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Minipress (Prazosin)

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Minipress is an effective strong preparation which is taken in treatment of hypertension diseases. Minipress is also helpful in treatment of male prostate enlargement symptoms, congestive heart failure, Raynaud's disease. Minipress acts as anti-hypertension remedy.

Other names for this medication:

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Lisinopril, Amlodipine, Norvasc, Benicar, Metoprolol, Hydrochlorothiazide, Avapro, Losartan


Also known as:  Prazosin.


Minipress is created by pharmacy specialists to combat hypertension disease. Target of Minipress is to control level of blood pressure.

Minipress acts as anti-hypertension remedy. Minipress operates by reducing blood pressure.

Minipress is also known as Prazosin, Prazopress, Vasoflex, Hypovase.

Minipress is alpha blocker.

Generic name of Minipress is Prazosin (oral).

Brand name of Minipress is Minipress.


You should take it by mouth with water.

It is better to take Minipress 2-3 times a day at the same time with meals or milk.

It is better to start the first Minipress dose when are going to bed.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Minipress suddenly.


If you overdose Minipress and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Minipress overdosage: feeling lightheaded, rash, weakness, troublesome breathing, pruritus, swelling.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Minipress are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Minipress if you are allergic to Minipress components.

Be careful with Minipress if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Minipress if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Minipress if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Minipress if you have liver or kidney disease, heart failure, low blood pressure, narcolepsy, prostate cancer.

Be careful with Minipress if you take muscle relaxants as carisoprodol; anti-anxiety drugs as diazepam; anti-seizure drugs as carbamazepine; tranquilizers; sleep medicines as sedatives; antihistamines as diphenhydramine; verapamil; psychiatric medicines as tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline), phenothiazines (chlorpromazine); sexual function problems drugs as vardenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil; narcotic pain relievers as codeine; beta blockers as metoprolol, propranolol, atenolol.

Avoid machine driving.

Use Minipress with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Avoid alcohol.

Minipress can be not safety for elderly people.

Try to be careful with sunbeams. Minipress makes skin sensitive to sunlight. Protect skin from the sun.

Do not stop taking Minipress suddenly.

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The ages of the patients (N = 3,948) ranged from 62 to 66. The duration of the studies varied from 8 to 52 weeks. Four of the studies used fixed dosages, and the rest used titration-to-response doses. The effect of terazosin versus placebo on peak urinary flow rate was similar in all the studies. The estimated mean increase in peak urinary flow rate was 1.39 mL/s greater in men receiving terazosin than in those receiving placebo, and the improvements were observed within 8 weeks of therapy. However, the changes in the symptom scores varied across the studies. Patients treated with terazosin had an estimated 1.9-point reduction (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.3) in BSI and 3.5-point reduction (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.8-4.1) in AUA-SI score from baseline. Improvements in scores were greater in studies that were conducted for longer duration.

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Cocaine produces apparent myocardial ischemia in some individuals without deleterious effects in others. The authors identified a subset of rats in which cocaine produces a decrease in cardiac output and an increase in cardiomyopathies. In the present study, several potential causes of this differential responsiveness were examined in conscious rats instrumented for cardiac output determination by using pulsed Doppler flowmetry. Although arterial pressure and heart rate responses to cocaine (5 mg/kg i.v.) were similar in all rats, cardiac output responses varied widely. Specifically, in 17 of 36 rats, cocaine elicited a maximum decrease of greater than 15% that was relatively consistent with repeated trials. These rats were designated responders, whereas the remaining rats with little change or an increase in cardiac output were classified as nonresponders. Pentolinium (7.5 mg/kg) or adrenal demedullation reduced the peak cardiac output responses in both groups such that there was no longer a difference between responders and nonresponders. Prazosin (0.1 mg/kg) reduced the cocaine-induced pressor responses in all rats and selectively reduced the decrease in cardiac output in responders. Propranolol (1 mg/kg) reduced the peak pressor response but enhanced the decrease in cardiac output in responders. Neither indomethacin (5 mg/kg) or heparin (300 units) pretreatment altered the cocaine-induced cardiac output or peripheral vascular effects in either responders or nonresponders. Amphetamine (1 mg/kg) elicited smaller pressor responses but still evoked a net decrease in cardiac output in responders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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In a previous report, subcutaneous injection of diluted bee venom (dBV) into a specific acupuncture point (Zusanli, ST36), a procedure termed apipuncture, was shown to produce an antinociceptive effect in the rat formalin pain model. However, the central antinociceptive mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been established. Traditional acupuncture-induced antinociception is considered to be mediated by activation of the descending pain inhibitory system (DPIS) including initiation of its opioidergic, adrenergic and serotonergic components. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the antinociceptive effect of apipuncture is also mediated by the DPIS. Behavioral experiments verified that apipuncture significantly reduces licking behavior in the late phase of formalin test in rats. This antinociceptive effect of apipuncture was not modified by intrathecal pretreatment with naltrexone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist), prazosin (an alpha1 adrenoceptor antagonist) or propranolol (an beta adrenoceptor antagonist). In contrast, intrathecally injected idazoxan (an alpha2 adrenoceptor antagonist) or intrathecal methysergide (a serotonin receptor antagonist) significantly reversed apipuncture-induced antinociception. These results suggest that apipuncture-induced antinociception is produced by activation of alpha2 adrenergic and serotonergic components of the DPIS.

