotic occlusions. Erythromelalgia often progressed to ischemic acrocyanosis or necrosis in toes or fingers. Complete relief of pain and restoration of microvascular circulation disturbances was obtained with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors aspirin and indomethacin, but not with sodium-salicylate or the platelet inhibitors dipyridamole, sulfinpyrazone, ticlopidine, and dazoxiben. The erythromelalgia was alleviated during busulfan-induced remissions of thrombocythemia and its recurrence coincided with relapsing thrombocythemia. These observations suggest a causal relationship between erythromelalgia and thrombocythemia, in which platelet-mediated inflammatory and occlusive arteriolar changes play a part in the etiology of erythromelalgia.

persantine brand name 2017-08-07

Diabetes mellitus is a frequently occurring disease, and its prognosis is essentially related to cardiac complications. Some have suggested that these patients should be considered as coronary artery disease (CAD)-equivalent and treated aggressively, accordingly. In addition, CAD in diabetes patients Flagyl Liquid Suspension at the time of diagnosis is often more advanced, and is frequently associated with more extensive disease, a greater incidence of left ventricular dysfunction and higher rates of cardiac events. Unfortunately, the standard exercise treadmill stress test has important limitations, with a poor sensitivity for CAD detection if the patient has limited exercise capacity, which is the case for more than one-half of the diabetic patients in some series. The detection of regional wall motion abnormality with echocardiography permits the identification of the coronary territory involved. It can be used for CAD diagnosis, evaluation of myocardial viability, risk stratification following a myocardial infarction and assessment of preoperative risk before noncardiac surgery. The risk of CAD in patients with diabetes mellitus is reviewed, and the role of noninvasive testing with stress echocardiography in the diagnosis and risk stratification of these patients is discussed.

persantine 10 mg 2015-09-08

Narcotised mongrel dogs were used to examine the effect of coronary drugs on the cerebrospinal fluid Imdur Maximum Dose pressure (CFP). An increase in CFP, although of varying degree, was observed for all compounds tested. The reason for this effect is suggested to be a direct dilatation of the cerebral blood vessels, leading to an increase in intracranial blood volume. It could be established that the increase in CFP is not due to changes in cardiac or circulation parameters, nor to effects of the volume or osmolarity of the test substance solutions. Thus, the headaches which occur following treatment with dipyridamole or organic nitrates cannot be explained in terms of an increase in CFP.

persantine oral dose 2015-02-16

The amount of tissue perfused, as determined from the difference in volume of distribution between a diffusible indicator (125I-antipyrine) and an intravascular indicator (131 I-albumin) was measured at different values of coronary flow, perfusion pressure, and vasomotor tone in the working left ventricle of an open-chest dog. Coronary pressure and flow were regulated independently from the systemic Cymbalta Tablets Pain circulation and coronary vasomotor tone was reduced by dipyridamole. At each flow vasomotor tone was assessed by using as a reference the maximal vasodilation induced by arrest of flow. Measured tissue space was considered to be related to the capillary surface area available for tracer diffusion and therefore to the number of perfused capillaries per volume of muscle. A relationship between coronary blood flow and tissue volume was observed. It was found to be independent of vasomotor tone. Vasodilation was found to increase available exchanging capillary surface at a constant perfusion pressure.

persantine drug classification 2016-04-02

The combination of dipyridamole and aspirin has been shown to be more effective than aspirin alone Zovirax Syrup in the secondary prevention of stroke. Dipyridamole may act by inhibiting adenosine uptake, thus potentiating its actions. Dipyridamole also inhibits cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDE) and, through this mechanism, could potentiate cGMP-mediated actions of nitric oxide.

persantine 50 mg 2015-08-25

In our previous studies, using portable type signalaveraged electrocardiography (portable SAECG) with dipyridamole stress we reported that patients with coronary artery disease were identified at the bedside with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study we prospectively investigated whether coronary artery stenosis after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) could be detected. Standard 12-lead QRS wave SAECG was performed before and after dipyridamole stress at the bedside in 61 patients 8.0 +/- 9 Diovan Generic .4 months after successful PCI for myocardial infarction or angina pectoris (46 males and 15 females, mean age 66 +/- 12 years). The filtered QRS duration (fQRSd) before and after dipyridamole stress was determined by the multiphasic oscillation method at each lead of the standard 12 leads, and the maximal value of changes in fQRSd (MAX DeltafQRSd) among the 12 leads was determined. The positive test was defined as MAX DeltafQRSd > or =5 ms, and negative as MAX DeltafQRSd <5 ms based on our previous studies. Then selective coronary arteriography was performed. In the positive group (n = 24), 21 patients had stenosis (> or =50%) of the coronary artery and 3 did not. In the negative group (n = 37), 8 patients had stenosis and 29 did not. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive accuracy, and negative predictive accuracy for the detection of coronary artery stenosis by SAECG were 72%, 91%, 88%, and 78%, respectively. Dipyridamole stress portable SAECG is useful to detect patients with coronary artery stenosis after successful PCI.

