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Parlodel (Bromocriptine)

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Generic Parlodel is the most effective preparation in struggle against female diseases as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Generic Parlodel can also be helpful for patients with Parkinson`s disease and its symptoms caused by low levels of dopamine in the brain. Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Apokyn, Mirapex, Requip


Also known as:  Bromocriptine.


Generic Parlodel is created using perfect medical formula which is a magnificent weapon against women problems such as persistent breast milk production, infertility, amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and other disorders caused by prolactin-secreting tumors. Target of Generic Parlodel is to reduce prolactin level and help to produce breast milk and fertility in women.

Generic Parlodel acts as up-to-date remedy reducing prolactin level. When it is used for treatment of Parkinson disease, it works by stimulating dopamine receptors in some certain brain parts.

Parlodel is also known as Bromocriptine, Proctinal.

Generic Parlodel is a hormone (dopamine agonist).

Generic Parlodel can't lead to vaginal bleeding, uterine or breast cancer, breast tenderness.

Generic name of Generic Parlodel is Bromocriptine.

Brand name of Generic Parlodel is Parlodel.


Generic Parlodel is available in the form of tablets (2.5 mg) which should be taken by mouth with meals or without it.

Take Generic Parlodel every day at the same time and remember that its dosage depends on patient's health state.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Parlodel suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Parlodel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are allergic to Generic Parlodel components.

Do not take Generic Parlodel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant or breast-feeding.

Do not use Generic Parlodel in case of having uncontrolled high blood pressure, blood poisoning, having recently given birth or have coronary artery disease (chest pain) or any other severe heart disease.

In case you take Generic Parlodel while using birth control pills, remember that birth control pills become less effective

Patients under 15 years should be extremely careful with Generic Parlodel.

Avoid alcohol.

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Obesity and osteoporosis seem to have a common pathogenesis, especially because bone and adipose tissue have common origins. Since early weaning (EW) decreases adipogenesis and osteogenesis in neonate, further programming for obesity and hyperleptinemia, we hypothesized that these changes in adipogenesis could affect bone metabolism.

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Caffeine and its first-stage metabolites (paraxanthine, theophylline and theobromine) caused a significant potentiation of the locomotor activity induced by bromocriptine, 5 mg/kg, in mice pretreated with reserpine, 5 mg/kg (4h prior to the start of motor activity recordings). None of these substances significantly enhanced locomotor activity in reserpinized mice when administered alone. The rank order of potency was caffeine greater than paraxanthine greater than theophylline greater than theobromine. A high dose of a D-2 antagonist (sulpiride 100 mg/kg) caused a marked inhibition of the locomotor activity induced by bromocriptine, 5 mg/kg, plus 25 mg/kg of caffeine, paraxanthine or theophylline. However, a high dose of a D-1 antagonist (SCH-23390 1 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease of the locomotor activity induced by bromocriptine 5 mg/kg, plus 25 mg/kg of caffeine or paraxanthine, but did not change the locomotor activity caused by bromocriptine, 5 mg/kg, plus theophylline 25 mg/kg. The inhibitory effect of 5'-(N-ethyl)carboxamido-adenosine (NECA), 0.025 mg/kg, on bromocriptine-induced locomotor activation in reserpinized mice was reversed by the simultaneous administration of 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg of caffeine, paraxanthine or theophylline. The rank order of potency for reversal was theophylline greater than paraxanthine = caffeine. We suggest that methylxanthines act postsynaptically by potentiating the effects of D-2 stimulation and that this potentiation can be produced by D-1 agonism (paraxanthine or caffeine) and by adenosine antagonism (theophylline, paraxanthine or caffeine), most probably involving A-2 receptors.

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We present the case of a 42-year-old male with a history of schizophrenia who developed signs and symptoms consistent with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) after 3 weeks of treatment with Olanzapine. The patient presented with hyperpyrexia, tremors, labile blood pressure, and mental status changes that had progressed over the preceding 24 h. Laboratory data revealed a metabolic acidosis and an escalating creatinine phosphokinase. Olanzapine is a relatively new atypical anti-psychotic agent first introduced in November of 1996 under the trade name of zyprexa. Olanzapine differs from typical anti-psychotic agents in that it has a lower affinity for dopaminergic receptors and binds antagonistically to serotonin receptors in the nigrostriatal pathway. These unique properties result in relatively fewer extra-pyramidal symptoms when compared to traditional anti-psychotics. Because of olanzapine's favorable side-effect profile, it has quickly gained popularity in the psychiatric community. Although NMS is a recognized complication of anti-psychotic use, there has been only one case of olanzapine induced NMS reported in the literature. The POISON-INDEX system, used by toxicologists throughout the United States, does not list NMS as a potential reaction to olanzapine. The pharmacists at our institution were also unaware that NMS was a possible complication of olanzapine. We present this case to make clinicians aware of the potential for Olanzapine induced NMS.

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To study the effects of dopamin receptors-2 (DR2) on myocardial ischemic postconditioning and explore its underlying mechanisms.

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Dopamine agonist therapy using selected drugs at particular dosage levels has been found to have therapeutic benefit in certain dyskinetic syndromes. Two ergot derivatives with dopamine agonist properties were administered at relatively low doses to eight neuroleptic-free schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia. Neither agent significantly improved dyskinetic symptoms; no symptoms worsened. Dopamine agonists likely vary in their selective activation of functionally distinct dopamine receptors.