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Tamsulosin (10(-10)-10(-9) M) or prazosin (10(-9)-10(-8) M) concentration dependently blocked the tension responses to electrical field stimulation (0.3 ms duration, 80 V and 20 Hz) in human hyperplastic prostate with lC50 values of (1.93 +/- 0.26) x 10(-10) M and (2.11 +/- 0.21) x 10(-9) M, respectively. The relative potency of tamsulosin with reference to prazosin was 10.96. The pA2 values for tamsulosin and prazosin against phenylephrine-induced contractions were 10.05 +/- 0.16 and 9.25 +/- 0.07, respectively. The relative potency of tamsulosin with reference to prazosin was 6.31. In the presence of prazosin to block alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated responses, nifedipine (10(-5) M), but not tamsulosin (10(-9) M), significantly blocked the tension responses in human hyperplastic prostate induced by increasing [Ca2+]o concentrations (10(-4) to 3 x 10(-3) M) in a Ca(2+)-free environment pre-depolarized with 60 mM K+. Additionally, the effects of prazosin and tamsulosin on electrical field stimulation-evoked [3H]noradrenaline release were studied on the S3/S2 ratios. It appeared that both drugs had little effect on this release reaction, with S3/S2 ratios of 0.96 +/- 0.02 and 0.90 +/- 0.02, respectively. These results indicate that tamsulosin is a potent antagonist against endogenous sympathetic stimulation in human hyperplastic prostate.

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The localisation of neuropeptide Y in the rabbit central ear artery and its pharmacological action on this preparation were investigated. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the presence of neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity in the perivascular nerves supplying the rabbit ear artery. Forty-eight hours after treatment with reserpine (5 mg/kg i.p. 48 h and 3 mg/kg i.p. 24 h prior to the experiment) catecholamine fluorescence in the rabbit central ear artery was abolished and the neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity was substantially reduced, suggesting that noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y were colocalised in sympathetic nerves. Contractile responses to exogenous noradrenaline (1 microM) and alpha,beta-methylene ATP (1 microM) were both significantly potentiated following incubation with neuropeptide Y (0.3 microM); the degree of potentiation being similar for both agonists. Electrical field stimulation of the rabbit central ear artery (16 and 64 Hz) produced frequency-dependent contractile responses which were abolished by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) and which were significantly potentiated in the presence of neuropeptide Y (0.3 microM). The responses to stimulation at 16 Hz were enhanced to a greater extent than the responses at 64 Hz. After blocking the noradrenergic component of the neurogenic response with prazosin (1 microM), the residual purinergic component, at both 16 and 64 Hz, was significantly enhanced in the presence of neuropeptide Y. However, following desensitisation of the P2-purinoceptor with alpha,beta-methylene ATP, neuropeptide Y had no significant effect on the residual noradrenergic component.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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Short-term water deprivation was employed as a model to induce controlled water intake to study concomitant cardiovascular responses in the rat.

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1. The postjunctional excitatory and inhibitory effects of noradrenaline and selective alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptor agonists on electrical and mechanical activity of cat colon muscle strips were studied by microelectrode recordings and isometric force measurements. Experiments were performed in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5 microM) or atropine (0.5 microM). 2. Circular muscle cells near the submucosal border had a mean resting membrane potential of -76.1 +/- 1.2 mV and exhibited electrical slow waves at frequencies of 4-6 cycles min-1. The mean values of electrical slow wave components were: upstroke potential, -40.7 +/- 1.2 mV; plateau potential, -43.7 +/- 0.8 mV; and duration, 4.9 +/- 0.4 s. Electrical slow waves were in phase with rhythmic contractions of the circular muscle layer. Muscle cells near the myenteric border had a mean testing membrane potential of -51.1 +/- 5.5 mV and did not exhibit electrical slow waves. 3. Noradrenaline (1 microM) increased the duration of electrical slow waves. This effect was inhibited by prazosin (1 microM) and potentiated by propranolol (5 microM), indicating activation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors. Also, when alpha 1-adrenoceptors were irreversibly blocked by phenoxybenzamine (1 microM), noradrenaline decreased the duration of electrical slow waves. Phenylephrine (1 microM), a selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, and isoprenaline (1 microM), a beta-adrenoceptor agonist, increased or decreased the duration of electrical slow waves, respectively. 4. Phenylephrine (0.01-5 microM) caused a linear increase in the area of electrical slow waves and phasic contractions but did not affect resting membrane potential or resting muscle tension. Higher concentrations of phenylephrine (5-50 microM) depolarized the resting membrane potential (2-6 mV) and increased muscle tone. 5. Nitrendipine or verapamil (each at 5 microM) reduced the amplitude of the upstroke potential and nearly abolished the plateau phase of the electrical slow waves. In the presence of L-type Ca2+ antagonists, noradrenaline (1-10 microM) or phenylephrine (1-100 microM) had no effect on electrical slow waves and phasic contractions. This indicates that the effects of noradrenaline and phenylephrine involve the influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels. 6. Ryanodine, an alkaloid that depletes intracellular Ca2+ stores nearly abolished phasic contractions. In muscle strips, pretreated with ryanodine (10 microM for 30 min), phenylephrine (1 microM) increased and isoprenaline (1 microM) decreased the duration of electrical slow waves but neither was able to reverse the ryanodine-suppressed phasic contractions. This suggests that adrenoceptor effects on electrical slow waves are coupled to contractions via Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores. 7. In summary, noradrenaline activates postjunctional alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors. Activation of alpha 1-adrenoceptors increases the magnitude of electrical slow waves and phasic contractions, whereas activation of beta-adrenoceptors decreases them. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediated effects on electrical slow waves and phasic contractions require the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels. Phasic contractions also involve Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive intracellular stores.

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Both [125I]PIC and [3H]rauwolscine bound to a single population of receptors in membrane preparations of rabbit ciliary body. The densities for the two ligands were the same (about 640 fmol/mg). However, the affinity of [125I]PIC (dissociation constant, Kd = 1.91 +/- 0.24 nM) was about threefold higher than that of [3H]rauwolscine (dissociation constant = 6.79 +/- 1.5 nM), and binding of [125I]PIC exhibited guanine nucleotide sensitivity. Inhibition of [125I]PIC binding by epinephrine, idazoxan, and amiloride was examined to differentiate between alpha 2-adrenoceptors and the imidazoline-preferring receptor. Epinephrine and idazoxan competed for all of the [125I]PIC binding; relative potency was epinephrine > idazoxan > amiloride. Subtypes of alpha 2-adrenoceptors were further studied by competition for [125I]PIC binding by subtype-selective compounds. [125I]PIC binding sites showed the pharmacologic characteristics of an alpha 2A-adrenoceptor (oxymetazoline > chlorpromazine > prazosin), and competition by oxymetazoline and chlorpromazine was best fit by a one-site model. Likewise, the relative potency of inhibition of [3H]rauwolscine binding was oxymetazoline > chlorpromazine. However, inhibition of [3H]rauwolscine-binding by oxymetazoline was better fit by a two-site model, which was converted to a one-site model in the presence of 100 microM 5'-guanylimidodiphosphate.