persantine generic 2015-12-23

The sensitivity of nucleoside transport by rat erythrocytes to inhibition by nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) and the slowly permeating organomercurial, p-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate (pCMBS), was investigated. The dose response curve for the inhibition of uridine transport (100 microM) by NBMPR was biphasic--35% of the transport activity was inhibited with an IC50 value of 0.25 nM, but 65% of the activity remained insensitive to concentrations as high as 1 microM. These two components of uridine transport are defined as NBMPR-sensitive and NBMPR-insensitive, respectively. Uridine influx by both components was saturable and conformed to simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and was inhibited by other nucleosides. The uridine affinity of the NBMPR-sensitive transport component was threefold higher than for the NBMPR-insensitive transport mechanism (apparent Km for uridine 50 +/- 18 and 163 +/- 28 microM, respectively). The two transport systems also differed in their sensitivity to pCMBS. NBMPR-insensitive uridine transport was inhibited by pCMBS with an IC50 of approximately 25 microM, while 1 mM pCMBS had little effect on NBMPR-sensitive transport by intact cells. pCMBS inhibition was Celebrex Reviews 2012 reduced in the presence of uridine and adenosine and reversed by the addition by beta-mercaptoethanol, suggesting that the pCMBS-sensitive thiol group is located on the exterior surface of the erythrocyte membrane within the nucleoside binding site of the transport system. Inhibition of uridine transport by NBMPR was associated with high-affinity [3H]NBMPR binding to the cell membrane (apparent Kd 46 +/- 25 pM). Binding of inhibitor to these sites was competitively blocked by uridine and inhibited by adenosine, thymidine, dipyridamole, dilazep and nitrobenzylthioguanosine. Assuming that each NBMPR-sensitive transport site binds a single molecule of NBMPR, the calculated translocation capacity of each site is 25 +/- 6 molecules/site per sec at 22 degrees C. pCMBS had no effect on [3H]NBMPR binding to intact cells but markedly inhibited binding to disrupted membranes indicating that the NBMPR-sensitive nucleoside transporter probably has a thiol group located on the inner surface of the membrane. Exposure of rat erythrocyte membranes to UV light in the presence of [3H]NBMPR resulted in covalent radiolabeling of a membrane protein(s) (apparent Mr on SDS gel electropherograms of 62,000). Labeling of this protein was abolished in the presence of nitrobenzylthioguanosine. We conclude that nucleoside transport by rat erythrocytes occurs by two facilitated-diffusion systems which differ in their sensitivity to inhibition by both NBMPR and pCMBS.

persantine dose calculation 2015-03-30

CD36, also named fatty acid translocase, has been identified as a putative membrane transporter for long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). In the heart, contraction-induced 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling regulates cellular LCFA uptake through translocation of CD36 and possibly of other LCFA transporters from intracellular storage compartments to the sarcolemma. In this study, isolated cardiomyocytes from CD36(+/+)- and CD36(-/-) mice were used to investigate to what extent basal and AMPK-mediated LCFA uptake are CD36-dependent. Basal LCFA uptake was not altered in CD36(-/-) cardiomyocytes, most likely resulting from a (1.8-fold) compensatory upregulation of fatty acid-transport protein-1. The stimulatory effect of contraction-mimetic stimuli, oligomycin (2.5-fold) and dipyridamole (1.6-fold), on LCFA uptake into CD36(+/+) cardiomyocytes was almost completely lost in CD36(-/-) cardiomyocytes, despite that AMPK signaling was fully intact. CD36 is almost entirely responsible for AMPK-mediated stimulation of LCFA uptake in cardiomyocytes, indicating a pivotal role for CD36 in mediating changes in cardiac LCFA Accutane Cumulative Dose fluxes.

persantine drug 2015-04-14

A mutant murine T-cell line which overproduces purines and excretes massive quantities of inosine into the culture medium has served as a cell culture model for overproduction hyperuricemia (Ullman, B., Wormsted, M. A., Cohen, M. B., and Martin, D. W., Jr. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 79, 5127-5131). Incubation of these cells with micromolar concentrations of dipyridamole, a potent inhibitor of nucleoside transport, prevents the excretion of inosine and depresses the rate of purine biosynthesis to that of wild type cells. These concentrations of dipyridamole have Paxil With Alcohol no effect on cellular growth rate or on the intracellular nucleoside triphosphate or phosphoribosylpyrophosphate pools. We suggest that dipyridamole might also be useful in ameliorating purine overproduction associated with hyperuricemia and gout.