minipress 1mg capsule
The ages of the patients (N = 3,948) ranged from 62 to 66. The duration of the studies varied from 8 to 52 weeks. Four of the studies used fixed dosages, and the rest used titration-to-response doses. The effect of terazosin versus placebo on peak urinary flow rate was similar in all the studies. The estimated mean increase in peak urinary flow rate was 1.39 mL/s greater in men receiving terazosin than in those receiving placebo, and the improvements were observed within 8 weeks of therapy. However, the changes in the symptom scores varied across the studies. Patients treated with terazosin had an estimated 1.9-point reduction (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.3) in BSI and 3.5-point reduction (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.8-4.1) in AUA-SI score from baseline. Improvements in scores were greater in studies that were conducted for longer duration.
minipress xl dosage
Cocaine produces apparent myocardial ischemia in some individuals without deleterious effects in others. The authors identified a subset of rats in which cocaine produces a decrease in cardiac output and an increase in cardiomyopathies. In the present study, several potential causes of this differential responsiveness were examined in conscious rats instrumented for cardiac output determination by using pulsed Doppler flowmetry. Although arterial pressure and heart rate responses to cocaine (5 mg/kg i.v.) were similar in all rats, cardiac output responses varied widely. Specifically, in 17 of 36 rats, cocaine elicited a maximum decrease of greater than 15% that was relatively consistent with repeated trials. These rats were designated responders, whereas the remaining rats with little change or an increase in cardiac output were classified as nonresponders. Pentolinium (7.5 mg/kg) or adrenal demedullation reduced the peak cardiac output responses in both groups such that there was no longer a difference between responders and nonresponders. Prazosin (0.1 mg/kg) reduced the cocaine-induced pressor responses in all rats and selectively reduced the decrease in cardiac output in responders. Propranolol (1 mg/kg) reduced the peak pressor response but enhanced the decrease in cardiac output in responders. Neither indomethacin (5 mg/kg) or heparin (300 units) pretreatment altered the cocaine-induced cardiac output or peripheral vascular effects in either responders or nonresponders. Amphetamine (1 mg/kg) elicited smaller pressor responses but still evoked a net decrease in cardiac output in responders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
In a previous report, subcutaneous injection of diluted bee venom (dBV) into a specific acupuncture point (Zusanli, ST36), a procedure termed apipuncture, was shown to produce an antinociceptive effect in the rat formalin pain model. However, the central antinociceptive mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been established. Traditional acupuncture-induced antinociception is considered to be mediated by activation of the descending pain inhibitory system (DPIS) including initiation of its opioidergic, adrenergic and serotonergic components. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the antinociceptive effect of apipuncture is also mediated by the DPIS. Behavioral experiments verified that apipuncture significantly reduces licking behavior in the late phase of formalin test in rats. This antinociceptive effect of apipuncture was not modified by intrathecal pretreatment with naltrexone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist), prazosin (an alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (an beta adrenoceptor antagonist). In contrast, intrathecally injected idazoxan (an alpha2 adrenoceptor antagonist) or intrathecal methysergide (a serotonin receptor antagonist) significantly reversed apipuncture-induced antinociception. These results suggest that apipuncture-induced antinociception is produced by activation of alpha2 adrenergic and serotonergic components of the DPIS.
Tamsulosin (10(-10)-10(-9) M) or prazosin (10(-9)-10(-8) M) concentration dependently blocked the tension responses to electrical field stimulation (0.3 ms duration, 80 V and 20 Hz) in human hyperplastic prostate with lC50 values of (1.93 +/- 0.26) x 10(-10) M and (2.11 +/- 0.21) x 10(-9) M, respectively. The relative potency of tamsulosin with reference to prazosin was 10.96. The pA2 values for tamsulosin and prazosin against phenylephrine-induced contractions were 10.05 +/- 0.16 and 9.25 +/- 0.07, respectively. The relative potency of tamsulosin with reference to prazosin was 6.31. In the presence of prazosin to block alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated responses, nifedipine (10(-5) M), but not tamsulosin (10(-9) M), significantly blocked the tension responses in human hyperplastic prostate induced by increasing [Ca2+]o concentrations (10(-4) to 3 x 10(-3) M) in a Ca(2+)-free environment pre-depolarized with 60 mM K+. Additionally, the effects of prazosin and tamsulosin on electrical field stimulation-evoked [3H]noradrenaline release were studied on the S3/S2 ratios. It appeared that both drugs had little effect on this release reaction, with S3/S2 ratios of 0.96 +/- 0.02 and 0.90 +/- 0.02, respectively. These results indicate that tamsulosin is a potent antagonist against endogenous sympathetic stimulation in human hyperplastic prostate.