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The objective of this paper is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of using doxazosin standard formulation in elderly hypertensive patients who were either uncontrolled or newly diagnosed, and replacing standard doxazosin with doxazosin in the gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) formulation. We designed a postmarketing surveillance, open-label non-comparative, multicentre, clinical study covering primary care patients aged 65 years or older diagnosed with essential uncontrolled arterial hypertension. The study covered a period of 6-9 months, divided into two phases. Phase I involved a minimum of three and maximum of six months in treatment with standard doxazosin; phase II began with the changeover from standard doxazosin to the GITS formulation and lasted 12 weeks. Of the 1705 patients initially enrolled, 1292 (75.8%) completed the study. Reduction in systolic blood pressure was 22.3 mmHg (13.7%) in phase I, and 3.9 mmHg (2.77%) in phase II; reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 12.4 mmHg (13.2%) in phase I, and 2.4 mmHg (2.9%) in phase II. The percentage of controlled patients was 40.5% (691/1705) by the end of phase I and 45.3% (776/1705) by the end of phase II. A total of 154 patients suffered adverse events (AE), 127 during phase I and 27 in phase II. We conclude that doxazosin in its two formulations is effective and safe for the purpose of lowering blood pressure in elderly patients.

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The ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial) determined that treatment with amlodipine, lisinopril, or doxazosin was not superior to thiazide-like diuretic (chlorthalidone) in preventing coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular events. This subanalysis examines baseline prevalence and in-trial incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (AFL) and their influence on clinical outcomes.

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To determine why renal vasoconstriction elicited by periarterial nerve stimulation (RNS) at lower frequencies (< 4 Hz) is resistant to alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade in the rat kidney, we reevaluated the effect of alpha-receptor antagonists on the vasoconstrictor response to norepinephrine (NE) and to RNS and on the release of adrenergic transmitter. The alpha-receptor antagonist prazosin (PZ) at 0.2 and 7 nM reduced the vasoconstrictor response to NE, and 2.4 microM PZ abolished it. PZ (0.2 or 7 nM) reduced RNS-induced vasoconstriction without altering the fractional tritium overflow. PZ (2.4 microM) enhanced fractional tritium overflow and reduced the vasoconstrictor response to RNS at 2-10 Hz, but not at 0.5 or 1 Hz. The effect of 0.2 nM PZ to reduce RNS-induced vasoconstriction was reversed by increasing the concentration to 2.4 microM. Corynanthine (COR; 2.6 microM), a preferential alpha-receptor blocker, or phenoxybenzamine (PBZ; 30 nM) abolished the vasoconstrictor response to NE but only partially reduced response to RNS and enhanced the fractional tritium overflow. Rauwolscine (RW; 2.5 nM), a preferential alpha 2-receptor antagonist, did not alter the vasoconstrictor response to NE but potentiated RNS-induced vasoconstriction and fractional tritium overflow. RW (7.7 microM) inhibited NE-induced vasoconstriction but potentiated the vasoconstrictor response to RNS and fractional tritium overflow. PZ (7 nM) abolished the potentiation by RW and reduced the vasoconstrictor response to RNS. These data suggest that a component of RNS-induced vasoconstriction in the rat kidney is attributable to co-release of a nonadrenergic transmitter with NE. The diminished effect of alpha-receptor antagonists at higher concentrations (e.g., PZ 2.4 microM) to reduce RNS-induced vasoconstriction is caused by their prejunctional action to enhance co-release of the nonadrenergic transmitter.

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Experiments were performed on chloralose-anaesthetized cats with ligated adrenals. The vagal and splanchnic nerves were cut and arranged for peripheral electric stimulation. The gastric lumen was perfused with isotonic saline and gastric H+ and HCO3- secretions were calculated from pH/pCO2 measurements in the perfusate. Gastric motility was recorded as changes in hydrostatic pressure in the perfusion circuit. Mucosal HCO3- secretion into the duodenum was monitored in situ by pH-stat titration. Vagal stimulation (10 Hz for 10 min) increased gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretions, as well as gastric motor activity and H+ secretion. Splanchnic nerve stimulation (10 Hz for 10 min) did not affect gastric H+ and HCO3- secretions, but tended to decrease gastric motor tone and basal duodenal HCO3- secretion. Splanchnic nerve stimulation simultaneously with vagal stimulation inhibited gastric contractions and the rise in gastric H+ and duodenal HCO3- secretions observed in response to vagal stimulation alone, but had little effect on the rise in gastric HCO3- secretion. However, such vago-splanchnic stimulation in the presence of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocker yohimbine induced gastric contractions, H+ secretory and duodenal HCO3- secretory responses with magnitudes similar to those induced by vagal stimulation alone, whereas the gastric HCO3- secretory response was larger than by vagal stimulation alone. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (50 micrograms kg-1 h-1, i.v.) inhibited the gastric contractions and increases in gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretion in response to vagal stimulation, but did not influence vagal stimulation of gastric H+ secretion. The results suggest the existence of a peripheral sympatho-inhibitory action on gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretion involving alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Also splanchnic neural stimulatory effects on gastric and duodenal HCO3- secretion may exist.

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Alpha1-adrenoceptors are highly concentrated in the urethral smooth muscles and may play an important role in the contraction of this area. However, detailed examinations of age-related changes of the properties of urethral smooth muscle have rarely been undertaken.

