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Periactin (Cyproheptadine)
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Periactin

Generic Periactin is used to relieve cold- and allergy-related symptoms such as hay fever, nasal inflammation, stuffy nose, red and inflamed eyes, hives, and swelling. Generic Periactin is approved by FDA. Generic Periactin blocks the effects of the naturally occurring chemical histamine in your body.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Atarax, Phenergan, Flonase, Allegra

 

Also known as:  Cyproheptadine.

Description

Generic Periactin is used to treat fever, nasal inflammation, stuffy nose, red and inflamed eyes, hives, swelling and other symptoms of cold and allergy.

Generic Periactin blocks the effects of the naturally occurring chemical histamine in your body.

Periactin is also known as Cyproheptadine, Ciplactin, Periactine, Ciproral.

Generic name of Generic Periactin is Cyproheptadine.

Brand name of Generic Periactin is Periactin.

Dosage

Generic Periactin can be taken in tablets (4mg) and syrup. You should take it by mouth.

Take Generic Periactin by mouth with or without food.

Measure the syrup form of Generic Periactin with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Periactin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Periactin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Periactin overdosage: extreme sleepiness, confusion, weakness, ringing in the ears, blurred vision, large pupils, dry mouth, flushing, fever, shaking, insomnia, hallucinations, seizure.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 to 30 degrees C (59 to 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Periactin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Periactin if you are allergic to Generic Periactin components.

Try to be careful with Generic Periactin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Periactin can harm your baby.

Do not take cyproheptadine if you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), or tranylcypromine (Parnate) in the last 14 days.

Be careful in taking Generic Periactin if you have glaucoma or pressure in the eye, stomach ulcer, enlarged prostate, bladder problems, difficulty urinating, hyperthyroidism, hypertension, any problems with heart, asthma.

Be careful with taking Generic Periactin if you use anxiety or sleep medicines such as alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), temazepam (Restoril), or triazolam (Halcion); anti-depression medications such as amitriptyline (Elavil), doxepin (Sinequan), nortriptyline (Pamelor), fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), or paroxetine (Paxil); any other medications that make you feel drowsy, sleepy, or relaxed.

Avoid machine driving while taking Generic Periactin.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Periactin suddenly.

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We report a case of Wells' syndrome (eosinophilic cellulitis) with acute cutaneous swelling followed by indolent infiltration. The histopathology is characterized by a dense infiltrate of eosinophils and "flame figures" in the dermis. The electron microscopic findings are peculiar. This case responded well to oral antihistamines. The skin signs and symptoms disappeared completely two weeks later.

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In rats pretreated with pargyline ip injection of 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), but not of 5-HT, produced characteristic head twitches. 5-HT receptor blocking agents (cyproheptadine, methergoline, mianserine, WA-335-BS, and methsergide) reduced the effect of 5-MT. These substances in doses 20-160 times higher than their ED50 in head twitch test did not antagonize the pinna reflex. 5-MT-induced head twitches were also inhibited by imipramine, morphine, phenoxybenzamine and aceperone. However, their ED50 were only 3-8 times below the doses necessary to inhibit the pinna reflex. Reserpine, phentolamine, spiroperidol, pimozide and LiCl did not modify head twitches produced by 5-MT, while PCPA even potentiated them. Our results suggest the 5-MT-induced head twitches are due to the activation of the central 5-HT mechanisms probably as a result of direct stimulation of 5-HT receptors by 5-MT. Antagonism of 5-MT-induced head twitches and the dissociation of doses effective in this test from those inhibiting the pinna reflex may be of value in the prediction of central 5-HT receptor blocking properties.

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The discriminative stimulus properties of the clinically important ergot derivative lisuride hydrogen maleate (LHM) were investigated by training groups of rats (13 per group) to discriminate either of three training doses of LHM (0.02, 0.08 or 0.32 mg/kg) from saline. Dose-response tests showed that the three LHM cues were specific to the dose used during training and the dose-response curve became more steep as the training dose increased. In substitution tests, the direct dopamine (DA) agonists apomorphine and lergotrile substituted for LHM and the potency order of the LHM-like effect (LHM greater than apomorphine greater than lergotrile) corresponded to previous electrophysiological and biochemical results. The indirect DA agonist d-amphetamine did not substitute for LHM. The direct serotonin (5-HT) agonists quipazine, MK-212 and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine produced dose-dependent, but incomplete, substitution for LHM which covaried with LHM training dose. In antagonism tests, only drug capable of blocking DA receptors, haloperidol and methiothepin, attenuated the LHM cues; the 5-HT antagonists cyproheptadine, BC-105 and xylamidine were ineffective. These data indicate that the primary neuronal action mediating the discriminative stimulus effects of a wide range of LHM doses was direct activation of central DA receptors. The 5-HT agonist actions of LHM proved to be secondary in that 5-HT agonists substituted only partially for LHM and 5-HT antagonists failed to attenuate LHM cues.