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Data from 80 patients with IPs treated in our institutions were reviewed retrospectively. The criteria utilized included: (1) invasion of the cavernous sinus by tumor, corresponding to Grade III-IV according to the classification of Knosp; (2) serum prolactin level > 9.1 nmol/L; (3) clinical signs of hyperprolactinemia and mass effect. Among the 80 patients who met the criteria: 21 patients received bromocriptine as primary treatment (Group A); 21 patients initially received bromocriptine and then accepted microsurgery or irradiation (Group B); 38 patients had initially undergone transcranial or transsphenoidal microsurgery and then received bromocriptine or adjuvant radiotherapy (Group C). Eleven patients underwent gamma knife radiotherapy.

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Pituitary adenomas are benign intracranial endocrine tumors, accounting for ~10% of intracranial tumors. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of preoperative treatment with bromocriptine on the surgical treatment and postoperative complications of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas (prolactinomas). Data from 102 patients whose prolactinomas were surgically treated between March 2006 and March 2010 were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. The study group included 54 patients who had been treated preoperatively with bromocriptine. The patients were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and coronal computed tomography (CT) scanning, after which the pathological diagnosis of prolactinoma was confirmed. A total of 64 patients underwent total resection surgery through the nose and sphenoid sinus, and 25 patients underwent subtotal resection surgery or excision of a large portion of the tumor, leaving only a small quantity of residual tumor or tumor capsule. Patients were followed up for 1-9 months using MRI and measurements of serum prolactin levels. Seven patients were lost to follow-up. The results of the present study demonstrated that patients who were treated with large doses of bromocriptine or used bromocriptine chronically suffered from an increased rate of surgical difficulties and postoperative complications, as compared with the patents who had not been pre-treated with bromocriptine. In conclusion, oral administration of bromocriptine is important in the treatment of prolactinoma tumors. However, large doses or long-term use of bromocriptine may increase difficulties in surgery or postoperative complications, and reduce its ability to treat prolactinonas, as it can lead to hardening of the tumor tissue and capsules, and aggravate pituitary stalk adhesions.

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Serum cortisol values were measured throughout the day over 10.5 hours. Thyroid hormones and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) were measured in the baseline sample. Comparisons of the serum cortisol peak after receiving the first dose of hydrocortisone, the time when the serum cortisol peak was obtained, the area under the curve (AUC) for the cortisol values and the levels of unbound cortisol on and off GH therapy were made. The results are expressed as mean +/- SEM. Comparisons were carried out within individuals, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

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Reports of pregnancy in acromegalic women are uncommon, numbering less than 100, in which a case of acromegaly first diagnosed in pregnancy is rare.

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Acromegaly is a rare disease which can significantly reduce life expectancy. Clinical features are diverse and the patient may consult a variety of medical and surgical specialists before the diagnosis is suspected. However, the disease is easily confirmed by the appropriate laboratory tests, namely GH and IGF1 measurements. In most cases, acromegaly is secondary to a micro or macrosomatotrope pituitary adenoma. Those lesions are easily visualized by a pituitary CT Scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Visual fields have to be evaluated by a neuro-ophthalmologist, and a thorough evaluation of other pituitary functions have to be performed. Selective removal of the adenoma by the transsphenoidal route is the treatment of choice for acromegaly. When performed by an experienced neurosurgeon, normalization of GH secretion can be expected in approximately 75% of cases. The surgical outcome is modulated by the volume, the extension of the tumor and the preoperative GH level. Octreotide, radiotherapy or bromocriptine are indicated whenever the patient remains with an elevated level of GH with persistency of symptoms.

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The pattern of androgen dependent enzyme activities of epididymis was studied after the administration of prolactin and bromocriptine in albino rats. Prolactin activated the glycogenolysis and hexose mono and diphosphate pathways, which would be essential for sperm maturation. But bromocriptine inhibited these activities of epididymis. Hence role of bromocriptine in decreasing epididymal function has been suggested.

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After being suspected in the presence of galactorrhoea, it is now easy to prove hyperprolactinism thanks to radioimmunoassay of prolactin. The repercussions of hyperprolactinism on gonad function are now well known, especially in women where they lead to anovulation then amenorrhoea, whereas in man there occurs hypoandrogenism with loss of libido. Hyperprolactinemia may occur in numerous circumstances and may be deduced logically from the mechanism of secretory regulation of this hormone. Among the latter, one cause dominates the others by its therapeutic consequences, I.e. the presence of an adenoma or microadenoma secreting prolactin discovered thanks to tomography of the sella turcica. The treatment of hyperprolactinism has advanced in recent years with the introduction of dopamineric drugs such as bromcriptin which permits one to normalise prolactinemia and thus restore gonad function. It's use requires however certain precautions and neurological and ophthalmic supervision when htere is a microadenoma.

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The potassium and sodium currents in acutely isolated neostriatal neurons are modulated by activation of both D1- and D2-class receptors. The amplification of mRNA in individual neurons supports this conclusion and has shown that striatonigral neurons express not only D1 and D2 receptors, but D3 receptors as well. The characteristics of the modulations produced by these receptors provide a foundation for both antagonistic and synergistic actions of D1 and D2 agonists in the neostriatum. Understanding precisely how these modulations interact in shaping excitability, however, will require a better characterization of spatial domains in which they operate.

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Two hyperprolactinemic infertile women, one with and one without a pituitary adenoma, who were resistant to bromocriptine treatment, were treated orally with Hachimijiogan, a Chinese herbal medicine. This treatment reduced the serum prolactin level, resulting in a normal ovulatory cycle and pregnancy, without side effects.