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We have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, [14C]sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase we have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of [14C]sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors [Sar1, Thr8]angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the [14C]sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

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α1-adrenergic antagonism may reverse, at least partially, the poor sleep quality of SHR, suggesting a vicious cycle can be established between adrenergic overdrive and sleep disturbance.

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We applied continuous, on-line and real-time spectral analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and microdialysis to evaluate the possible participation of noradrenergic neurotransmission at the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in EEG desynchronization induced by cocaine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that were under chloral hydrate anesthesia were used. Intravenous administration of cocaine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg) dose-dependently induced EEG desynchronization, as represented by a decrease in root mean square (RMS) and an increase in mean power frequency (MPF) value of the EEG signals. Power spectral analysis further revealed that whereas both doses of cocaine promoted a reduction in the alpha (8-13 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), and delta (1-4 Hz) components, the lower dose of cocaine decreased, and the higher dose increased the beta band (13-32 Hz). Microdialysis data indicated an elevation in extracellular concentration of norepinephrine at the mPFC that paralleled temporally and correlated positively with the maximal effect of cocaine on EEG activity. Bilateral microinjection of the selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, DSP4 (50 micrograms), or equimolar concentration (500 pmol) of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, or alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, into the mPFC significantly blunted the decrease in delta component (prazosin) or both delta and theta components (DSP4 or yohimbine) of EEG activity by the lower dose of cocaine. On the other hand, the same pretreatments appreciably antagonized the increase in beta band by cocaine at 3.0 mg/kg. The potency of the antagonism by yohimbine, however, was higher than prazosin. These results suggest that cocaine may elicit EEG desynchronization via noradrenergic neurotransmission, and that alpha 2-adrenoceptors, and to a lesser extent, alpha 1-adrenoceptors, at the mPFC may be involved in the subtle dose-dependent changes in individual EEG spectral components.

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In contrast to the consistent profile of recombinant α1B -adrenoceptors, the pharmacological profile of native α1B -adrenoceptors of rat liver and carotid artery varied markedly under various receptor environments, showing significantly different binding properties between intact tissues and homogenates, and dissociation between functional and binding affinities. In addition to conventional 'subtype' characterization, 'phenotype' pharmacology must be considered in native receptor evaluations in vivo and in future pharmacotherapy.

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Antidepressants are reported to exhibit antiinflammatory effects. However, mechanisms involved in this action have not been elucidated. Thus, the objectives of the present study were (a) to evaluate the effects of amitriptyline on the acute inflammatory process, and (b) to investigate the participation of α(1)-adrenergic receptors and glucocorticoids as possible mechanisms implicated in the amitriptyline action on inflammation.

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Volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) play an important role in cell-volume regulation. alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor stimulation by phenylephrine (PE) suppressed the hypotonic activation of VRAC current in mouse ventricular cells and regulatory volume decrease (RVD) was also absent in PE-treated cells. We examined whether the effects of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimuli on VRAC current were modulated by phosphatidylinositol signalling.

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The activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase in the rat pineal is regulated through a synergistic action of norepinephrine on alpha 1- and beta 1-adrenoceptors. Rat pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) activity is also responsive to the beta 1-adrenoceptor, while melatonin synthesis and indoleamine release in certain species is apparently under alpha 1-adrenoceptor control. The present study reports that the simultaneous administration of doxazosin (a selective alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist) and metoprolol (a selective beta 1-adrenergic antagonist) reduces peak HIOMT activity significantly more than either agent alone, indicating that rat pineal HIOMT is also subject to synergistic alpha 1- and beta 1-adrenergic regulation. The relationship between alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation, serotonin release, and HIOMT activity is considered, following the observation that nocturnal HIOMT activity is elevated in serotonin-depleted pineal glands.

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Although the haemodynamic effects of catecholamines on the rat left ventricle have been investigated extensively, only few systematic in vivo studies have been performed on the right ventricle. The aim was to examine the acute effects of noradrenaline and isoproterenol on rat right ventricular function.

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Human internal mammary arteries were cut longitudinally, the intimal layer was scraped, and the arteries homogenised and centrifuged at 50,000 g to obtain a membrane pellet. Saturation isotherms with [3H]-prazosin were done with 50-100 micrograms plasma membranes per tube and increasing concentrations of [3H]-prazosin (non-specific binding: 2.5 mM noradrenaline plus superoxide dismutase and catalase). Kinetic isotherms were done with 100 micrograms plasma membranes and 1-5 nM [3H]-prazosin for time periods ranging from 1 to 90 min; at the equilibrium, dissociation of [3H]-prazosin was achieved by 10 microM prazosin. alpha 2 Adrenoceptor density on internal mammary artery membranes was assessed with [3H]-rauwolscine (non-specific binding: 1 microM yohimbine). Separation of membrane bound radioactivity was achieved by rapid vacuum filtration through Whatman GF/C fibre filters. Saturation isotherms were evaluated by Scatchard plots and kinetic data, and competition isotherms by Enzfitter analysis. Contractility studies were done with helical strips of artery (without adventitial layer) placed in a thermostated perfusion bath. Data were obtained in the presence of different concentrations of agonists and antagonist to obtain Schild plots. Antagonist drugs were employed at only one concentration for each preparation.

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minipress xl dosage 2017-11-07

The psychomotor stimulant effect of d-amphetamine, but not that of cocaine or apomorphine, was dose-dependently inhibited by buy minipress clonidine and prazosin, and enhanced by propranolol. Clonidine, prazosin, and propranolol did not influence the induction of sensitization by amphetamine or cocaine.