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Data were obtained from abstracts and peer-reviewed journals. The pathophysiology of the allergic response has been extensively studied. This paper presents only data from studies that used desloratadine at physiologically relevant concentrations.

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Anorexia is a major clinical problem in large number of patients with advanced cancer disease. Serotonergic mechanisms are assumed to play a role in the process of feeding behavior during normal and pathologic circumstances, which may also involve cancer anorexia according to previous experimental and clinical studies.

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Triamcinolone is a commonly used synthetic corticosteroid that has recently been tested in a large clinical trial for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and shown to have some benefits. To our knowledge, there are no reviews of the pharmacotherapy of triamcinolone. This review has a brief overview of the pharmacology of triamcinolone, followed by a discussion of the clinical trials with triamcinolone. Triamcinolone is used in the treatment of respiratory inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis and a variety of other inflammatory conditions.

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This study is a one year investigation that evaluates the important role of leukotriene receptor antagonists on nasal polyposis, with or without association to any allergic disease. Likewise, it compares its use with the conventional therapy used in the above mentioned disease.

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Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced a slow and progressive increase in tension of rat thoracic aorta strips in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Complete relaxation could not be obtained in Ca2+-free buffer containing 1 mM ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 10(-7) M PMA. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, PMA (10(-7) M) induced a small but sustained contraction which was not altered by the addition of another 2 mM EGTA and 3 X 10(-5) M verapamil. Papaverine (10(-4) M) relaxed the PMA-induced contraction to the base line, but phentolamine (10(-5) M), cyproheptadine (10(-5) M), atropine (10(-5) M) and tetrodotoxine (10(-6) M) did not change the contraction. Ca2+-depleted muscle strips, prepared by four repeated applications of 10(-7) M norepinephrine in Ca2+-free buffer, were contracted by 10(-7) M PMA, but at a lower maximum tension than nontreated strips. The action of PMA on rat aorta strips in Ca2+-free buffer did not require the presence of the adventitial layer or endothelial cells. These results suggest that PMA may induce activation of protein kinase C and smooth muscle contraction in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, without an increase in myoplasmic Ca2+.

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The chemical structure of phenothiazine provides a most valuable molecular template for the development of agents able to interact with a wide variety of biological processes. Synthetic phenothiazines (with aliphatic, methylpiperazine, piperazine-ethanol, piperazine-ethyl, or piperidine side-chain) and/or phenothiazine-derived agents e.g., thioxanthenes, benzepines, imonostilbenes, tricyclic antidepressants, dimetothiazine, and cyproheptadine have been effective in the treatment of a number of medical conditions with widely different etiology. These include various currently clinically used drugs for their significant antihistamic, antipsychotic, anticholinergic (antiparkinson), antipruritic, and/or antiemetic properties. They are also employed, although to a minor extent, as antidepressants, antispasmodics, analgesics, and antiarrhythemics. Some of these agents are also useful as anti-inflammatory, coronary vasodilator, radioprotective, sedative, antitussive, and skeletal muscle-relaxing medication. Still, others show different degrees of effectiveness as antibacterials, anthelmintics, antimalarials, or local anesthetics; a few are valuable in the control of acute migraine attacks and intractable hiccough. Adding to the seemingly ever-expanding therapeutic use of phenothiazine derivatives, a number of "old" and newly synthesized compounds e.g., "half-mustard-type" and benzo[alpha]phenothiazines, appear to be helpful as multidrug resistance modifiers, a property of particular importance in cancer chemotherapy. Some phenothiazines inhibit human plasmatic leucine-enkephalin aminopeptidase(s), enzymes known to regulate the turnover rate of a wide range of bioactive substances. These findings could lead to the design of new therapeutic treatment modalities for conditions such as Alzeimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Hopefully, this work will help to the rational design of new and improved pharmacological approaches based on a better understanding of the correlation between chemical structure, pharmacodynamic properties, and pharmacological activity of various phenothiazines and phenothiazine-derived classes of drugs.

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As there have been no previously published studies, this multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study compared the efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life (QoL) in seasonal allergic rhinitis patients (SAR) of fexofenadine and loratadine (with placebo), when administered once daily.

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In experiments on vagotomized and intact rats with the use of two models of experimental gastric ulceration (injection of serotonin and stress) it was demonstrated that the inhibitory action of vagotomy on haemorrhagic gastric effectiveness was more pronounced in stress than after serotonin application. Vagotomy decreased stress-induced erosive lesions but increased serotonin-induced erosions that may be a result of the increase of gastric tissue sensitivity to this amine which developed simultaneously with significant decrease of its level in gastric wall after vagotomy. Serotonin-antagonist peritol decreased stress-induced gastric disturbances in vagotomized rats more significantly than in intact rats; this suggested the great role of serotonin in anti-ulcerogenic effect of vagotomy.

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This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mizolastine in PAR compared with loratadine and placebo.

