noroxin tablets 400mg
Both Salmonella Typhimurium strains were resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin and sulphonamides, while Se20 was also resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, amikacin, tobramycin, kanamycin and trimethoprim. PFGE and MLST showed a clonal relationship between the strains, which belonged to the sequence type ST36. Both strains contained the repC-sul2-strA-strB structure and tet(A) and qnrS1 genes, and strain Se20 also contained the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene, the Ser83-->Tyr substitution in GyrA and one class 1 integron with the dfrA17 + aadA5 gene cassette arrangement lacking qacEDelta1 + sul1. Two different transconjugants from Salmonella Se20 (TCSe20B and TCSe20L) harboured qnrS1 and sul2 genes and the class 1 integron. The TCSe20B strain also acquired the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene located on a non-typeable plasmid. qnrS1 was identified on a ColE-type plasmid and the class 1 integron on an IncI1-type plasmid.
noroxin with alcohol
The effect of siliconized latex urinary catheters on the in vitro activity of amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was determined by a microdilution assay. MICs of amikacin and meropenem increased at least 4-fold and 16-fold respectively in the presence of catheter material. The effect of catheter material on meropenem activity was not strain dependent and was similar for different brands of catheters. The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of Pseudomonas aeruginosa attached to catheters for 6 and 24 hours was also evaluated. When bacteria attached for 6 hours were used as inoculum, MBCs increased at least 8-fold for amikacin, 64-fold for ceftazidime, 64-fold for ciprofloxacin, 32-fold for norfloxacin and 2048-fold for meropenem. Similar results were observed when bacteria attached to catheters for 24 hours were used as inoculum. It is concluded that catheter material itself affected the in vitro activity of meropenem, and that the bactericidal activity of all antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa present in biofilms on the surface of siliconized latex urinary catheters decreased dramatically, this effect being more pronounced with meropenem.
noroxin 400mg tablets
CYP2A6 metabolizes coumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin showing fluorescence, as measured by fluorometry. Firstly, we measured the inhibition of coumarin 7-hydroxylase of cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6 and in bovine liver microsomes, by quinoline and fluoroquinolines (FQ). Quinoline, 5-FQ, 6-FQ and 8-FQ inhibited activity but 3-FQ showed little inhibition. This suggests that the position 3 of quinoline is a recognition site for CYP2A6. We found similar patterns of coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity with human pooled liver microsomes. The level of CYP2A6 in human and bovine microsomes is the same as that detected by immunological titration with monoclonal antibody against CYP2A6. Secondly, we studied the inhibition of CYP2A6 with clinically used drugs of quinoline compounds, such as norfloxacin as an antibacterial agent, quinidine as an antiarrhythmic agent, quinine and chloroquine as antimalaria agents and rebamipide as an anti-ulcer agent. IC50 values (concentration producing 50% inhibition in activity) of norfloxacin, rebamipide and chloroquine at mM concentrations showed them to possess almost no inhibitory activity or influence on drug interaction. Meanwhile, the IC50 value of quinidine was 1.12 mM. The IC50 value of quinine was 160 microM with weak inhibition, suggesting that quinine, at a high dose, influences the metabolism of substrates for CYP2A6 by drug-drug interaction. These results also show that CYP2A6 discriminates the structure difference between the diastereoisomers quinidine and quinine.
buy noroxin online
Evidence supporting a specific antibiotic regimen for TRUS-gb prophylaxis is scarce. Widespread use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis may be associated with an increase in resistant Escherichia coli strains, posing a potentially major health issue in the future. .
noroxin brand name
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness and tolerability of norfloxacin, cinoxacin and oxolinic acid in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in comparison to nalidixic acid. 125 patients were given the drugs in the appropriate doses for 10-14 days and 30 patients were treated for six weeks. Clinical, bacteriological, hematological and chemical checks were made on all patients before and after treatment. It was found that norfloxacin, cinoxacin and oxolinic acid are safe and effective against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and Proteus, the commonly encountered organisms in urinary tract infections. The cure rate for norfloxacin was 93%, for cinoxacin 83%, for oxolinic acid 80% and for nalidixic acid 70% in the short course. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Oxolinic acid, cinoxacin and norfloxacin have the advantage over nalidixic acid of being administered only twice daily.