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Cocaine induced a dose-dependent reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior that was significantly attenuated by prazosin. This dose of prazosin did not alter lever buy minipress press response rates for food.

minipress 1mg tablet 2016-04-03

While on terazosin, voiding symptoms subjectively improved greater than 50% in 10 of the 15 women (p = 0.002). Median maximum urethral closure pressure at rest decreased significantly from 98 to 70 cm H2O (p = buy minipress 0.001), median maximum detrusor pressure decreased from 45 to 35 cm H2O (p = 0.008), median detrusor pressure at maximum flow decreased from 34 to 27 ml per second and median post-void residual urine decreased from 120 to 40 ml (p = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively). There was a significant increase in the median maximum flow rate from 9 to 20 ml per second and in median voided volume from 300 to 340 ml (p = 0.0005 and 0.021, respectively). Storage symptoms, functional urethral length and maximum cystometric capacity did not change significantly with alpha-blocker therapy (p > 0.05). Overall terazosin resulted in a significant improvement in symptoms and urodynamic parameters in 10 of the 15 women (67%).

minipress capsules 2015-10-04

In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their buy minipress houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance.

minipress drug interactions 2016-02-14

Effects of calcium channel blockers from structurally different classes and hydralazine on plasma glucose levels were examined in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats in vivo. Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (verapamil, diltiazem, 1.0-10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not significantly affect the basal plasma glucose level, and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (nifedipine, 0.1-0.3 mg/kg, i.p,; nicardipine, 0.35-0.70 mg/kg, i.p.) caused mild hyperglycemia, which was blocked by the administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist buy minipress propranolol. In contrast, hydralazine markedly produced hyperglycemia, which was also inhibited by the combined administration of propranolol. The selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin greatly potentiated the hydralazine-induced hyperglycemia. Isoproterenol alone showed hyperglycemia similar to that of hydralazine. Hexamethonium (40 mg/kg, i.p.), a ganglionic blocker, blocked the hydralazine-induced hyperglycemia. There was a negative correlation between the hyperglycemic effect and the blood pressure lowering effect by different doses of hydralazine in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, but not in normal rats. These results suggest that endogenous catecholamines are involved in the hydralazine-induced hyperglycemia through the interaction with beta-adrenoceptors in streptozotocin-diabetic rats in vivo.

minipress reviews 2017-04-28

302 normotensive buy minipress and mildly hypertensive men with BPO were evaluated. Patients were randomized to receive doxazosin (1-4 mg o.d.) or placebo for 4-29 weeks.

minipress 6 mg 2016-01-17

The alpha 1-receptor agonist methoxamine reduced, by a prazosin sensitive mechanism, the nerve stimulation evoked release of buy minipress norepinephrine in the rat caudal artery. The effect of methoxamine was also antagonized by the purinoceptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline suggesting an involvement of endogenous purines in this process. Indeed, methoxamine caused the release of adenine nucleotides and adenosine, an action which was blocked by prazosin. These results suggest that methoxamine releases ATP or a related purine which in turn decreases transmitter release by acting on prejunctional purinoceptors.

minipress xl drug 2016-12-19

The study included 99 patients with BPH aged 44-74 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups: in group 1 (n = 25) with baseline total cholesterol levels of >220 mg/dl, terazosin 5 mg/day was used; in group 2 (n = 56) with basal total cholesterol levels of < 220 mg/dl, terazosin 5 mg/day was buy minipress used, and group 3 (n = 18) did not use terazosin and was defined as the control group. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride were recorded, and the high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol ratio was calculated at the beginning of the study and after 12 weeks.

minipress medication information 2017-12-26

Metastatic prostate cancer progresses from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent. Terazosin, a long-acting selective alpha1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in an alpha1-adrenoreceptor-independent manner, while genistein, a major soy isoflavone, inhibits the growth of several types of cancer cells. The present study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a combination of terazosin and genistein using a metastatic, hormone-independent prostatic cancer cell line, DU-145. Terazosin or genistein treatment inhibited the growth of DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas had no effect on normal prostate epithelial cells. Addition of 1 microg/ml of terazosin, which was inactive alone, augmented the growth inhibitory effect of 5 microg/ml of genistein. Co-treatment with terazosin resulted in the genistein-induced arrest of DU-145 cells in G2/M phase being overridden and an increase in apoptotic cells, as evidenced by procaspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. The combination also caused a greater decrease in the levels of the apoptosis-regulating protein, Bcl-XL, and of VEGF165 and VEGF121 than genistein alone. In buy minipress conclusion, the terazosin/genistein combination was more effective in inhibiting cell growth and VEGF expression as well as inducing apoptosis of the metastatic, androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line, DU-145, than either alone. The doses used in this study are in lower and nontoxic anticancer dosage range, suggesting this combination has potential for therapeutic use.

minipress 4 mg 2015-04-17

The activation of Na-H exchange in adult rat heart myocytes was characterized in response to a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist [6-fluoronorepinephrine (6F-NE)]. Transport activation was assessed by determining the initial rate with which intracellular pH (pHi) was returned from an acid pulse and by following changes in steady-state pHi; pHi was determined by a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Both agonists shifted the intracellular pH dependence of Na-H exchange by 0.10-0.15 pH units in buy minipress the alkaline direction. This shift was prevented by the presence of sphingosine and 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H-7), inhibitors of protein kinase C. The agonists also alkalinized pHi at steady state. The alkalinization by 6F-NE was blocked by prazosin and H-7. This indicates that the adrenergic stimulation of cardiac Na-H exchange is mediated by an alpha 1-adrenergic mechanism and very likely involves the activation of protein kinase C.

minipress tablets dose 2015-07-13

Tertiary buy minipress referral centre.

minipress tablets 2016-05-28

Intrathecally administered clonidine produces analgesia, but also produces hypotension. To assess the effects of epidural administration, the authors inserted lumbar epidural catheters in seven nonpregnant ewes, and injected, on separate days, clonidine (50-750 mcg), morphine (5-10 mg), and a clonidine-morphine combination (clonidine 150 mcg + morphine 5 mg). Clonidine produced dose-dependent antinociception and sedation, with the lowest maximally effective antinociceptive dose being 300 mcg. Morphine produced less intense antinociception than clonidine, and did not potentiate clonidine's effect. Antinociception, but not sedation, following clonidine buy minipress injection was reversed by epidural injection of the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, idazoxan. Epidurally administered naloxone and prazosin did not reverse clonidine's antinociceptive effect, nor did intravenously administered idazoxan. Epidurally administered clonidine did not decrease blood pressure or heart rate or affect arterial blood gas tensions or spinal cord histology. These data suggest that epidurally administered clonidine produces analgesia by a local, alpha 2-adrenergic mechanism. In sheep, epidurally administered clonidine does not produce hypotension.