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Long-term, population-based case-control studies continue to be an effective way to assess exposure-birth defects associations and provide guidance to health care providers. However, investigators examining rare outcomes covering many years of data collection need to be cognizant of time trends in exposures.

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It has been recognized that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a crucial component of snake venom, which contributes greatly to snake venom induced inflammation in man. However, the mechanisms through which N49 PLA2 provoke inflammation remain unclear. Recently, a N49 PLA2, TM-N49 from Protobothrops mucrosquamatus crude venom was characterized in our laboratory. Since the purification procedure developed is able to supply us with relatively large quantity of highly purified TM-N49, we investigated the ability of TM-N49 in induction of inflammation.

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The multidrug-resistance-associated proteins 1 and 2 (MRP1/MRP2) are transporters responsible for the efflux of drugs and endogenous compounds. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with the human MRP1 or MRP2 genes were used to assess whether several widely used pharmaceuticals are potential substrates by examining their differential toxicity, accumulation and efflux. Loratadine, an antihistamine, was 1.4-fold less toxic to MRP1 cells and its retention was 1.3-fold lower than that from MDCK control cells. Fosinopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, was 2.4-fold less toxic and its retention was 4.5-fold lower in MRP2-transfected cells compared with control cells. To determine whether fosinopril contributed to a drug-drug interaction, fosinopril efflux was examined in vitro in combination with other known or suspected MRP2 substrates over a period of 20 min. When fosinopril was coincubated with desloratadine, loratadine or methotrexate, its retention was increased by 2-, 4.7- and 2-fold, respectively, which likely indicates that a drug-drug interaction is occurring. In vivo studies were conducted, in which FVB wild-type and FVB/Mrp2(-/-) mice were dosed with fosinopril and the known MRP2 substrate methotrexate, and tissues collected after 1 h. In mice lacking Mrp2, drug levels were reduced in the intestine by 1.5-fold, but increased in the liver, serum and kidneys, by 2.1-, 2.9- and 3-fold, respectively. These data suggest that, in the absence of Mrp2, fosinopril alters the retention of a second drug. These findings will help increase our understanding of the role that MRP2 plays in altering the retention and disposition of coadministered pharmaceuticals.

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The effect of the H1-antihistamine drug loratadine and its active metabolite descarboxyethoxyloratadine upon histamine release was examined on anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) triggered human basophils and 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) triggered rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. In both experimental systems, dose-dependent inhibition of histamine release was observed at descarboxyethoxyloratadine and loratadine doses above 2 and 7 microM, respectively. In the RBL-2H3 experimental system, inhibition by loratadine increased when the concentration of extracellular Ca2+ was reduced from 1.8 to 0.45 mM. We further investigated the effect of loratadine and descarboxyethoxyloratadine on the increase in cytosolic calcium concentration (Ca2+)i, an early step in biochemical events leading to exocytosis. The effect of these two drugs upon (Ca2+)i changes was measured using the fluorescent probe fura-2 loaded into RBL-2H3 cells passively sensitized with DNP-specific IgE. Both drugs inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner (2.5-25 microM), the (Ca2+)i rise induced by DNP-BSA challenge in sensitized RBL cells, a process observed in both the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. Loratadine also inhibited the Mn2+ influx into these cells, thus reflecting the Ca2+ influx. These results suggest that loratadine and descarboxyethoxyloratadine impair the increase in (Ca2+)i following cell activation by decreasing both the influx of extracellular Ca2+ and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores.

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The behavioural effects of beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) were studied in chicks and adult fowls. Repeated administration of IDPN (75 mg/kg) for 5 days induced behavioural changes in chicks and adult fowls characterized by excitation, choreiform head and neck movements and circling (ECC-syndrome). Both acute and chronic administration of IDPN induced EEG desynchronization, EMG activation and enhancement of photic-evoked response (PER) in the hyperstriatum and pontine reticular formation while a decrease in PER was observed in the optic tectum. d-Amphetamine (2.5-5 mg/kg), apomorphine (0.1-0.25 mg/kg), piribedil (2.5-5 mg/kg), atropine (2.5-5 mg/kg), hyoscine (2.5-5 mg/kg) and cyproheptadine (0.5 mg/kg) potentiated the circling and choreiform head and neck movements. These activities were antagonized by pimozide (1 mg/kg), physostigmine (0.5 mg/kg) and quipazine (2.5-5 mg/kg). The results suggest that dopaminergic, serotoninergic and cholinergic mechanisms may be involved in IDPN-induced behavioural effects in chicks.