Several 3-formylquinolone derivatives (8a-c) were synthesized to assay the antibacterial activity both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, all of the compounds 8a-c showed lower activity than that of the corresponding 3-carboxyl compounds 1a-c, and in vivo, they showed higher activity than that of compounds 1a-c. After oral administration of 3-formyl compounds 8a-c to mice, the compounds were rapidly metabolized into 3-carboxyl compounds 1a-c. In particular, the 3-formyl derivative (8a) of norfloxacin (NFLX, 1a) gave a 2-fold higher serum level than that of NFLX and functioned as a prodrug of NFLX.
Predicted susceptibility to each cefazolin-fluoroquinolone combination (98.7%) was superior to that for single-agent therapy with ofloxacin (88.2%), ciprofloxacin (82.3%), or norfloxacin (80.4%) (P = .0002). A cefazolin-fluoroquinolone combination (98.7%) was comparable to a cefazolin-gentamicin combination (97.4%).
noroxin and alcohol
Although fluoroquinolone antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin are able to gain access to lung tissue and both pleural and bronchial secretions, the characteristics of transport and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin in human epithelial lung tissue remain obscure. We have chosen human airway epithelial (Calu-3) cells, reconstituted as functional epithelial layers grown on permeable filter supports, as a model with which to assess both transepithelial transport and cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin. Transepithelial ciprofloxacin fluxes in absorptive (apical-to-basal) and secretory (basal-to-apical) directions were similar throughout the concentration range studied (1.0 microM to 3.0 mM). Transepithelial mannitol fluxes measured concurrently were substantially smaller than ciprofloxacin fluxes in Calu-3 epithelia, suggesting the existence of a mediated transcellular route in addition to a paracellular route for transepithelial permeation. Apical-to-basal ciprofloxacin flux (at 10 microM) was inhibited by a 100-fold excess of unlabelled norfloxacin, enoxacin, and ofloxacin, while secretory flux was unaffected. Cellular uptake of ciprofloxacin, determined as a cell/medium ratio, was greater from the basal compartment (2.7-fold) than apical uptake (1.39-fold) measured at 100 microM ciprofloxacin and showed no saturation up to 3 mM ciprofloxacin. Comparison of the permeation of ciprofloxacin was made with that of lipophilic substrates such as vinblastine and digoxin. There was a linear correlation between transepithelial permeability (Pa-b) and their oil/water partition coefficients with mannitol < ciprofloxacin < digoxin < vinblastine. Comparison of transport of ciprofloxacin across human airway Calu-3 epithelia with that across intestinal Caco-2 epithelia emphasizes the absence of a specific secretory pathway; ciprofloxacin permeation in Calu-3 epithelia appears to be mediated primarily by a transcellular route, with mediated transfer at apical and basal membranes occurring via transporters with low affinity to ciprofloxacin.
The antimicrobial activity of one 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (HPO) hexadentate (1) and three HPO hexadentate-based dendrimeric chelators (2-4) was evaluated. They were found to exhibit marked inhibitory effect on the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two Gram-negative bacteria. The combination treatment of dendrimeric chelator 2 with norfloxacin against Staphyloccocus aureus and Escherichia coli showed a dramatic synergistic bactericidal effect. As the dendrimeric chelator has a large molecular weight, its combination with norfloxacin may find application in the treatment of external infections.
Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods for the determination of two broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibacterials (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), either in pure form or in tablets, are described. Both methods are based on the formation of a ternary complex between palladium(II), eosin and the fluoroquinolone in the presence of methyl cellulose, as surfactant. Spectrophotometrically, under the optimum conditions, the ternary complexes showed an absorption maximum at 545 nm, with apparent molar absorptivities of 3.4 x 10(4) and 2.7 x 10(4) 1 mol-1 cm-1 and Sandell's sensitivities of 1.01 x 10(-2) and 1.12 x 10(-2) micrograms cm-2 for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, respectively. The solution of the ternary complex obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range 3-10 micrograms ml-1 for both quinolones. The proposed method was applied to the determination of the two drugs in pharmaceutical tablets. A fluorescence quenching method for the determination of both quinolones by forming this ternary complex was also investigated for the purpose of enhancing the sensitivity of the determination. The results obtained by the application of both procedures and the USP XXIII methods were in good agreement and statistical comparison by means of Student's t-test and the variance ratio F-test showed no significant differences between the three methods.