minipress ptsd dosage 2015-08-10

Clonidine, noradrenaline and adrenaline (in the presence of propranolol), but not phenylephrine and methoxamine, stimulated an increase in the oxygen consumption of these slices that was blocked by yohimbine but not by prazosin. The stimulation was inhibited by ouabain and required the presence of Ca2+ in the incubation medium. The calcium ionophore A 23187 stimulated oxygen consumption in the tissue slices and enhanced the respiratory effect of clonidine. Atropine and (D-Pro2, D-Trp7.9)-substance P failed to block the respiratory response to clonidine in concentrations that inhibited the respiratory effects of carbachol and substance P, respectively. Release of acetylcholine from the unstimulated gland slices was reduced by clonidine or Ca2+ omission. Yohimbine prevented the clonidine effect and stimulated acetylcholine resting release. Nifedipine did not affect either the release of acetylcholine or the clonidine- buy minipress induced reduction of acetylcholine release but blocked the oxygen uptake due to clonidine or to release acetylcholine.

minipress medication 2016-04-26

Despite the physiological and pharmacological importance of the α1A-adrenoreceptor, the mode of interactions of classical agonists and radioactive ligands with this receptor is not yet clearly defined. Here, we used mutagenesis studies and binding experiments to evaluate the importance of 11 receptor sites for the binding of (125)I-HEAT, (3)H-prazosin and epinephrine. Only one residue (F312) commonly interacts with the three molecules, and, surprisingly, D106 interacts only with epinephrine in a moderate way. Our Glucophage Tablets docking model shows that prazosin and HEAT are almost superimposed into the orthosteric pocket with their tetralone and quinazoline rings close to the phenyl ring of the agonist.

minipress dosage 2017-10-27

Small dense low density lipoprotein (LDL) and remnant lipoproteins are potent atherogenic lipoproteins, often elevated in the plasma of patients with type 2 diabetes. The alpha1-blocker doxazosin has been reported to favorably affect the plasma lipid profile. We examined whether doxazosin could reduce these atherogenic lipoproteins in hypertensive subjects with and those without type 2 diabetes. Seventeen nondiabetic hypertensive patients and 33 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes were studied. Doxazosin (2 to 4 mg) was administered alone or with other previously received antihypertensive drugs for 6 months. Mean LDL size Cialis 10mg Review was measured by 2% approximately 16% gradient gel electrophoresis. Remnant-like particle (RLP)-cholesterol was measured with the use of an affinity column containing anti-apoA1 and B100 monoclonal antibodies. Doxazosin effectively decreased blood pressure (BP) without significantly affecting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), or C-peptide levels in both nondiabetic and diabetic patients. Doxazosin significantly reduced triglyceride, apo CIII, and apo B, but did not alter total-, LDL- or HDL-cholesterol. Mean LDL particle diameter was significantly increased from 25.6+/-0.6 nm to 25.9+/-0.4 nm (P < .001) by doxazosin treatment, regardless of the presence of diabetes. Consequently, the prevalence of small dense LDL (<25.5 nm) was halved in both groups. The increase in LDL size significantly correlated with decrease in triglyceride level (r=-0.798, P < .0001). Doxazosin significantly reduced RLP-cholesterol in both groups. These results suggest that doxazosin may help to prevent coronary artery disease by reducing atherogenic lipoproteins, including small dense LDL and remnant lipoproteins, in hypertensive patients, regardless of the presence of diabetes.

minipress cost 2016-11-05

The alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-mediated stimulation of GTPase activity was investigated in human platelet membranes. The stimulatory effect of (-)-epinephrine was strictly dependent on Mg2+ and derived from a high-affinity GTPase activation. (-)-Epinephrine and (-)-norepinephrine stimulated GTPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner with EC50 values of 200 and 600 nM, respectively. These effects were stereospecific, since (+/-)-epinephrine, (+/-)-norepinephrine, and (+)-epinephrine were less potent in stimulating the enzyme activity with EC50 values of 4, 1 and 3 microM, respectively. Thrombin also stimulated GTPase activity concentration dependently with an EC50 value of 0.02 U/mL. The maximal effects of (-)-epinephrine, (-)-norepinephrine, and thrombin were not additive in any combination. Clonidine did not stimulate GTPase activity, whereas another synthetic alpha 2-adrenergic agonist Elavil With Alcohol , p-aminoclonidine, had the characteristics of a partial agonist. The rank order of potency for antagonists to inhibit the activation of GTPase by 1 microM (-)-epinephrine was yohimbine = rauwolscine > idazoxan = oxymetazoline = phentolamine = WB4101 = (+)-mianserin > (-)-mianserin > prazosin > (-)-propranolol. Negative logarithms of the IC50 values of these antagonists corresponded well with the negative logarithmic values of Ki(pKi) for the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptors determined by a receptor-binding technique in human platelets. These results indicate that epinephrine stimulates high-affinity GTPase activity of G proteins (putatively Gi2), which are also coupled with thrombin receptors, in a Mg(2+)-dependent and stereospecific manner, via alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor activation in human platelet membrane preparations.