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The effects of a variety of substances influencing the initiation of cyclic motor events at the gastroduodenal junction were studied in conscious sheep. A significant and long-lasting decrease in the frequency of cyclic events from approximately 100 min to 30-40 min was elicited by the intraduodenal bulb administration of the lysergic acid derivatives methylergonovine and methysergide. This effect was dose-dependent and occurred with smaller dosages than those effective when administered parenterally or more distal in the jejunum. Intraluminal administration of cyproheptadine, fonazine, and metergoline into the duodenal bulb increased the interval between phase III activity. At higher dosages, however, cyproheptadine and metergoline reduced the spiking activity of the antroduodenal junction, without significantly changing the cycle duration of the migrating myoelectric complex on the duodenal bulb or jejunum. After administration of cyproheptadine, fonazine, and metergoline, the cycling activity of the duodenojejunum was irregular for 1-2 days. These findings are compatible with a resetting of the enteric biological clock at a faster rhythm and suggest a selective action via an enteric serotoninergic mechanism involved in the normal pacing of the cyclic motor events of the gut.

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The clinical efficacy of the H1 receptor blocker loratadine was to be measured upon a wheal response subsequent to an intracutaneous injection of 0.1 ml histamine (0.1%).

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periactin online 2017-09-06

Dihydroergotamine (DHE), administered intravenously to pithed normotensive rats, increased the mean arterial blood pressure dose-dependently. This pressor effect was noncompetitively inhibited by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonists pizotifen and cyproheptadine (0.1 mg/kg each). The alpha buy periactin 1-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin (1 mg/kg) had no influence on the DHE effect whereas the alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocker yohimbine, at the same dose, proved to be a noncompetitive inhibitor of this pressor effect. The results indicate that both the 5-HT receptors and alpha 2-adrenoceptors are involved in the DHE-induced vasoconstriction. On the other hand, in pithed normotensive rats, DHE proved to be a potent inhibitor of the pressor response to 5-HT but it did not inhibit that to noradrenaline. The results obtained characterize DHE as a noncompetitive dualist at vascular 5-HT receptors.

periactin syrup 2017-08-03

Different drugs have been used as adjuvant to neuroleptics in chronic schizophrenia. Bromocriptine, carbamazepine and cyproheptadine have shown an efficacy added to neuroleptics in buy periactin schizophrenia. In our study, 24 chronic schizophrenic inpatients considered to be resistant to neuroleptics were treated double blind with the associations haloperidol (40 mg a day)--carbamazepine (400 mg a day), haloperidol (40 mg a day)--bromocriptine (2.5 mg a day), haloperidol (40 mg a day)--cyproheptadine (24 mg a day) and haloperidol (40 mg a day)--placebo. The drugs were given successively, in a randomized succession using a latin square procedure, for four 5-weeks periods. A psychiatric assessment using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), the SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms) and the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms) occurred every two weeks. Extrapyramidal symptomatology and abnormal movements were assessed using the AIMS (Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale) and the Simpson-Angus scale. Using an ANOVA, we cannot show any clinical efficacy of any of those three drugs as an adjuvant to haloperidol. The discrepancy between our results and the data of the literature can be linked to the high specificity of our sample (resistance to neuroleptics). We cannot show any specific efficacy of those drugs on positive and negative symptoms, using the sub-factors of the SAPS and SANS.

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This is the first report of the use of cyproheptadine to treat anorgasmia induced by citalopram, a highly selective serotonine reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Total anorgasmia of a 47 year-old man who suffered from severe unipolar buy periactin major depression was successfully treated without adverse effects. This case strengthens the impression that anorgasmia associated with SSRIs is related primarily to the serotonine reuptake inhibition and not to various receptor bindings of different compounds.

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Addition of serotonin to mixtures of target cells and natural killer (NK)-enriched human mononuclear cells (MNC) in a 4-hr 51Cr-release assay strongly augmented NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) vs K562, Chang, or Molt-4 target cells. The effect was dose dependent at serotonin concentrations of 10(-4) to 10(-7) M, expressed at several effector to target cell ratios, and required the presence of accessory monocytes. A 5-HT1-specific receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, mimicked the enhancing properties of serotonin with similar potency. Equimolar concentrations of the mixed 5-HT1/5-HT2 receptor antagonist cyproheptadine, but not the 5-HT2-specific antagonist ketanserin, completely blocked the serotonin-induced NKCC enhancement. Monocyte/NK cell mixtures incubated with serotonin for 1 hr produced a soluble factor that could enhance the cytotoxicity of autologous, NK-enriched cells depleted buy periactin of monocytes, which did not respond to serotonin alone. The factor displayed no IFN or IL 2 activity as judged by the lack of antiviral activity and inability to support the growth of an IL 2-dependent cell line. In the presence of monocytes, serotonin (10(-5) M) was considerably more effective than human IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma at optimal concentrations and was about equally effective as IL 2 at a final concentration of 50 U/ml in a short-term NK assay. The potency and efficacy for serotonin were similar to that earlier reported for histamine in monocyte-containing effector cells. The NKCC-enhancing effect of serotonin was additive to that induced by IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, or IL 2, but not to histamine. The presented data suggest an earlier unrecognized, serotonin receptor-mediated regulation of human NK cells.