noroxin 400mg tablet
The in-vitro antibacterial activity of nalidixic acid and the 4-quinolones, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin, A-56619, A-56620 and CI-934 was assessed by determination of MICs. The 4-quinolones were all highly active against most isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, including nalidixic acid-resistant strains. Ciprofloxacin (MICs 0.002-2 mg/l) was the most active and A-56619 (MICs 0.008-32 mg/l) was the least active. A-56619, A-56620, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and CI-934 were highly active against Acinetobacter strains, pefloxacin and enoxacin were slightly less active, and a few strains were resistant to norfloxacin. All the compounds, including nalidixic acid, were active against Aeromonas strains (MICs 0.001-0.12 mg/l). Ciprofloxacin (MICs 0.06-1 mg/l) was the most active compound against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; A-56619 and CI-934 (MICs 1-16 mg/l) were the least active against this species. All the compounds were highly active against Haemophilus influenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae but the activity of all the compounds was poor against most isolates of Gardnerella vaginalis. All the 4-quinolones were active against staphylococci and CI-934 (MICs 0.03-0.25 mg/l) was the most active. CI-934 (MICs 0.06-2 mg/l) was also the most active compound against all streptococci. Most streptococci were sensitive also to ciprofloxacin (MICs 0.25-4 mg/l) but there were many isolates resistant to the other 4-quinolones. Against the anaerobic bacteria CI-934 was again the most active compound, particularly against the Gram-positive anaerobic cocci. Pefloxacin, enoxacin and norfloxacin had poor activity against most anaerobes. Ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, A-56619 and A-56620 had good to moderate activity against all species of anaerobes except the Bacteroides fragilis group, against which none of the compounds was very active.
Peripheral blood flow was measured by using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography.
Forty adult patients with Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi infections were studied in a randomly assigned prospective study to receive norfloxacin (12 drug-sensitive and 8 drug-resistant cases) or chloramphenicol (20 cases). No complication occurred in either group and no side effect was noted in the norfloxacin-treated group. The results suggest that a 7 d course of twice daily norfloxacin promises to be an alternative to a 14 d course of chloramphenicol for treating chloramphenicol-sensitive and multidrug-resistant typhoid and paratyphoid fevers.
noroxin generic name
Studies of cross resistance between norfloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin and ciprofloxacin using 599 strains of non-fermentative gram-negative rods (297 Pseudomonas spp. and 302 Acinetobacter spp.) resulted in nearly identical minimal inhibitory concentrations of norfloxacin and enoxacin Comparing MIC values, in most ofloxacin was one to four dilution steps superior to enoxacin, and ciprofloxacin was one to four dilution steps superior to ofloxacin. There was not much difference in MICs when species were studied in more detail. In some instances susceptibility testing with more than one new quinolone may be necessary, and evaluation criteria are given.
noroxin 200 mg
Six hundred and eighty five blood cultures from children clinically diagnosed as enteric fever yielded 176 salmonella strains showing isolation success rate of 25.7%, S. typhi were 164 (93.2%), S. paratyphi A 5 (2.8%), S. choleraesuis 4 (2.3%) and S. typhimurium 3 (1.7%). Antibiogram of 164 isolates of S. typhi showed triple drug resistance (TDR) in 156 strains (95.1%) to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole, and sensitivity of 90.2% and 95.1% to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of chloramphenicol were between 360 mcg and 640 mcg per ml. Phage types of 38 strains of TDR S. typhi were predominantly E1 and 0 with prevalences of 47.4% and 36.8% respectively in this region. All children with S. typhi isolates sensitive to quinolones in Vitro responded well to these drugs with almost no relapse and hence, the newer generation of quinolones could be considered as the first choice in the primary treatment of enteric fever.