minipress overdose symptoms 2015-05-29

To characterize the tail-tremor and locomotor hyperactivity induced by repeated nicotine administration, the effects of nicotinic, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic blockers were investigated in rats. Daily administration of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) induced tail-tremor from the 4th day, which became more marked in intensity by subsequent administration. Locomotor hyperactivity was also induced by nicotine, which was enhanced by daily administration. The tail-tremor and locomotor hyperactivity induced by repeated nicotine administration were inhibited by mecamylamine (0.1-1 mg/kg, i.p.) but not by hexamethonium (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.). Clonidine (0.02 and 0.04 mg/kg, i.p.) and prazosin (0.5 and 1 Cymbalta Drug Reactions mg/kg, i.p.) reduced tail-tremor more markedly than hyperactivity. However, haloperidol (0.05-0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) and chlorpromazine (1-5 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced hyperactivity more markedly than tail-tremor. These results suggest that nicotine-induced tail-tremor and hyperactivity are due to an increased susceptibility of central nicotinic receptors of nicotine followed by catecholaminergic mechanisms, and that tail-tremor may be more associated with the noradrenergic system than the dopaminergic system.

minipress dosage forms 2015-09-04

In this study, we investigated the effects of smoking and nicotine, an important constituent of cigarettes, on the nasal patency using acoustic rhinometry (AR) and an in vitro bioassay technique. In the AR study, the nasal cavity volume of volunteers classified into two groups, smoking and nicotine chewing gum groups, was measured. The nasal cavity volumes immediately after smoking and 5 minutes after smoking significantly increased compared with that before smoking (P < 0.05), whereas the nasal cavity volume after chewing a nicotine gum was unchanged compared with that before chewing the gum. An in vitro study showed significant nicotine-induced contraction of the human nasal mucosa (50.2 +/- 14.0% noradrenaline-induced contraction: n = 10). The threshold nicotine level that can induce human nasal mucosa contraction was 3.0 x Guduchi Oil Online 10(-7) M. Prazosin (10(-6) M) inhibited nicotine-induced contraction incompletely (20.5 +/- 7.5% of noradrenaline-induced contraction n = 5). These results indicate that smoking increases nasal patency and that nicotine induces contraction of the human nasal mucosa. The nicotine-induced contraction is likely mediated, at least in part by alpha1-adrenoceptors.

minipress tab 2016-05-24

Although serotonin (5-HT) release from enterochromaffin (EC) cells is considered to be regulated by multiple receptor-mediated mechanisms, little is known about the signal transduction in EC cells. We investigated the effects of adrenoceptor stimulation on 5-HT release from ileal tissue and intracellular calcium dynamics of epithelial cells in isolated ileal crypts in mice. Ileal tissues placed in organ bath were perfused with a buffered solution. Released 5-HT was measured using HPLC-ECD. Ileal crypts were isolated by collagenase digestion followed by moderate pipetting. Intracellular calcium dynamics were analyzed by digital video-imaging system using fura-2. NE, but not isoprenaline (Iso), induced 5-HT release from mouse ileal tissue. NE-induced 5-HT release was antagonized by yohimbine and rauwolscine, but not by prazosin and bunazosin. NE, but not Iso, also elicited a transient elevation of intracellular calcium in some EC cells. The effect of NE (1 microM) was slightly suppressed by prazosin and bunazosin, but was remarkably suppressed by yohimbine and rauwolscine. UK 14,304 and Clonidine at 10 microM significantly induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. NE-induced intracellular calcium dynamics was not significantly affected by timolol, Ro20-1724, rolipram and 8-bromo-cAMP. These results suggest that NE-induced 5-HT release from ileal EC cells is mediated predominantly via alpha 2-, but not beta-adrenoceptors, by Cozaar Online a mechanism dependent on elevation of intracellular calcium concentration.

minipress drug information 2015-03-03

The radioligand binding properties of [3H]prazosin and [3H]tamsulosin at alpha1-adrenoceptors of several rat tissues, human prostate and cloned rat and human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes were compared in Tris/EDTA buffer unless otherwise indicated. The affinity of [3H]tamsulosin at tissue and cloned Cialis Buy alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors was somewhat greater and smaller, respectively, than that of [3H]prazosin. In most rat tissues and at cloned rat alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors, [3H]tamsulosin had a smaller Bmax than [3H]prazosin. Studies with rat liver showed that this was due to considerably poorer labeling of agonist low affinity sites, while both radioligands detected similar numbers of agonist high affinity sites. Statistically significant differences in the number of binding sites for both ligands were not detected in HEPES or glycylglycine buffer, as the detectable receptor number for [3H]prazosin and [3H]tamsulosin tended to be smaller and greater, respectively, in these than in Tris/EDTA buffer. Among human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes [3H]tamsulosin labeled fewer sites than [3H]prazosin for alpha1B- but more sites for alpha1A- and alpha1D-adrenoceptors. We conclude that [3H]prazosin and [3H]tamsulosin do not detect the same number of alpha1-adrenoceptors under a variety of conditions. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of data obtained with either radioligand.

minipress 1mg capsule 2016-12-14

The impact on microalbuminuria of strict treatment Oxytrol Online Coupon aimed at lowering of self-measured morning blood pressure using an adrenergic blockade is unclear.

minipress nightmares dosage 2016-05-08

1. The effects of endotoxin on the vasoconstrictor responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) were investigated in the rat isolated perfused mesenteric bed. 2. Rats received either saline (0.1 Paxil Online ml h-1) or endotoxin (2.5 mg kg-1 h-1) intravenously for 4 h; the mesenteric beds were then isolated, perfused with Krebs and prepared for SNS (50 V, 3 ms, 7-40 Hz). 3. SNS caused a frequency-dependent vasoconstrictor response which was abolished by either tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M), prazosin (2.4 x 10(-7) M) or guanethidine (2.4 x 10(-7) M). 4. In mesenteric vascular beds removed from rats infused with endotoxin, there were markedly impaired vasoconstrictor responses to SNS, although responses to noradrenaline were not modified. 5. Removal of the endothelium with distilled water prevented endotoxin-induced impairment of vasoconstrictor responses to SNS, without modifying these responses in preparations from control rats. 6. Pretreatment with dexamethasone (3 mg kg-1 i.p. 1h before commencing endotoxin or saline infusions) did not modify responses to SNS in control rats but prevented the effects of endotoxin. 7. Both L-NAME (10(-3) M) and indomethacin (10(-5) M) restored responses to SNS in preparations from endotoxin-treated rats without modifying these responses in control preparations. However, co-administration of L-NAME and indomethacin markedly augmented responses in both control and endotoxin-treated preparations. 8. The effects of L-NAME were reversed by addition of L-arginine (10(-3) M). 9. The data suggest that endotoxin impairs the release of noradrenaline and that this effect is secondary to increased production of nitric oxide and prostanoids, possibly by the endothelium.