minipress generic name
The localisation of neuropeptide Y in the rabbit central ear artery and its pharmacological action on this preparation were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the presence of neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in the perivascular nerves supplying the rabbit ear artery. Forty-eight hours after treatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg i.p. 48 h and 3 mg/kg i.p. 24 h prior to the experiment) catecholamine fluorescence in the rabbit central ear artery was abolished and the neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity was substantially reduced, suggesting that noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y were colocalised in sympathetic nerves. Contractile responses to exogenous noradrenaline (1 microM) and alpha,beta-methylene ATP (1 microM) were both significantly potentiated following incubation with neuropeptide Y (0.3 microM); the degree of potentiation being similar for both agonists. Electrical field stimulation of the rabbit central ear artery (16 and 64 Hz) produced frequency-dependent contractile responses which were abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) and which were significantly potentiated in the presence of neuropeptide Y (0.3 microM). The responses to stimulation at 16 Hz were enhanced to a greater extent than the responses at 64 Hz. After blocking the noradrenergic component of the neurogenic response with prazosin (1 microM), the residual purinergic component, at both 16 and 64 Hz, was significantly enhanced in the presence of neuropeptide Y. However, following desensitisation of the P2-purinoceptor with alpha,beta-methylene ATP, neuropeptide Y had no significant effect on the residual noradrenergic component.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
minipress drug information
Short-term water deprivation was employed as a model to induce controlled water intake to study concomitant cardiovascular responses in the rat.
1. The postjunctional excitatory and inhibitory effects of noradrenaline and selective alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptor agonists on electrical and mechanical activity of cat colon muscle strips were studied by microelectrode recordings and isometric force measurements. Experiments were performed in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM) or atropine (0.5 microM). 2. Circular muscle cells near the submucosal border had a mean resting membrane potential of -76.1 +/- 1.2 mV and exhibited electrical slow waves at frequencies of 4-6 cycles min-1. The mean values of electrical slow wave components were: upstroke potential, -40.7 +/- 1.2 mV; plateau potential, -43.7 +/- 0.8 mV; and duration, 4.9 +/- 0.4 s. Electrical slow waves were in phase with rhythmic contractions of the circular muscle layer. Muscle cells near the myenteric border had a mean testing membrane potential of -51.1 +/- 5.5 mV and did not exhibit electrical slow waves. 3. Noradrenaline (1 microM) increased the duration of electrical slow waves. This effect was inhibited by prazosin (1 microM) and potentiated by propranolol (5 microM), indicating activation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors. Also, when alpha 1-adrenoceptors were irreversibly blocked by phenoxybenzamine (1 microM), noradrenaline decreased the duration of electrical slow waves. Phenylephrine (1 microM), a selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, and isoprenaline (1 microM), a beta-adrenoceptor agonist, increased or decreased the duration of electrical slow waves, respectively. 4. Phenylephrine (0.01-5 microM) caused a linear increase in the area of electrical slow waves and phasic contractions but did not affect resting membrane potential or resting muscle tension. Higher concentrations of phenylephrine (5-50 microM) depolarized the resting membrane potential (2-6 mV) and increased muscle tone. 5. Nitrendipine or verapamil (each at 5 microM) reduced the amplitude of the upstroke potential and nearly abolished the plateau phase of the electrical slow waves. In the presence of L-type Ca2+ antagonists, noradrenaline (1-10 microM) or phenylephrine (1-100 microM) had no effect on electrical slow waves and phasic contractions. This indicates that the effects of noradrenaline and phenylephrine involve the influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels. 6. Ryanodine, an alkaloid that depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores nearly abolished phasic contractions. In muscle strips, pretreated with ryanodine (10 microM for 30 min), phenylephrine (1 microM) increased and isoprenaline (1 microM) decreased the duration of electrical slow waves but neither was able to reverse the ryanodine-suppressed phasic contractions. This suggests that adrenoceptor effects on electrical slow waves are coupled to contractions via Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores. 7. In summary, noradrenaline activates postjunctional alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors. Activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors increases the magnitude of electrical slow waves and phasic contractions, whereas activation of beta-adrenoceptors decreases them. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediated effects on electrical slow waves and phasic contractions require the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels. Phasic contractions also involve Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores.