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The present study was undertaken with the aim of exploring the role that opiate systems may have in neuroendocrine control in acromegaly. The effects of naloxone (0.4 mg, i.m.), of 2-Br-alpha-ergocryptine (CB154, 2.5 mg, p.o.) and of the interaction between CB154 and naloxone on growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion were studied in 11 acromegalic patients. CB154 reduced both GH and PRL serum levels, naloxone only GH serum levels. The latter effect deserves further study aimed at a possible new therapeutic approach to GH hypersecretion observed in acromegaly. Naloxone also interfered with the lowering effects of CB154 and GH and PRL serum levels, pointing to the existence of an interaction between dopaminergic and opiate control of GH and PRL secretion in acromegaly.

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Huntington's chorea (HC) was studied in 14 untreated patients, in six patients receiving long-term neuroleptic treatment, and in four patients after drug withdrawal. Our results showed that patients with HC may be divided into three groups, otherwise clinically indistinguishable, on the basis of growth hormone responsiveness to dopaminergic stimuli. The existence of subpopulations of patients with HC must be considered in further studies on these subjects.

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We have previously shown that using agonist affinity at recombinant receptors selectively expressed in clonal cells as the dependent variable in three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship studies (3D-QSAR) presents a unique opportunity for accuracy and precision in measurement. Thus, a comparison of affinity's structural determinants for a set of compounds at two different recombinant dopamine receptors represents an attainable goal for 3D-QSAR. A molecular database of bound conformations of 16 structurally diverse agonists was established by alignment with a high-affinity template compound for the D1 receptor, 3-allyl-6-bromo-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4, 5-tetrahydro-1H-benzazepin. A second molecular database of the bound conformations of the same compounds was established against a second template for the D2 receptor, bromocriptine. These aligned structures suggested three-point pharmacophore maps (one cationic nitrogen and two electronegative centers) for the two dopamine receptors, which differed primarily in the height of the nitrogen above the plane of the catechol ring and in the nature of the hydrogen-bonding region. The ln(1/KL) values for the low-affinity agonist binding conformation at recombinant D1 and D2 dopamine receptors stably expressed in C6 glioma cells were used as the target property for the CoMFA (comparative molecular field analysis) of the 16 aligned structures. The resulting CoMFA models yielded cross-validated R2 (q2) values (standard error of prediction) of 0. 879 (1.471, with five principal components) and 0.834 (1.652, with five principal components) for D1 and D2 affinity, respectively. The simple R2 values (standard error of the estimate) were 0.994 (0.323) and 0.999 (0.116), respectively, for D1 and D2 receptor. F values were 341 and 2465 for D1 and D2 models, respectively, with 5 and 10 df. The predictive utility of the CoMFA model was evaluated at both receptors using the dopamine agonists, apomorphine and 7-OH-DPAT. Predictions of KL were accurate at both receptors. Flexible 3D searches of several chemical databases (NCI, MDDR, CMC, ACD, and Maybridge) were done using basic pharmacophore models at each receptor to determine the similarity of hit lists between the two models. The D1 and D2 models yielded different lists of lead compounds. Several of the lead compounds closely resembled high-affinity training set compounds. Finally, homology modeling of agonist binding to the D2 receptor revealed some consistencies and inconsistencies with the CoMFA-derived D2 model and provided a possible rationale for features of the D2 CoMFA contour map. Together these results suggest that CoMFA-homology based models may provide useful insights concerning differential agonist-receptor interactions at related receptors. The results also suggest that comparisons of CoMFA models for two structurally related receptors may be a fruitful approach for differential QSAR.

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This paper analyses the different therapeutic approaches that can be used for the treatment of benign breast diseases. These different options vary according to our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. It is very important to know exactly what sort of benign breast disease is being treated in terms of pathological abnormalities in order to obtain objective evaluations of the efficiency of any given hormone treatment (mainly progestogens, Danazol and Bromocriptine). It is also very important to know whether the treatment can change some of the cellular abnormalities that carry a high risk of breast cancer. These are: various forms of lobular hyperplasia. Last of all, it is important to know whether hormone treatment of benign breast disease can be considered as a way of preventing breast cancer. It is only by carrying out a large epidemiological study on patients who have been correctly matched and have been treated under the same protocol that such speculative questions can be answered.

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Pituitary prolactinoma patients should continue the original dose of bromocriptine for at least 4 months instead of immediate withdrawal during pregnancy. For those with large adenoma, bromocriptine should be taken throughout pregnancy. Blood levels of prolactin, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and visual dysfunction should be monitored every 2 weeks. If the levels of progesterone and HCG are low, they should be timely supplemented.If prolactin rises too rapidly and visual dysfunction worsens, the dose of bromocriptine should be appropriately increased. Taking bromocriptine during pregnancy can significantly reduce the rate of embryo stopping without improving the rate of embryo deformity. Thus use of bromocriptine is both safe and necessary.

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The neonatal rat cardiomyocytes injury and apoptosis caused by hypoxia/reperfusion can be inhibited with DR2 activation, which mechanism is related to scavenging oxygen radical.

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Investigations were carried out with a dopamine agonist compound GYKI-32 887 to compare its binding capacity towards D2, 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors. Synaptosomal membranes were prepared from corpus striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. The tritiated ligands used were: 3H-spiperone for D2 and 5-HT2 receptors and 3H-5-HT for 5-HT1 receptors. Comparing the results obtained, IC50 and Ki values, one can conclude that GYKI-32 887 has higher affinity towards D2 receptors than serotonin ones and shows better selectivity than bromocriptine, the reference substance.