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Most oral drugs used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis are classified as H1-receptor antagonists, and although they represent major sales throughout the world, their mechanism of action is still poorly known. In an attempt to understand better the in vivo therapeutic effects of these drugs, a double-blind, crossover study was carried out. The study compared the effects of terfenadine and loratadine, nonsedative H1-receptor antagonists, on buy periactin the immediate allergic response of the upper airways to challenge with orchard-grass pollens in 14 highly allergic subjects. Increasing numbers of pollen grains were insufflated into the nostrils, and the response of the subjects was assessed by examining symptoms and measuring the release of histamine and prostaglandin D2 in nasal secretions. Each drug was administered for a week before challenge. This study demonstrated the clinical efficacy of both drugs by comparison to that of a control day, since symptoms were observed for a significantly (p = 0.014) greater number of pollen grains. Only one patient had a significant release of histamine when they were treated with loratadine versus 10 during control day (p less than 0.0023) and six when they were treated with terfenadine (p less than 0.01). Prostaglandin D2 release occurred with a higher allergen dose when patients were treated with both drugs. This study indicates that some H1 antagonists also possess antiallergic activities.

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The theory that activation of buy periactin serotonin type 2 (5-HT2) receptors facilitates lordosis behavior in the female rat was tested. The 5-HT2 antagonists pizotefin, cyproheptadine, metitepine, and ketanserin were found to inhibit lordosis behavior in ovariectomized rats that had been primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone. Pipamperone was ineffective. The 5-HT2 agonist quipazine was ineffective alone, but it reversed the inhibitory effects of pizotefin, cyproheptadine, and ketanserin. It did not reverse the effects of metitepine. The results support the theory of a facilitatory role for 5-HT2 receptors in lordosis behavior.

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A new sensitive and selective liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for quantification of loratadine (LOR) and its active metabolite descarboethoxyloratadine (DSL) in human plasma was validated. After addition of the internal standard, metoclopramide, the human plasma samples (0.3 ml) were precipitated using acetonitrile (0.75 ml) and the centrifuged supernatants were partially evaporated under nitrogen at 37 degrees C at approximately 0.3 ml volume. The LOR, DSL and internal standard were separated on a reversed phase column (Zorbax SB-C18, 100 mmx3.0 mm i.d., 3.5 microm) under isocratic conditions using a mobile phase of an 8:92(v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and 0.4% (v/v) formic acid in water. The flow rate was 1 ml/min and the column temperature 45 degrees C. The detection of LOR, DSL and internal standard was in MRM mode using an ion trap mass spectrometer with electrospray positive ionisation. The ion transitions were monitored as follows: 383-->337 for LOR, 311-->(259+294+282) for DSL and 300-->226.8 for internal standard. Calibration curves were generated over the range of 0.52-52.3 ng/ml for both LOR and DSL with values for coefficient of determination greater than 0.994 by using a weighted (1/y) quadratic regression. The lower limits of quantification were established at 0.52 ng/ml LOR and DSL, respectively, with an accuracy and precision less than 20%. Both analytes demonstrated good short-term, long-term, post-preparative and freeze-thaw stability. Besides its buy periactin simplicity, the sample treatment allows obtaining a very good recovery of both analytes, around 100%. The validated LC/MS/MS method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study of loratadine tablets on healthy volunteers.