minipress xl dose
Both [125I]PIC and [3H]rauwolscine bound to a single population of receptors in membrane preparations of rabbit ciliary body. The densities for the two ligands were the same (about 640 fmol/mg). However, the affinity of [125I]PIC (dissociation constant, Kd = 1.91 +/- 0.24 nM) was about threefold higher than that of [3H]rauwolscine (dissociation constant = 6.79 +/- 1.5 nM), and binding of [125I]PIC exhibited guanine nucleotide sensitivity. Inhibition of [125I]PIC binding by epinephrine, idazoxan, and amiloride was examined to differentiate between alpha 2-adrenoceptors and the imidazoline-preferring receptor. Epinephrine and idazoxan competed for all of the [125I]PIC binding; relative potency was epinephrine > idazoxan > amiloride. Subtypes of alpha 2-adrenoceptors were further studied by competition for [125I]PIC binding by subtype-selective compounds. [125I]PIC binding sites showed the pharmacologic characteristics of an alpha 2A-adrenoceptor (oxymetazoline > chlorpromazine > prazosin), and competition by oxymetazoline and chlorpromazine was best fit by a one-site model. Likewise, the relative potency of inhibition of [3H]rauwolscine binding was oxymetazoline > chlorpromazine. However, inhibition of [3H]rauwolscine-binding by oxymetazoline was better fit by a two-site model, which was converted to a one-site model in the presence of 100 microM 5'-guanylimidodiphosphate.
minipress dosage forms
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of using doxazosin standard formulation in elderly hypertensive patients who were either uncontrolled or newly diagnosed, and replacing standard doxazosin with doxazosin in the gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) formulation. We designed a postmarketing surveillance, open-label non-comparative, multicentre, clinical study covering primary care patients aged 65 years or older diagnosed with essential uncontrolled arterial hypertension. The study covered a period of 6-9 months, divided into two phases. Phase I involved a minimum of three and maximum of six months in treatment with standard doxazosin; phase II began with the changeover from standard doxazosin to the GITS formulation and lasted 12 weeks. Of the 1705 patients initially enrolled, 1292 (75.8%) completed the study. Reduction in systolic blood pressure was 22.3 mmHg (13.7%) in phase I, and 3.9 mmHg (2.77%) in phase II; reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 12.4 mmHg (13.2%) in phase I, and 2.4 mmHg (2.9%) in phase II. The percentage of controlled patients was 40.5% (691/1705) by the end of phase I and 45.3% (776/1705) by the end of phase II. A total of 154 patients suffered adverse events (AE), 127 during phase I and 27 in phase II. We conclude that doxazosin in its two formulations is effective and safe for the purpose of lowering blood pressure in elderly patients.
The ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) determined that treatment with amlodipine, lisinopril, or doxazosin was not superior to thiazide-like diuretic (chlorthalidone) in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular events. This subanalysis examines baseline prevalence and in-trial incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) and their influence on clinical outcomes.