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This is an 11 center German trial with a prospective randomized controlled open-label design. The trial enrolls females with newly diagnosed PPCM according to European Society of Cardiology criteria with a LV ejection fraction (LVEF) <35 %. Patients are randomized 1:1 to either best supportive care (BSC) including standard heart failure therapy plus 8 weeks of bromocriptine therapy (2.5 mg b.i.d. for 14 days and 2.5 mg q.d. from day 15 to 56) or to BSC plus 1 week of low-dose bromocriptine (2.5 mg q.d.) with anticoagulant therapy at a prophylactic dose administered during the period of bromocriptine treatment in both groups. The primary endpoint is change in LVEF from baseline to 6 months follow-up as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (or echocardiography if CMR is not tolerated). The secondary endpoints are hospitalization for worsening heart failure, heart transplantation, and all-cause mortality during follow-up or a combination of these endpoints. A total of 60 patients will be recruited (including 6 potential dropouts) giving a power of 0.9 for an expected LVEF change of 10.8 % between treatment groups at 6 months.

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Twenty-three patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and anovulatory infertility have been treated with bromocriptine. All had previously failed to respond to clomiphene. Twenty had normal serum prolactin concentrations and, of these, four (20%) developed regular ovulatory cycles. All three women with moderate hyperprolactinaemia ovulated regularly on bromocriptine so that, overall, seven of 23(30%) responded, which was a significantly higher proportion than that observed during a control period of no treatment. A further eight women ovulated at least once during the study period but these occasional ovulations were no more common during bromocriptine than with either clomiphene or no treatment. No suppression of LH was noted except during the luteal phase of ovulatory cycles and there was no change in the pattern of pulsatile release of LH. Testosterone and androstenedione concentrations remained elevated and unchanged. We conclude that bromocriptine may be expected to induce ovulation in hyperprolactinaemic women with polycystic ovary syndrome but that there is no clear indication for its use in clomiphene-resistant patients with normal serum prolactin concentrations.

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The hypothalamus, in addition to regulating the anterior and posterior pituitary, controls water balance through thirst, regulates food ingestion and body temperature, influences consciousness, sleep, emotion and other behaviors. Much has been learned of these effects in human disease through the clinical manifestations that occur with hypothalamic lesions. This study reviews the clinical pathologic correlations that have been made in recent years showing that regions of the hypothalamus exert functions in humans that are similar to those identified in experimental animals. Clinical pathologic correlations have not always provided precise analysis of hypothalamic function. The hypothalamus is small and often lesions that come to clinical attention achieve considerable size before their recognition, making local anatomic dissections of the effects of the lesions difficult. Nevertheless, the use of modern non-invasive techniques including CT scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided new information not previously available. This paper reviews several cases of hypothalamic disorder recognized recently. (1) A 33-year-old black man with hypothalamic sarcoidosis. Manifestations of hypothalamic dysfunction included panhypopituitarism, aggressive hyperphagia, polydipsia (partially due to hyperglycemia secondary to diabetes mellitus), drowsiness, depression, and irritability. (2) A 37-year-old woman with a large intrahypothalamic tumor (biopsy showed pituitary adenoma), with drowsiness, poikilothermia, lack of satiety, confusion, and memory loss. She becomes depressed when she is transiently more alert (as after hypertonic contrast-dye infusion). (3) A 60-year-old man with hypothalamic compression by a pituitary tumor, associated with syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH), severe anorexia, memory loss, but preserved thirst. After surgical decompression of the tumor his appetite acutely recovered, but he developed severe hypo(poikilo)thermia. (4) A 45-year-old woman with a suprasellar craniopharyngioma presented with severe drowsiness, hyperphagia, depression, and memory loss post-operatively, which responded to antidepressants (except for the memory loss). She had extremely labile blood pressures and serum Na for about 1 week post-operatively.

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The motor effects of selective D-1 dopamine receptor stimulation in Parkinson's disease have been explored in a limited number of studies with partial D-1 agonists only and the results were unsatisfactory. Four 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-exposed parkinsonian monkeys already exhibiting levodopa- and dopamine agonist-induced dyskinesia received selective D-1 agonists ([2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7-8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1-H-3-benzazepine- HCI] (SKF 38393), [(+-)6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro- 1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide] (SKF 82958), [(1R, 3S)3-(1'-adamantyl)-1-aminomethyl-3,4-dihydro-5,6- dihydroxy-1H-2-benzopyran hydrochloride] (A-77636) and [(-)-(6aR)(12bR)-4,6,6a,7,8,12b-hexahydro-7-methyli ndolo (4,3-ab)-phenanthridine] (CY 208-243)) to compare these drugs with selective D-2 agonists (LY 171555, (+)-4-propyl-9- hydroxynaphthoxazine and bromocriptine) and levodopa in terms of antiparkinsonian efficacy and side effects. The D-1 class of compounds was as efficacious as the D-2 agents in alleviating parkinsonism in these animals. However, D-1 agonists were, in general, less likely to reproduce dyskinesia. In addition, D-1 agonists occasionally improved motor symptoms without concomitant dyskinesia, unlike D-2 agonists or levodopa (which always produced some dyskinesia with improvement in motor function). These preliminary results do not support the hypothesis that preferential D-1 receptor stimulation facilitates dyskinesia in primates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Randomised trials evaluating the effectiveness of treatments used for suppression of postpartum lactation.