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The effects of local intra-arterial infusions of serotonin (5 or 25 micrograms base/min) or norepinephrine (1 or 5 micrograms base/min) on cutaneous (skin) and skeletal muscle vasculatures were investigated in canine forelimbs perfused at constant flow in dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital. Norepinephrine produced dose-related constriction of the skin and skeletal muscle vasculatures. In the cutaneous vascular circuit, norepinephrine produced large artery, small vessel, and large vein constriction. The increase in cutaneous vascular resistance was primarily due to an increase in small vessel resistance. Serotonin did not increase skeletal muscle vascular resistance but produced marked cutaneous vasoconstriction subsequent to large artery and large vein constriction. The small vessels, if anything, tended to dilate. The skin and skeletal muscle vascular responses to serotonin and norepinephrine were similar in innervated and acutely denervated forelimbs. Phentolamine pretreatment completely blocked all vascular actions of norepinephrine, and largely inhibited the cutaneous vasoconstriction produced by the infusion of the low dose of serotonin. However, the cutaneous large artery and large vein constriction produced by the infusion of the high dose of serotonin was not affected by phentolamine pretreatment. Cyproheptadine pretreatment blocked or largely inhibited the cutaneous vasoconstriction produced by serotonin only in doses which also inhibited norepinephrine and vasopressin cutaneous vasoconstriction. Pretreatment with methysergide blocked or largely inhibited the cutaneous large artery and large vein constriction produced by infusions of serotonin. Norepinephrine and vasopressin produced significant vasoconstriction in the presence of methysergide. These data suggest that the cutaneous buy periactin large artery and large vein constriction produced by serotonin is not due to the activation of postjunctional alpha-adrenergic receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Systemic pharmacologic treatments may be indicated in conditions in which the distribution of muscle overactivity is diffuse. buy periactin Antispastic drugs act in the CNS either by suppression of excitation (glutamate) enhancement of inhibition (GABA, glycine), or a combination of the two. Only four drugs are currently approved by the US FDA as antispactic agents: baclofen, diazepam, dantrolene sodium, and tizanidine. However, there are a number of other drugs available with proven antispastic action. This chapter reviews the pharmacology, physiology of action, dosage, and results from controlled clinical trials on side effects, efficacy, and indications for 21 drugs in several categories. Categories reviewed include agents acting through the GABAergic system (baclofen, benzodiazepines, piracetam, progabide); drugs affecting ion flux (dantrolene sodium, lamotrigine, riluzole; drugs acting on monoamines (tizanidine, clonidine, thymoxamine, beta blockers, and cyproheptadine); drugs acting on excitatory amino acids (orphenadrine citrate); cannabinoids; inhibitory neuromediators; and other miscellaneous agents. The technique, advantages and limitations of intrathecal administration of baclofen, morphine, and midazolam are reviewed. Two consistent limitations appear throughout the controlled studies reviewed: the lack of quantitative and sensitive functional assessment and the lack of comparative trials between different agents. In the majority of trials in which meaningful functional assessment was included, the study drug failed to improve function, even though the antispastic action was significant. Placebo-controlled trials of virtually all major centrally acting antispastic agents have shown that sedation, reduction of global performance, and muscle weakness are frequent side effects. It appears preferable to use centrally acting drugs such as baclofen, tizanidine, and diazepam in spasticity of spinal origin (spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis), whereas dantrolene sodium, due to its primarily peripheral mechanism of action, may be preferable in spasticity of cerebral origin (stroke and traumatic brain injury) where sensitivity to sedating effects is generally higher. Intrathecal administration of antispastic drugs has been used mainly in cases of muscle overactivity occurring primarily in the lower limbs in nonambulatory, severely disabled patients but new indications may emerge in spasticity of cerebral origin. Intrathecal therapy is an invasive procedure involving long-term implantation of a foreign device, and the potential disadvantages must be weighed against the level of disability in each patient and the resistance to other forms of antispastic therapy. In all forms of treatment of muscle overactivity, one must distinguish between two different goals of therapy: improvement of active function and improvement of hygiene and comfort. The risk of global performance reduction associated with general or regional administration of antispastic drugs may be more acceptable when the primary goal of therapy is hygiene and comfort than when active function is a priority.

periactin dosage children 2017-04-16

The anti-inflammatory potential of antihistamines has significant clinical utility. Long-term pharmacotherapy of so-called 'safe' antihistamines may be hampered by side effects in the buy periactin central nervous system. In the present study, the new potential antihistamine SUN-1334H was compared with different antihistamines for anti-inflammatory effects, sedation potential and interaction with alcohol.

periactin syrup dosage 2015-01-18

The "Standards, Options and buy periactin Recommendations" (SOR) project, started in 1993, is a collaboration between the Federation of the French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC), the 20 French Cancer Centres and specialists from French Public Universities, General Hospitals and Private Clinics. The main objective is the development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of health care and outcome for cancer patients. The methodology is based on literature review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts, with feedback from specialists in cancer care delivery.

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Nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia (NARES), accounting for some 15% of perennial rhinitis, is a nasal disorder whose main features are eosinophil buy periactin counts in nasal smear higher than 10% and negative IgE tests. The mainstay of treatment is topical corticosteroids.

periactin patient reviews 2015-04-03

Children in the fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray group but not the loratadine group demonstrated buy periactin improvement in nasal symptoms, nasal quality of life score, and composite verbal memory. No differences were identified on any scores from the Conners Continuous Performance Test.

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No significant changes in QTc interval from baseline were observed after 5 days administration of ebastine, loratadine or placebo. Ketoconazole/placebo increased the mean QTc (95% CI) by 6.96 (3.31-10.62) ms in the ebastine study and by 7.52 (4.15-10.89) ms in the loratadine study. Mean QTc was statistically significantly increased during both ebastine buy periactin /ketoconazole administration (12.21 ms; 7.39-17.03 ms) and loratadine/ketoconazole administration (10.68 ms; 6.15-15.21 ms) but these changes were not statistically significantly different from the increases seen with placebo/ketoconazole (6.96 ms; 3.31-10.62 ms), P = 0.08 ebastine study, (7.52 ms; 4.15-10.89 ms), P = 0.26 loratadine study). After the addition of ketoconazole, the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for ebastine increased by 42.5 fold, and that of its metabolite carebastine by 1.4 fold. The mean AUC for loratadine increased by 4.5 fold and that of its metabolite desloratadine by 1.9 fold following administration of ketoconazole. No subjects were withdrawn because of ECG changes or drug-related adverse events.