minipress 1mg tablet
To determine why renal vasoconstriction elicited by periarterial nerve stimulation (RNS) at lower frequencies (< 4 Hz) is resistant to alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade in the rat kidney, we reevaluated the effect of alpha-receptor antagonists on the vasoconstrictor response to norepinephrine (NE) and to RNS and on the release of adrenergic transmitter. The alpha-receptor antagonist prazosin (PZ) at 0.2 and 7 nM reduced the vasoconstrictor response to NE, and 2.4 microM PZ abolished it. PZ (0.2 or 7 nM) reduced RNS-induced vasoconstriction without altering the fractional tritium overflow. PZ (2.4 microM) enhanced fractional tritium overflow and reduced the vasoconstrictor response to RNS at 2-10 Hz, but not at 0.5 or 1 Hz. The effect of 0.2 nM PZ to reduce RNS-induced vasoconstriction was reversed by increasing the concentration to 2.4 microM. Corynanthine (COR; 2.6 microM), a preferential alpha-receptor blocker, or phenoxybenzamine (PBZ; 30 nM) abolished the vasoconstrictor response to NE but only partially reduced response to RNS and enhanced the fractional tritium overflow. Rauwolscine (RW; 2.5 nM), a preferential alpha 2-receptor antagonist, did not alter the vasoconstrictor response to NE but potentiated RNS-induced vasoconstriction and fractional tritium overflow. RW (7.7 microM) inhibited NE-induced vasoconstriction but potentiated the vasoconstrictor response to RNS and fractional tritium overflow. PZ (7 nM) abolished the potentiation by RW and reduced the vasoconstrictor response to RNS. These data suggest that a component of RNS-induced vasoconstriction in the rat kidney is attributable to co-release of a nonadrenergic transmitter with NE. The diminished effect of alpha-receptor antagonists at higher concentrations (e.g., PZ 2.4 microM) to reduce RNS-induced vasoconstriction is caused by their prejunctional action to enhance co-release of the nonadrenergic transmitter.
tab minipress dose
Experiments were performed on chloralose-anaesthetized cats with ligated adrenals. The vagal and splanchnic nerves were cut and arranged for peripheral electric stimulation. The gastric lumen was perfused with isotonic saline and gastric H+ and HCO3- secretions were calculated from pH/pCO2 measurements in the perfusate. Gastric motility was recorded as changes in hydrostatic pressure in the perfusion circuit. Mucosal HCO3- secretion into the duodenum was monitored in situ by pH-stat titration. Vagal stimulation (10 Hz for 10 min) increased gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretions, as well as gastric motor activity and H+ secretion. Splanchnic nerve stimulation (10 Hz for 10 min) did not affect gastric H+ and HCO3- secretions, but tended to decrease gastric motor tone and basal duodenal HCO3- secretion. Splanchnic nerve stimulation simultaneously with vagal stimulation inhibited gastric contractions and the rise in gastric H+ and duodenal HCO3- secretions observed in response to vagal stimulation alone, but had little effect on the rise in gastric HCO3- secretion. However, such vago-splanchnic stimulation in the presence of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocker yohimbine induced gastric contractions, H+ secretory and duodenal HCO3- secretory responses with magnitudes similar to those induced by vagal stimulation alone, whereas the gastric HCO3- secretory response was larger than by vagal stimulation alone. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (50 micrograms kg-1 h-1, i.v.) inhibited the gastric contractions and increases in gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretion in response to vagal stimulation, but did not influence vagal stimulation of gastric H+ secretion. The results suggest the existence of a peripheral sympatho-inhibitory action on gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretion involving alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Also splanchnic neural stimulatory effects on gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretion may exist.
Alpha1-adrenoceptors are highly concentrated in the urethral smooth muscles and may play an important role in the contraction of this area. However, detailed examinations of age-related changes of the properties of urethral smooth muscle have rarely been undertaken.
minipress tablets dose
We have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, [14C]sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase we have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of [14C]sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors [Sar1, Thr8]angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the [14C]sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.
α1-adrenergic antagonism may reverse, at least partially, the poor sleep quality of SHR, suggesting a vicious cycle can be established between adrenergic overdrive and sleep disturbance.
minipress nightmares dosage
We applied continuous, on-line and real-time spectral analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and microdialysis to evaluate the possible participation of noradrenergic neurotransmission at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in EEG desynchronization induced by cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that were under chloral hydrate anesthesia were used. Intravenous administration of cocaine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently induced EEG desynchronization, as represented by a decrease in root mean square (RMS) and an increase in mean power frequency (MPF) value of the EEG signals. Power spectral analysis further revealed that whereas both doses of cocaine promoted a reduction in the alpha (8-13 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), and delta (1-4 Hz) components, the lower dose of cocaine decreased, and the higher dose increased the beta band (13-32 Hz). Microdialysis data indicated an elevation in extracellular concentration of norepinephrine at the mPFC that paralleled temporally and correlated positively with the maximal effect of cocaine on EEG activity. Bilateral microinjection of the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, DSP4 (50 micrograms), or equimolar concentration (500 pmol) of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, or alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, into the mPFC significantly blunted the decrease in delta component (prazosin) or both delta and theta components (DSP4 or yohimbine) of EEG activity by the lower dose of cocaine. On the other hand, the same pretreatments appreciably antagonized the increase in beta band by cocaine at 3.0 mg/kg. The potency of the antagonism by yohimbine, however, was higher than prazosin. These results suggest that cocaine may elicit EEG desynchronization via noradrenergic neurotransmission, and that alpha 2-adrenoceptors, and to a lesser extent, alpha 1-adrenoceptors, at the mPFC may be involved in the subtle dose-dependent changes in individual EEG spectral components.