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Three cases of cerebral hemorrhage that occurred in the puerperium in normotensive women who used bromocriptine for milk suppression postpartum are described. Unlike in some other instances reported in the past, the extent of the bleeding was limited in these patients and the long range outcome was relatively benign. All episodes were associated with the development of hypertension. These incidents occurred between the 10th and 17th days postpartum; somewhat later than the usually observed peak time period (6th to 8th day) for the development of severe bromocriptine related side effects.

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parlodel drug classification 2016-06-28

The dopaminergic drugs, bromocriptine, cabergoline, dihydroergocryptine, pergolide and ropinirole were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) at the dose of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day for 7 days into male rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain. The drug pre-treatment reverted amnesia induced in rats by hypobaric hypopxia and tested in active and passive avoidance tasks. A restoration of memory retention, as assessed in a step-through passive avoidance task, was found in animals with a 2-month brain occlusive ischemia and exposed to dopaminergic drugs for 7 days. For behavioral effects in both active and passive avoidance tests in both experimental models, the rank of relative potency was ropirinole>bromocriptine=cabergoline>pergolide>dihydroergocryptine. Spontaneous ambulation of animals with brain occlusive ischemia was increased by the higher doses of drugs. All dopaminergic drugs reduced kainate mortality rate. The rank buy parlodel of relative potency for this effect was ropirinole=bromocriptine=cabergoline>pergolide=dihydroergocryptine. However, no change was found in other seizure parameters (latency to first convulsion and total number of convulsions) after drug treatment. A biochemical analysis of glutathione redox index (glutathione reduced/glutathione oxidized ratio) in discrete brain areas revealed that exposure to dopaminergic drugs increased this parameter in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of animals subject to hypobaric hypoxia and brain occlusive ischemia. For this effect, the relative potency rank was ropirinole>bromocriptine=cabergoline>pergolide=dihydroergocryptine. These behavioral and biochemical findings suggest that dopaminergic drugs may counteract either behavioral or biochemical changes induced by experimental models of brain injury. This activity was found after protective activity (as found in animals pre-treated with these drugs and exposed to hypobaric hypoxia) or reversal of brain injury (as found in animals treated after 2-month occlusive brain ischemia). Their neuroprotective activity probably involves the reduction/oxidation balance of the glutathione system in the brain.

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A 36-year-old woman presented with an acute myocardial infarction 2 weeks after the birth of her first child. The patient had smoked two packs of cigarettes a day for 12 years and had been taking bromocriptine to suppress lactation. While in the emergency room, the patient went into ventricular fibrillation, but defibrillation successfully restored sinus rhythm. Coronary angiography revealed several atherosclerotic lesions. The patient refused to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting, and she was discharged receiving medical therapy buy parlodel .

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This study was designed as prospective cross-sectional. Out of a total of 115 patients with prolactinoma, 42 non-obese women with microprolactinoma, who met the Pituitary Society criteria (2006) for the withdrawal of long-term CAB therapy, and 30 healthy patients participated in buy parlodel our study. The number of patients excluded from the study were as follows: 34 patients with tumor shrinkage of less than 50%; 10 who received DA treatments for less than 2 years; 9 who were treated with bromocriptine; and 20 who had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, renal disease, coronary arterial disease, or were tobacco smokers. The patients were evaluated for anthropometric, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters at the time of cessation of CAB therapy and at the 3rd and 12th months after the withdrawal of CAB therapy. Endothelial dysfunction was determined by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and carotid intima media thickness (IMT), which were assessed by high resolution ultrasonography (USG) by the same practitioner.

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The somatostatin analog SMS 201-995 was recently shown to be effective in suppressing GH secretion and in causing tumour shrinkage in patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours. In this respect, the action of SMS 201-995 seems similar to that of the dopamine-agonist bromocriptine in patients with PRL-secreting pituitary tumours. In the present study we compared the respective effects of SMS 201-995 and bromocriptine on normal rat GH and PRL release in vivo and in vitro. Both in vitro and in vivo, repeated administration of SMS for up till 6 days suppressed circulating GH concentrations, and the ability of the pituitary glands to release GH in vitro. A dose-dependent diminution occurred of the total pituitary GH content in rats treated in vivo with SMS 201-995 for 4-6 days. During short-term in vitro incubation for only 4 h, the total amount of GH measured in the medium + gland was also diminished. Chronic administration with SMS 201-995 (2 micrograms/kg twice daily for 15 days), however, resulted in a buy parlodel complete desensitization of its inhibitory effect on GH synthesis and release. In similar experiments it was shown that the dopamine agonist bromocriptine affects normal PRL secretion in a different manner. Both in vitro (10 nmol/l) and in vivo administration for 6 days (0.2 mg/kg twice daily) greatly inhibited circulating PRL levels and the ability of the pituitary glands to release PRL in vitro. This is, however, in all instances accompanied by an accumulation of PRL within the pituitary gland.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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We describe a parkinsonian patient who developed a slight asymptomatic pleural effusion during prolonged therapy with low dose bromocriptine (BCR) in buy parlodel addition to levodopa, following prior treatment with CQA 206-291. A moderate increase of BCR dosage prompted a severe pleuropulmonary inflammatory reaction with polyclonal activation and elevated serum liver enzymes, which normalized following withdrawal of the drug. The clinical syndrome and close relation to BCR treatment are in keeping with a diagnosis of BCR-related pleuropulmonary fibrosis (PPF). Features of this case are compared with previous reports on dopamine (DA) agonist-related PPF. This case supports earlier suggestions of polyclonal activation in DA agonist-related PPF and suggests hepatic involvement and dose dependency.