15/60 subjects from one center, who all took part in a multicenter double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of norfloxacin on acute enteritis, had norfloxacin sensitive strains of Campylobacter jejuni in pre-study stool specimens. Eight of the 15 subjects received active drug. In 3 of these 8, high-level quinolone resistant Campylobacter strains of the same serotype as in pre-treatment samples were isolated 4-90 days after the initiation of treatment.
dosage of noroxin
A series of novel 2-methyl-3-substituted quinazolin-4-(3H)-ones have been synthesized by treating (2-methyl-4-oxo-3H-quinazolin-3-yl)dithiocarbamic acid methyl ester with different amines, the starting material dithiocarbamate was synthesized from anthranilic acid. The compounds synthesized were investigated for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. All the test compounds exhibited significant activity, the compounds VA2, VA3 and VA4 shown more potent analgesic activity, and the compounds VA3 and VA4 shown more potent anti-inflammatory activity than the reference compound diclofinac sodium.
noroxin 400 dosage
The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin (Bay o 9867), a new carboxyquinoline antimicrobial agent, was compared with those of norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, and several other oral and parenteral antimicrobial agents. Ciprofloxacin was substantially more active than nalidixic acid or cinoxacin against all gram-negative bacteria tested. Virtually all strains of Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited by the new drug at concentrations of less than or equal to 0.125 micrograms/ml. Ciprofloxacin was more active than norfloxacin against Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., and Serratia marcescens, and it was the most active agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml). The new drug also demonstrated significant activity against gram-positive cocci, inhibiting all strains of staphylococci at concentrations of less than or equal to 1.0 microgram/ml. Ciprofloxacin was bactericidal at concentrations near the MIC against most isolates tested. Although stepwise increases in resistance were seen with Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa during serial passage on plates containing incremental concentrations of the drug, significant resistance did not emerge during incubation of strains in broth containing concentrations of ciprofloxacin above the MBC.
noroxin medication guide
A DNA fragment conferring drug resistance was cloned from the chromosomal DNA of Staphylococcus aureus N315 using a drug hypersensitive Escherichia coli KAM32 as the host. Although E. coli KAM32 cells were sensitive to many antimicrobial agents, transformed cells harboring a recombinant plasmid carrying the DNA region became resistant to several structurally unrelated antimicrobial agents, such as tetraphenylphosphonium chloride, Hoechst 33342 and norfloxacin. These results suggest that the cloned DNA fragment carries a gene(s) encoding a multidrug efflux pump. We partially determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned DNA and found the mdeA gene within it. The E. coli cells transformed with the mdeA gene showed efflux activity of Hoechst 33342. On the other hand, S. aureus cells transformed with mdeA showed elevated resistance to doxorubicin, daunorubicin, tetraphenylphosphonium chloride, Hoechst 33342, ethidium bromide and rhodamine 6G. Elevated energy-dependent efflux of ethidium was observed with transformed S. aureus. We found that the mdeA gene was expressed under normal growth conditions in S. aureus N315.
To study the antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid content, auxotype and serogroup of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from an urban population of STD clinic attenders in Northern Tanzania.
This study was performed to evaluate the change of prescribing patterns after the regulatory action regarding fluoroquinolones in pediatric patients.
The information on the characteristics of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections is limited. We have characterised the urovirulence factors of Esch. coli isolated from symptomatic patients of urinary tract infections (UTI) in order to determine their pathogenic potential and the antibiotic sensitivity profile.
noroxin 400 mg
Bacteria of Enterococcus spp. are now much more often isolated from various diagnostic materials in systemic infection, both in hospitalized and in ambulatory patients. The study included 571 enterococci strains isolated from urine in 1997. Species identification was performed by rapid ID32 STREP test (bioMérieux) for 327 analyzed strains. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium dominated (46.1% and 11.2%, respectively). Over 42% of strains were isolated from urine of patients with non-significant bacteriuria or as concomitant flora. In such cases, simplified identification was performed and the strains were determined as Enterococcus spp. The microorganisms analyzed originated primarily from the urine samples of patients hospitalized at the Department of Urology (41.8%), the Department of Neurology (11.9%) and the Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology (9.9%). Enterococcus faecalis strains were second with respect to population count (263--10.6%), after Escherichia coli strains (464--18.8%), while Enterococcus faecium strains were the sixth (64--2.5%). Enterococcus genus took the first place among all microorganisms isolated from the urine samples. Antibiotic-sensitivity was determined for 323 enterococci strains originating from hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Enterococcus faecium strains, naturally resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, were sensitive to nitrofuranoin in more than 50% and to norfloxacin in about 20%. Among 254 analyzed Enterococcus faecalis strains, 80.0% were sensitive to ampicillin, nitrofurantoin and high concentrations of gentamicin as well as streptomycin. Enterococci strains isolated from hospitalized patients proved sensitive to ampicillin and carbapenems in 76.8%, while strains isolated from ambulatory patients were 100% sensitive to these drugs. Examination of enterococci isolated from urine of patients hospitalized showed 33.8% sensitive to norfloxacin and 84.6% sensitive to nitrofurantoin. All the enterococci strains were sensitive to glycopeptide antibiotics: vancomycin, teicoplanin.