In contrast to the consistent profile of recombinant α1B -adrenoceptors, the pharmacological profile of native α1B -adrenoceptors of rat liver and carotid artery varied markedly under various receptor environments, showing significantly different binding properties between intact tissues and homogenates, and dissociation between functional and binding affinities. In addition to conventional 'subtype' characterization, 'phenotype' pharmacology must be considered in native receptor evaluations in vivo and in future pharmacotherapy.
minipress and alcohol
Antidepressants are reported to exhibit antiinflammatory effects. However, mechanisms involved in this action have not been elucidated. Thus, the objectives of the present study were (a) to evaluate the effects of amitriptyline on the acute inflammatory process, and (b) to investigate the participation of α(1)-adrenergic receptors and glucocorticoids as possible mechanisms implicated in the amitriptyline action on inflammation.
minipress medication information
Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) play an important role in cell-volume regulation. alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor stimulation by phenylephrine (PE) suppressed the hypotonic activation of VRAC current in mouse ventricular cells and regulatory volume decrease (RVD) was also absent in PE-treated cells. We examined whether the effects of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimuli on VRAC current were modulated by phosphatidylinositol signalling.
minipress xl drug
The activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase in the rat pineal is regulated through a synergistic action of norepinephrine on alpha 1- and beta 1-adrenoceptors. Rat pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) activity is also responsive to the beta 1-adrenoceptor, while melatonin synthesis and indoleamine release in certain species is apparently under alpha 1-adrenoceptor control. The present study reports that the simultaneous administration of doxazosin (a selective alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist) and metoprolol (a selective beta 1-adrenergic antagonist) reduces peak HIOMT activity significantly more than either agent alone, indicating that rat pineal HIOMT is also subject to synergistic alpha 1- and beta 1-adrenergic regulation. The relationship between alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation, serotonin release, and HIOMT activity is considered, following the observation that nocturnal HIOMT activity is elevated in serotonin-depleted pineal glands.
minipress overdose symptoms
Although the haemodynamic effects of catecholamines on the rat left ventricle have been investigated extensively, only few systematic in vivo studies have been performed on the right ventricle. The aim was to examine the acute effects of noradrenaline and isoproterenol on rat right ventricular function.
minipress user reviews
Human internal mammary arteries were cut longitudinally, the intimal layer was scraped, and the arteries homogenised and centrifuged at 50,000 g to obtain a membrane pellet. Saturation isotherms with [3H]-prazosin were done with 50-100 micrograms plasma membranes per tube and increasing concentrations of [3H]-prazosin (non-specific binding: 2.5 mM noradrenaline plus superoxide dismutase and catalase). Kinetic isotherms were done with 100 micrograms plasma membranes and 1-5 nM [3H]-prazosin for time periods ranging from 1 to 90 min; at the equilibrium, dissociation of [3H]-prazosin was achieved by 10 microM prazosin. alpha 2 Adrenoceptor density on internal mammary artery membranes was assessed with [3H]-rauwolscine (non-specific binding: 1 microM yohimbine). Separation of membrane bound radioactivity was achieved by rapid vacuum filtration through Whatman GF/C fibre filters. Saturation isotherms were evaluated by Scatchard plots and kinetic data, and competition isotherms by Enzfitter analysis. Contractility studies were done with helical strips of artery (without adventitial layer) placed in a thermostated perfusion bath. Data were obtained in the presence of different concentrations of agonists and antagonist to obtain Schild plots. Antagonist drugs were employed at only one concentration for each preparation.