buy parlodel online 2017-05-08

1. The effects of dopamine agonists on the immobility time in mice were examined. 2. Apomorphine (APO), bupropion (BUP), bromocriptine (BRC) and quinpirole but not SKF 38393 elicited anti-immobility effect. The effect of buy parlodel the agonists was decreased by the D-2 antagonist sulpiride but not by the D-1 antagonist SCH 23390. 3. In animals pretreated with reserpine, the anti-immobility effects of APO and quinpirole were potentiated, while the response of BPU was decreased and that of BRC was not changed. 4. It is concluded that D-2 dopamine receptors are involved in the anti-immobility effects of dopaminergic agents, D-2 dopamine receptors may become hypersensitive by reserpine and BUP exerts its response through indirect dopaminergic if mechanism.

parlodel gel 2016-03-01

We characterized the properties of vascular dopamine receptors on isolated rabbit mesenteric arteries preincubated with phenoxybenzamine (10(-5) M) and contracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha). The dose-response curve for dopamine-induced relaxation was shifted to the right by the dopamine receptor antagonist d-butaclamol (10(-7)--3 X 10(-6) M) in a concentration-dependent manner. The pA2 value for d-butaclamol was calculated as 6.77. In contrast, even a very high concentration (3 X 10(-6) M) of l-butaclamol had no effect, indicating that vascular dopamine receptors require stereospecificity of antagonists. In the same preparation the mechanism of relaxation by 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (A-6,7-DTN; 3 X 10(-7)--10(-4) M) and bromocriptine (10(-6)--3 X 10(-4) M) was found to be dopaminomimetic, since only the dopamine receptor antagonists droperidol (10(-5) M) and metoclopramide (5 X 10(-5) M) could buy parlodel inhibit relaxations, whereas the beta-adrenoceptor antagonists pindolol (10(-7) M) and propranolol (10(-6) M) were without effect. It is concluded that receptors specific for dopamine exist on the rabbit mesenteric artery, which may tentatively be classified as belonging to the D1-type.

parlodel drug study 2015-10-21

Neurobehavioural sequelae of traumatic brain injuries require an appropriate/effective pharmacological response in that they represent an important cause of disability. In this field, there is no evidence that reaches the level of a standard: there are guidelines on the use of methylphenidate, donepezil and bromocriptine for the treatment of cognitive disturbances, for the non-use of phenytoin and for the use of beta-blockers for controlling aggressiveness. Resolving a single symptom is not relevant in a rehabilitation project if it is not in the context of a more complex picture of neurobehavioural recovery, in which the positive and negative effects of every therapeutic choice are considered. For example, phenytoin could be used for the positive control of epileptic crises but is not advised since it impedes the recovery of cognitive functions in general. Analogous effects not yet identified may concern benzodiazepine, neuroleptics and other sedatives usually prescribed in cases of cranial trauma. Psychotropic drugs are considered to be able to influence the neuronal plasticity processes. Studies on animals have shown that the administration of D-amphetamine combined with sensorial-motor exercise produces the steady acceleration of motor recovery, which acts as a catalyst to the neurological recovery process. On the other hand, alpha1-NA receptor antagonist drugs produce negative effects; these include clonidine (antihypertension) and haloperidol (neuroleptic). buy parlodel Studies need to be carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of particular drugs. These studies need to focus not only on the disappearance of symptoms but also on the positive and negative effects on overall rehabilitation and on the neurobiological recovery of the patient.

parlodel 10 mg 2015-02-09

The increased serum prolactin is one of the side effects of antipsychotic treatment. The clinical signs of its elevated level are galactorrhea, gynecomastia, breast tenderness and sexual dysfunction. These symptoms can cause poor compliance buy parlodel and relapse of the psychiatric illnesses. The possible clinical interventions are: 1) reduce of the dose of the psychotropic drug and/or addition of a dopamine agonist; 2) switch to another drug. The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of the switch to quetiapine in the cases of elevated prolactin with galactorrhea.

parlodel ovulation drug 2015-06-22

An 18-year-old boy with delayed puberty was found to have a large prolactinoma. Hypophysectomy led to a fall in serum prolactin concentration, although it remained markedly elevated. The introduction buy parlodel of replacement therapy, including testosterone, resulted in painful swelling of the breasts and galactorrhoea. Bromocriptine therapy resulted in a cessation of galactorrhoea and normalization of serum prolactin concentrations. The absence of galactorrhoea in association with an astronomical concentration of prolactin, and its onset in association with diminished prolactin concentrations following hypophysectomy and the introduction of testosterone therapy, indicate that galactorrhoea requires the presence of high prolactin concentrations to act on mature breast tissue. This would account for the rarity of galactorrhoea in prepubertal children with prolactinomas.

parlodel drug uses 2015-05-09

Serial measurements of plasma-prolactin concentration (HPr) and buy parlodel plasma-renin activity (PRA) at 30-min intervals were made in 19 male patients with essential hypertension and in 8 normotensive subjects. HPr was markedly higher in the hypertensive patients than in the normotensive controls. Patients with reduced plasma-renin activity and only slightly elevated HPr-levels showed lower urinary sodium excretion, but a more pronouced 24-h natriuretic response to i.v. furosemide than patients with normal renin and very high HPr-levels. Six patients were treated with the dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine. The drug induced a significant blood pressure reduction in five patients and normalised pressure in two patients. The data do not indicate a role for prolactin in sustaining hypertension via renal salt retaining mechanisms. It is suggested that the raised HPr-levels represent an index of altered central nervous function, characterized by reduced hypothalamic activity. The blood pressure-lowering effect of the dopaminergic agonist bromocriptine fits with the hypothesis that reduced hypothalamic dopaminergic activity might be a factor in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension.