periactin suspension 2015-11-19

Due to the difficulty of monitoring trace levels of cyproheptadine (CYP) residues in complicated biological matrices, specific adsorption materials for the preconcentration and clean-up of CYP are indispensable. In this work, CYP was extracted from urine using dummy molecularly imprinted SPE (DMISPE) to avoid leakage of the imprinting molecules during the desorption phase. For synthesis of DMISPE, azatadine (AZA) was employed as the dummy template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as the initiator, and dichloromethane as the porogen solvent. An LC-MS/MS method was used to analyze CYP. Two MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) transitions for each analyte were monitored using diphenylpyraline hydrochloride (DPP.HCl), which was used as an internal standard. The advantages of DMISPE include obtaining less complex chromatograms and reducing Uroxatral Dosage ion suppression in ESI. The process efficiencies for DMISPE and SPE were 80% and 12%, respectively. In addition, the demonstrated reusability of the DMISPE cartridges is an advantage compared with single-use SPE cartridges or immunoaffinity materials.

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Our results showed that for a 10(-4) M-histamine stimulation, L and Micardis Dosage Maximum DCL have a similar inhibitory effect on P-selectin expression (IC50 = 13 x 10[-9] M and 23 x 10[-9] M, respectively). L and DCL inhibited significantly IL-6 and IL-8 secretion induced by histamine with a more powerful efficiency of the active metabolite. For the dose of 10(-4) M histamine, a 50% inhibition of IL-6 secretion was obtained for a dose of DCL equal to 2.6 x 10(-12) M whereas the same magnitude of effects were only reached for a higher concentration of L (0.3 x 10[-6] M). Similar results were obtained for IL-8 (IC50 = 0.2 x 10[-6] M for L and 10[-9] M for DCL). Analysis of IL-8 mRNA expression by RT-PCR was in accordance with these data.

periactin pediatric dosage 2015-03-16

Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a four-period cross-over trial evaluating Vantin Generic the effect of dosage forms on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of loratadine. Loratadine was administered as two 10-mg conventional tablet, two 10-mg smelt tablet, a 30-mg portion of medicated chewing gum without collection of saliva and a 30-mg portion of medicated chewing gum with collection of saliva. Blood samples were taken at predefined sampling points 0-24 h after medication, and the plasma concentrations of loratadine and desloratadine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Each study period was separated by a wash-out period of at least 7 days.

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Histamine is the primary mediator involved the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria, and this explains the prominent role that histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists have in the treatment of these disorders. However, histamine is clearly not the only mediator involved in the inflammatory cascade. There is an emerging view that drugs which can inhibit a broader range of inflammatory processes may prove to be more effective in providing symptomatic relief in both allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. This is an important consideration of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) initiative which provides a scientific basis for defining what are the desirable properties of an 'ideal' antihistamine. In this review of rupatadine, a newer dual inhibitor of histamine H(1)- and PAF-receptors, we evaluate the evidence for a mechanism of action which includes anti-inflammatory effects in addition to a powerful inhibition of H(1)- and PAF-receptors. We assess this in relation to the clinical efficacy (particularly the speed of onset of action) and safety of rupatadine, and importantly its longer term utility in everyday life. In clinical trials, rupatadine has been shown to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). It has a fast onset of action, producing rapid symptomatic relief, and it also has an extended duration of clinical activity which allows once-daily administration. In comparative clinical trials rupatadine was shown to be at least as effective as drugs such as loratadine, cetirizine, desloratadine and ebastine in reducing allergic symptoms in adult/adolescent patients with seasonal, perennial or persistent allergic rhinitis. Importantly, rupatadine demonstrated no adverse cardiovascular effects in preclinical or extensive clinical testing, nor negative significant effects on cognition or psychomotor performance (including a practical driving study). It improved the overall well-being of patients with allergic rhinitis or CIU based on findings from quality of life questionnaires and patient global rating scores in clinical trials. Thus, rupatadine is a recently introduced dual inhibitor of histamine H(1)- and Prandin Cost PAF-receptors, which has been shown to be an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. It possesses a broader profile of anti-inflammatory properties inhibiting both inflammatory cells and a range of mediators involved in the early- and late-phase inflammatory response, but the clinical relevance of these effects remain to be clarified.

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Leukotriene induction of the fluid and cellular phases of the inflammatory response in the mouse was evaluated. Intraperitoneal injection of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 250 ng) led to dye extravasation but not polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration, whereas injection of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 250 ng), led to PMN infiltration but not dye extravasation. The injection of both leukotrienes did not result in synergy. LTC4 did not appear to induce significant release or formation of chemotactic mediators, but the dye extravasation induced by LTC4 was inhibited by the vasoactive amine antagonist cyproheptadine and not by the eicosanoid inhibitors phenidone or naproxen. The response was markedly inhibited by the cytokine and eicosanoid inhibitors SK&F 86002 and SK&F 104493. PMN infiltration induced by LTB4 was not inhibited by SK&F 86002 or phenidone but was abrogated by colchicine treatment. LTB4 in this model did not appear to cause release or formation of vasoactive mediators. These leukotrienes appeared to be independent, complementary, and Zyrtec Syrup Children sufficient to mount a complete inflammatory response in the mouse.