In Ethiopia there is scarce information on the pattern of bacterial isolates and drug sensitivities of infected ulcers in patients with leprosy. This study was undertaken to identify the bacteriology of infected ulcers and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern.
noroxin norfloxacin generic
Cirrhotic patients frequently develop ascites during the course of their disease. The appearance of ascites is the final consequence of profound disturbances in systemic and splanchnic haemodynamics, and in renal and hormonal function. The alterations in renal function consist of a decreased ability to excrete sodium and water, and in more severe cases, a reduction in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. No effective drug therapy is yet available for water retention and renal failure in these patients. Sodium retention, however, may be treated by the administration of diuretics. The diuretics most commonly used in the treatment of cirrhotic patients with ascites are loop diuretics, particularly furosemide (frusemide), and distal, or 'potassium-sparing' diuretics such as spironolactone. Although furosemide has a much greater natriuretic potency than spironolactone in healthy individuals, studies in cirrhotic patients with ascites have shown that spironolactone is more effective than furosemide in the elimination of ascites. Nowadays, however, therapeutic paracentesis associated with plasma expanders has replaced diuretic therapy as the initial treatment for cirrhotic patients hospitalised with tense ascites since it is more effective and is associated with a lower rate of complications than diuretic therapy. Diuretics should be given after the elimination of ascites by paracentesis to avoid the reaccumulation of the abdominal fluid. Only cirrhotic patients with mild ascites should be treated initially with diuretics. Cirrhotic patients with ascites frequently develop a spontaneous infection of the ascitic fluid which is usually caused by Gram-negative bacilli from enteric origin and has a great tendency to recur after therapy. The antibiotics of choice for this infection are third-generation cephalosporins. Long term administration of norfloxacin, which causes a selective elimination of Gram-negative bacilli from the intestinal flora, is effective in preventing the recurrence of ascites infection in these patients. Finally, cirrhotic patients with ascites are prone to develop renal failure when treated with a variety of pharmacological agents, particularly aminoglycosides and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The administration of the latter drugs may also cause dilutional hyponatraemia and refractory ascites since they induce water retention and impair the renal response to diuretics.
noroxin renal dosing
compare the acceptability of 3-day regimen with that of 10-day regimen of fluoroquinolones for the treatment of recurrent uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection in women.
noroxin drug interactions
Enterococcus faecium has emerged as a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen involved in outbreaks worldwide. Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, biofilm production, and clonal relatedness of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VREF) clinical isolates from two hospitals in Mexico.
noroxin 500 mg
Our study demonstrates that strains with MR fimbriae have a rather high virulence (p<0.001), and that a combination of MR+MS fimbriae increased that virulence (p<0.001). As MR strains have a greater adhesive property, the determination of MR fimbriae bearing as high shows that fimbriae bearing plays an important role in widespread and resistant strains, especially in recurrent UTIs such as in our study. In addition, hemolysin capability was also a virulence factor in recurrent UTIs (p<0.01). In addition, the sensitivity of the strains to the antimicrobials appeared in the following order; imipenem 93%, norfloxacin 89%, ciprofloxacin 85%, netilmicin 80%, amikacin 78%, ceftriaxone 74%, gentamicin 72%, nitrofurantoin 71%, ampicillin-sulbactam 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 58%, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 45%, ampicillin 35%.