parlodel y alcohol 2017-01-27

Intraventricular administration of the dopamine agonist, bromergocryptine, reliably induces feeding over a narrow dose range with a buy parlodel bell-shaped curve. Bromergocryptine (80 micrograms) induced feeding is inhibited by the dopamine antagonist, haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) and the opiate antagonist, naloxone (10 and 1 mg/kg). The leucine-enkephalin containing opioid peptide, dynorphin-(1-13) induces feeding which is inhibited by haloperidol (0.5 and 0.1 mg/kg) and by naloxone (1 mg/kg). Of the common satiety factors tested only bombesin (10 micrograms/kg subcutaneously) inhibited both dynorphin-(1-13) and bromergocryptine induced feeding. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (10 and 20 micrograms/kg, subcutaneously), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (10 and 20 micrograms), ICV) and calcitonin (1 unit, ICV) all failed to inhibit dynorphin-(1-13)-induced feeding. Calcitonin and CCK-8 but not TRH inhibited bromergocryptine-induced feeding. These studies have demonstrated the close interaction between dopaminergic an dopiate systems in the regulation of food intake. The concept of dopamine being primarily responsible for the initiation of chewing behavior and the opiates regulating food ingestion is compatible with the observations reported here.

parlodel dose 2016-07-31

To study the potency of pergolide as a D2 receptor agonist on the firing activity of substantia nigra compacta (SNC) dopamine (DA) neurons compared with that of bromocriptine and to determine whether pergolide has buy parlodel the nature of D1 receptor agonist in vivo.

parlodel medication 2017-11-25

Treatment with pergolide was compared with bromocriptine in 25 patients, all of whom were also receiving levodopa and in all of whom the response to levodopa had diminished. All 25 patients had "on-off" phenomena. At the time bromocriptine was added to levodopa, the mean age of the patients was 61.8 years, mean duration of disease was 9.0 years, and mean duration of levodopa treatment was 6.1 years. For the group as a whole, disability as determined in the "on" period decreased by 36%, from 28.7 to 18.5; and 11 patients improved at least one stage. Disability as determined in the "off" period decreased by 25%, from 59.5 to 44.4. The number of hours in which patients were "on" increased by 62%, from 7.1 to 11.5. All of these changes were significant (p less than or equal to 0.05). Bromocriptine had to be discontinued in nine patients (eight because of mental changes). In the remaining 16 patients, bromocriptine was buy parlodel eventually discontinued because of diminishing efficacy. Mean dose of bromocriptine was 50 mg (range, 10-100 mg), and mean duration of treatment was 23 months (range, 2-65 months). At the time of their treatment with pergolide, the patients were older, 65.5 years, had the disease longer, 12.7 years, and were more disabled. Nonetheless, for the group as a whole, disability score as determined in the "on" period decreased significantly by 40%, from 43.5 to 26.3, and 14 patients improved at least one stage. Disability as determined in the "off" period decreased significantly by 21%, from 69.0 to 54.8. The number of hours in which patients were "on" increased significantly by 224%, from 3.4 to 11.0 hr. The mean dose of pergolide was 2.1 mg (range, 0.1-10.0 mg), and the mean duration of treatment was 6.2 months (range, 0.5-20 months). Pergolide was discontinued in eight patients: three because of asymptomatic tachyarrhythmias of unknown clinical significance (detected only by Holter monitoring); two because of orthostatic hypotension; and two because of mental changes. Although pergolide appears to be more potent than bromocriptine because of its greater effect in a larger number of patients at a more advanced stage of their disease, both drugs are useful, and both enhance our ability to manage patients with PD.

parlodel dosing 2016-12-02

The stimulating effect of Imodium Order antiparkinsonian drugs, talipexole and bromocriptine, on the striatal postsynaptic dopamine receptors were studied by measuring contralateral rotational behavior in rats. The nigro-striatal dopamine system of rats was degenerated by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 8 micrograms/rat) into substantia nigra. By subcutaneous administration, talipexole at 0.16 mg/kg and bromocriptine at 10.24 mg/kg induced significantly increased rotational behavior to the contralateral direction to the lesioned side. The onset of the effect was 30 min for talipexole and 90 min for bromocriptine. By intragastric administration, talipexole at 0.4 mg/kg and bromocriptine at 20.48 mg/kg significantly increased the rotational behavior, and the onset of the effect was 60 min for talipexole and 180 min for bromocriptine. Rotational behavior induced by talipexole was suppressed by a D2 antagonist, sulpiride (40 mg/kg, s.c.), but not by a D1 antagonist, SCH23390 (1 mg/kg, s.c.). In contrast, rotational behavior induced by bromocriptine was suppressed by both sulpiride and SCH23390. These results indicated that when the nigrostriatal dopaminergic functions are disrupted, talipexole stimulates the striatal postsynaptic dopamine receptors at much lower doses than bromocriptine. Also it was indicated that the stimulating effect of talipexole is solely mediated by dopamine D2 receptors, whereas the effect of bromocriptine is mediated by both D1 and D2 receptors.

parlodel and alcohol 2017-09-03

We present the case of a patient whose illness started when she was 16 years old. She complained of rigidity, tremor and akinesia. Her condition was studied to find whether the Seroquel Normal Dosage syndrome was secondary. Thus, on four occasions, at annual visits during a period of five years, immunological changes suggestive of systemic lupus erythematous were observed. Neuroimaging, magnetic resonance and computerized axial tomography studies were completely normal on all four occasions over the five years during which the patient had annual follow-up reviews.