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Four patients (3 with spinal cord injury, 1 with cerebral palsy) with implanted Lipitor Generic Dosage ITB infusion pumps for treatment of severe spasticity, who had ITB withdrawal syndrome because of interruption of ITB infusion.

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Desloratadine is a biologically active metabolite of loratadine which is indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist Flagyl Drug Classification used to treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). In this study, we aimed to determine the role of endothelins in allergic rhinitis (AR) and the effects of endothelin receptor antagonists in AR rat models through comparison with desloratadine.

periactin migraine reviews 2016-11-06

The pattern of patients' response was similar in SAR and PAR. Both levocetirizine and loratadine were superior to placebo in alleviating SAR and PAR symptoms at all time intervals evaluated during the two study days. Levocetirizine decreased the mean MSC score intervals in SAR subjects, with the most marked difference observed on day 2 (p = 0.002). In PAR patients, although with borderline significance (p = 0.08), levocetirizine decreased the mean CSS more than loratadine. Levocetirizine appeared to have a faster onset of action than loratadine in SAR (45 min versus 1 h 15 min) and PAR (1 h versus 1 h 30 min). However, these apparent differences were not tested for statistical significance. Both medications were well tolerated and no treatment-related adverse events were reported. This level of antihistamine Risperdal Medicine efficacy was maintained regardless of whether the subjects' rhinitis was seasonal or perennial.

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Concomitant montelukast with loratadine improved the primary end point significantly (P <.001) compared with placebo and each agent alone. Compared with placebo, montelukast with loratadine Cardura Bph Dosage also significantly improved eye symptoms, nighttime symptoms, individual daytime nasal symptoms, global evaluations, and quality of life. Montelukast alone and loratadine alone caused modest improvements in rhinitis end points. All treatments were similarly well tolerated.

periactin recommended dosage 2015-10-04

On the basis of low dose inhaled corticosteroid, orally administered Loratadine significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of asthma in patients with allergic asthma and rhinitis.

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The combination of desloratadine plus montelukast is effective in the treatment of CU. It may therefore be a valid alternative in patients with relatively mild CU, in view of its efficacy and the lack of adverse events.

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The present results demonstrated that loratadine blocked hKv1.5 channels in a concentration-, voltage-, time- and use-dependent manner but only at concentrations much higher than therapeutic plasma levels in man.

periactin 4mg dose 2017-09-17

The treatment of children and adolescents who suffer from migraine headaches must be individually tailored, flexible, and balanced with a blend of bio-behavioral measures, agents for acute treatment and, if needed, daily preventive medicines. While controlled data is limited, there is now enough evidence available to provide a rational framework to build treatment plans appropriate for the pediatric population. Essentially, the pharmacological management of pediatric migraine divides into agents for the acute attacks and agents used daily to prevent or reduce the frequency of attacks. For the acute treatment, the most rigorously studied agents are ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and the nasal spray forms of sumatriptan and zolmitriptan, all of which have shown both safety and efficacy in controlled trials. For preventive treatment the calcium channel blocker flunarezine has the best efficacy profile in controlled trials, but is not available in the U.S. A growing body of data, mostly uncontrolled, is emerging regarding the use of several anti-epileptic agents (e.g. topiramate, disodium valproate, levateracetam), as well as the antihistamine cyproheptadine and the anti-depressant amitriptyline.

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A total of 703 patients were enrolled: 282 patients in the E20 group, 279 in the L10 group and 142 in the P group. E20 showed a greater decrease from baseline in the main efficacy variable (mean daily reflective total symptom score) than L10 (p = 0.0018) or P (p = 0.0024), whereas the difference between L10 and P was not significant. Moreover, reductions from baseline in all composite/individual daily reflective rhinitis symptom scores were significantly larger in patients receiving E20 than in patients receiving L10 or P. Most significant differences between E20 and L10 or P were maintained after 4 weeks of treatment. Overall, all treatments were safe and well tolerated. There was no significant difference in the percentage of patients who reported one or more adverse events (AEs) between the groups, and most AEs were mild to moderate (89.9%).

periactin generic 2015-10-13

Excessive sweating has been associated with antidepressants including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors, and venlafaxine. In some patients, these symptoms require therapeutic intervention such as dose reduction, antidepressant substitution, antidepressant discontinuation, or addition of an agent to control sweating. Agents that have been reported successful in controlling the sweating include benztropine and cyproheptadine.