minipress drug class 2015-11-14

Hemolysis was induced Cozaar Generic Price in Hp-/- and Hp+/+ mice using phenylhydrazine. Relative renal tissue damage and function were then assessed.

minipress xl dose 2017-05-04

These cases are discussed with reference to Zantac 75 Reviews the known effects of KB220Z including enhanced dopamine homeostasis and functional connectivity of brain reward circuitry in rodents and humans. Their understanding awaits intensive investigation involving large-population, double-blinded studies.

minipress max dose 2016-06-26

On the basis of the current evidence, there is no evidently superior alpha-blocker Flomax 40 Mg for the pretreatment of patients with pheochromocytoma. Perioperative haemodynamics seem to be slightly better controlled with phenoxybenzamine, at the cost of more pronounced postoperative hypotension. Side effects occurred less often in the doxazosin group.

minipress drug 2017-11-19

The effect of autonomic receptor agonists and antagonists on the urethral pressure and power generation during coughing and squeezing of the pelvic floor has been evaluated in 30 healthy females. The measurements were carried out at the bladder neck, in the high pressure zone, and distally in the urethra. The used drugs (noradrenaline, prazosin, terbutaline, propranolol, carbachol and atropine) caused no significant change in the pressure and power generation. The clinically relevant influence of drugs on the urethral closure function should be re-appraised when based on profilometry in the resting state. The results support that the effect of the autonomic nervous system on the urethral closure function is insignificant in healthy women. They furthermore indicate that investigations on the ability to secure continence cannot be based solely on resting pressure profilometry, but should be accomplished by measurements during stress episodes.

minipress overdose death 2015-11-21

Adrenergic modulation of immunity has been extensively characterized, however, few information exist regarding polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), despite their key role in immunity and inflammation. We investigated the effect of adrenergic agents on human PMN migration, CD11b and CD18 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin (IL)-8 production, and on adrenoceptor (AR) expression.

tab minipress dose 2015-07-31

Heart failure (HF) developing in hypertensive patients may occur with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (PEF [>or=50%] or REF [<50%]). In the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), 42 418 high-risk hypertensive patients were randomized to chlorthalidone, amlodipine, lisinopril, or doxazosin, providing an opportunity to compare these treatments with regard to occurrence of hospitalized HFPEF or HFREF.

minipress user reviews 2017-05-17

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE) levels are altered in post-traumatic stress disorder and may be related to symptoms of hyperarousal, including exaggerated startle, in these patients. In animals, activation of both systems modulates anxiety behaviours including startle plasticity; however, it is unknown if they exert their actions orthogonally or dependently. We tested the hypothesis that NE receptor activation is required for CRF effects on startle and that CRF1 receptor activation is required for NE effects on startle. The study examined the effects of: (1) α2 agonist clonidine (0.18 mg/kg i.p.), α1 antagonist prazosin (0.8 mg/kg), and β1/2 antagonist propranolol (0.8, 8.0 mg/kg) pretreatment on ovine-CRF (oCRF)- (0.6 nmol) induced increases in startle reactivity and disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI); (2) α2 antagonist atipamezole (1-30 mg/kg) and α1 agonist cirazoline (0.025-1.0 mg/kg) treatment on startle; (3) CRF1 antagonist (antalarmin, 14 mg/kg) pretreatment on atipamezole- (10.0 mg/kg) induced increases in startle. oCRF robustly increased startle and reduced PPI. Pretreatment with clonidine or prazosin, but not propranolol, blocked oCRF-induced increases in startle but had no effect on oCRF-induced disruptions in PPI. Atipamezole treatment increased startle, which was partially attenuated by CRF1 antagonist pretreatment. Cirazoline treatment did not increase startle. These findings suggest that CRF modulation of startle, but not PPI, requires activation of α1 adrenergic receptors, while CRF1 activation also contributes to NE modulation of startle. These data support a bi-directional model of CRF-NE modulation of stress responses and suggest that both systems must be activated to induce stress effects on startle reactivity.

minipress generic name 2015-08-07

The electrical stimulation-induced responses of isolated dog thoracic ducts were investigated using an organ bath technique. Electrical stimulation (0.7 ms in pulse width, 25 V in nominal voltage, 10 s in duration time, 1-32 Hz at frequency) produced frequency-related contractions in the lymphatic preparations. The contractions were abolished by pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (10(-7) M), guanethidine (10(-7), 10(-6) M), and bretylium (10(-7), 10(-6) M). Cocaine (10(-6) M) significantly potentiated the electrical stimulation-induced contractions. Phentolamine (10(-8)-10(-5) M), prazosin (10(-8)-10(-5) M), bunazosin (10(-6), 10(-5) M), yohimbine (10(-8)-10(-6) M) and rauwolscine (10(-8)-10(-6) M) also dose-dependently reduced the contractions. On the other hand, propranolol (10(-8)-10(-6) M), atropine (10(-6) M), hexamethonium (10(-6) M), aspirin (3 x 10(-5) M), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (3 x 10(-5) M) and L-NAME (3 x 10(-5) M) + L-arginine (10(-4) M) caused no significant effect on electrical stimulation-induced contractions. No significant difference in the electrical stimulation-induced responses was observed between the lymphatic preparations with and without an intact endothelium. The electrical stimulation caused only a small contraction with no relaxation in the thoracic duct preparation precontracted with 10(-8) M U46619. The small contraction was abolished by 10(-5) M phentolamine. These findings suggest that there exists alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors-mediated excitatory innervation, but no NO-ergic inhibitory nerve fiber in dog thoracic ducts.