parlodel maximum dose 2015-12-01

A variety of neuropharmacologic agents, including anticholinergic drugs, amantadine hydrochloride, levodopa, selegiline, bromocriptine, and pergolide, are now available for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Of patients treated with dopaminergic agents, 30% develop visual hallucinations, 10% exhibit delusions, 10% have euphoria, 1% have mania, 10% to 15% experience increased anxiety, 15% have confusional periods, and a few exhibit altered sexual behavior. Anticholinergic drugs have a greater tendency to produce confusional states than dopaminergic compounds. Elderly patients and those with underlying dementia are most likely to have untoward side effects with anti-parkinsonism treatment. Dosage reduction is the optimum management strategy, although anti-psychotic agents may be necessary in patients with delusions Cutting Crestor Pills , and lithium may help control drug-induced mania. Dopaminergic agents share the property of stimulation of D2 dopamine receptors, and this action may play an essential role in mediating their neuropsychiatric effects.

parlodel cost 2017-05-10

Both in vivo and in vitro responses of prolactin and growth hormone to stimuli were studied in an acromegalic, amenorrheic woman with a chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary gland. Preoperative testing revealed a prolactin rise after thyrotropin-releasing hormone and chlorpromazine and a decline after L-dopa and bromocriptine administration. During 3 Hytrin Renal Dose .5-hour incubations, cultured tumor cells produced significant increases of growth hormone and prolactin after dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate stimulation, while bromocriptine inhibited both hormones.

parlodel alcohol 2017-01-09

Hyperprolactinemia has been associated with impaired metabolism, including insulin resistance. However, the metabolic effects of elevated prolactin (PRL) levels are not completely clarified. The aim of this study was to obtain more insights of metabolic consequences in hyperprolactinemia patients. Fourteen consecutive patients, eight women and six men, aged 39.7 (±13.7) years with prolactinomas (median PRL 72 [49-131] μg/L in women and 1,260 [123-9,600] μg/L in men) were included. Anthropometric data and metabolic values were studied before and after 2 and 6 months on DA agonists (Bromocriptine [5.7 (±3.9) mg/day, n = 13] or Cabergoline [0.5 mg/week, n = 1]). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps were studied in six patients before and after 6 months of treatment. PRL normalized in all patients. Anthropometric data changed only in males with a significant decrease of median body weight (95.6 [80.7-110.1] to 83.4 [77.8-99.1] kg, P = 0.046), waist circumference and fat percentage after 6 months. LDL cholesterol was positively correlated to PRL at diagnosis (r = 0.62, P = 0.025) and decreased within 2 months (3.4 [±0.9] to 2.9 [±0.6] mmol/L, P = 0. Prevacid Dose Infants 003). Insulin, IGFBP-1 and total adiponectin levels did not change. Insulin sensitivity tended to improve after 6 months; M-value from 5.7 (±1.8) to 7.8 (±2.6) mg/kg/min, P = 0.083 and per cent improvement in M-value was correlated to per cent reduction in PRL levels (r = -0.85, P = 0.034). In conclusion, beneficial metabolic changes were seen in prolactinoma patients after treatment with DA agonists, underscoring the importance of an active treatment approach and to consider the metabolic profile in the clinical management of hyperprolactinemia patients.

parlodel user reviews 2016-12-21

Research into coma arousal has generally focused on the stimulation of neural pathways responsible for arousal. These pathways have been Minipress Generic Name targeted using pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. This review reports the evidence surrounding agents targeting dopamine pathways (amantadine, bromocriptine and levodopa), sensory stimulation, music therapy and median nerve electrical stimulation. Each of these interventions has shown some degree of benefit in improving consciousness, but further research is necessary.

parlodel 5 mg 2017-01-24

A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study to test the efficacy of bromocriptine in women with normoprolactinemic postpill amenorrhea (NPPA) is described. 29 patients had secondary amenorrhea of at least 6 months duration after discontinuation of oral contraceptives (OCs), plasma prolactin (PRL) 0.6mU/ml, no galactorrhea, no recognizable cause of anovulation after intensive endocrinologic screening, and no history of use of drugs known to interfere with PRL metabolism except OCs. The dosage of bromocriptine was 3 mg/day for 12 weeks or until the 2nd vaginal bleeding. PRL, estradiol, and progesterone levels were measured at 2-week intervals. All patients kept basal body temperature charts and registered vaginal bleeding. 13 women received bromocriptine daily for 10-12 weeks and 16 received placebos for 9-12 weeks. No significant differences in age, weight, menstrual cycles before OC use, duration of OC use, or duration of amenorrhea were observed between the 2 groups. Menstruation occurred in 4 women using bromocriptine; ovulation was likely in 1 of them according to the basal body temperature and/or progesterone levels in the luteal phase. Ovulation appeared likely in 8 of 9 women in the placebo group who reported bleeding. The results clearly show that bromocriptine has no effect on the restoration of menstruation in NPPA.

parlodel tab 2015-10-16

It was tested the influence of 1 tablet Parlodel on the concentration of hypophyseal-ovarian and hypophyseal-adrenal hormones. It was established, that 1 tablet Parlodel reduces the level of testosterone and cortisol of all tested persons at the second hour of the investigation. The influence of 1 tablet Parlodel is stronger with young girls showing higher initial levels of prolactin and testosterone.