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Recently, it has been reported that the Notch pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the activation of the Notch pathway in Ins2 Akita diabetic mouse (Akita mouse) and the effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin II type1 receptor blocker, on the Notch pathway. The intracellular domain of Notch1 (ICN1) is proteolytically cleaved from the cell plasma membrane in the course of Notch activation. The expression of ICN1 and its ligand, Jagged1, were increased in the glomeruli of Akita mice, especially in the podocytes. Administration of telmisartan significantly ameliorated the expression of ICN1 and Jagged1. Telmisartan inhibited the angiotensin II-induced increased expression of transforming growth factor β and vascular endothelial growth factor A which could directly activate the Notch signaling pathway in cultured podocytes. Our results indicate that the telmisartan prevents diabetic nephropathy through the inhibition of the Notch pathway.
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Vascular tissue (distal saphenous vein [n= 163] and/or radial artery [n= 120] segments) and blood samples were collected from CABG patients (n= 81). We studied (i) the potency of angiotensin I (AngI) and angiotensin II (AngII) to evoke vascular contractions; (ii) vascular and plasma ACE concentrations; and (iii) ACE genotype of the patients enrolled.
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The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce (through angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R)) some of the inflammatory actions of brain glial cells and influence brain inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where neuroinflammation occurs, increased levels of cortical AT1Rs have been shown. Still, the precise role of RAS in neuroinflammation is not completely clear. The overall aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of RAS in the modulation of glial functions and AD pathology. To reach this goal, the specific aims of the present study were a. to investigate the long term effect of telmisartan (AT1R blocker) on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL1-β) and nitric oxide (NO) release from glial cells. b. to examine the effect of intranasally administered telmisartan on amyloid burden and microglial activation in 5X familial AD (5XFAD) mice. Telmisartan effects in vivo were compared to those of perindopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor). Long-term-exposure of BV2 microglia to telmisartan significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced NO, inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL1-β synthesis. The effect of Telmisartan on NO production in BV2 cells was confirmed also in primary neonatal rat glial cells. Intranasal administration of telmisartan (1 mg/kg/day) for up to two months significantly reduced amyloid burden and CD11b expression (a marker for microglia) both in the cortex and hipoccampus of 5XFAD. Based on the current view of RAS and our data, showing reduced amyloid burden and glial activation in the brains of 5XFAD transgenic mice, one may envision potential intervention with the progression of glial activation and AD by using AT1R blockers.
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In 2007, 24 940 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in the Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study, a prospective observational cohort study. Patients were included in the current study if they were prescribed an ARB in 2007 and if 1-year follow-up data were available. The final study population comprised 3610 patients. Multivariate mixed-model analyses were performed to estimate effects of the various ARBs on SBP and albuminuria. Stratified subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline hypertension and albuminuria.
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Obstructed kidneys from acatalasemic mice exhibited increased tubulointerstitial deposition in dilated tubules of collagens type I and IV, lipid peroxidation products, and the p22/p47/p67-phox subunits of NADPH oxidase. The level of the p22/p47/p67-phox subunit mRNA, and of apoptosis in tubular epithelial cells, was also increased compared with those from wild-type kidneys. Treatment with telmisartan attenuated all of the changes and prevented renal fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner; despite the low dose (0.1 mg/kg). The treatment did not lower the systemic blood pressure. The catalase activity remained low in acatalasemic obstructed kidneys without compensatory upregulation of glutathione peroxidase or superoxide dismutase activity; the level of neither anti-oxidant enzymes in obstructed kidneys was affected by telmisartan.
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) vs lisinopril/HCTZ combination on ambulatory blood pressure and cognitive function in elderly hypertensive patients. A total of 160 patients, 76 men and 84 women, aged 61-75 years, with sitting diastolic blood pressure (DBP)>90 mmHg and <110 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP)>140 mmHg were randomized to receive temisartan 80 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg o.d. or lisinopril 20 mg/HCTZ 12.5 mg o.d. for 24 weeks, according to a prospective, open-label, blinded end point, parallel-group design. At the end of a 2-week wash-out period and after 12 and 24 weeks of active treatment, 24-h noninvasive ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) was performed and cognitive function was evaluated through six different tests (verbal fluency, Boston naming test, word-list memory, word-list recall, word-list recognition and Trails B). Both treatments significantly reduced ambulatory BP. However, the telmisartan/HCTZ combination produced a greater reduction in 24-h, day-time and night time ABPM values. Lisinopril/HCTZ did not induce significant changes in any of the cognitive function test scores at any time of the study, whereas at both 12 and 24 weeks telmisartan/HCTZ significantly improved the word-list memory score (+17.1 and +15.7%, respectively, P<0.05 vs baseline), the word-list recall score (+13.5 and +16.9%, P<0.05) and the Trails B score (-33 and -30.5%, P<0.05). These results suggest that in elderly hypertensive patients treatment with telmisartan/HCTZ produces a slightly greater reduction in ambulatory BP than lisinopril/HCTZ combination and, unlike this latter, improves some of the components of cognitive function, particularly episodic memory and visuospatial abilities.
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: In our study cohort of patients with essential hypertension, treatment with telmisartan improved FMD but did not change RVRI. Future studies will demonstrate whether this telmisartan-induced effect may contribute to a blood pressure-independent reduction in cardiovascular morbidity.
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Combination treatment of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide results in large and clinically relevant BP reductions additional to those provided by monotherapy.
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• Angiotensin II receptor blockers improve endothelial cell-dependent vasodilation in patients with hypertension through suppression of angiotensin II type 1 receptors but may have additional and differential effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function.
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AF patients (n = 59) undergone radiofrequency ablation were enrolled. The paroxysmal AF patients underwent circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI). The persistent AF patients underwent CPVI plus linear ablation. During CPVI, the anterior pulmonary vein vestibule was performed intensively by prolonging the ablation time and increasing the ablation energy.Rosuvastatin and telmisartan were used for upstream therapy. The patients underwent follow-up at 1 month after ablation, and then at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months to evaluating whether the procedure is valid and safety.
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In patients with diabetic nephropathy, lowering blood pressure and reducing proteinuria by over 30% correlates with a slower progression to kidney failure. We compared two different angiotensin receptor-blockers in a double blind, prospective trial of 860 patients with type 2 diabetes whose blood pressure levels was over 130/80 mmHg or who were receiving antihypertensive medication(s) and who had a morning spot urinary protein to creatinine ratio of 700 or more. Patients were randomized to telmisartan (a highly lipophilic agent with a long half-life) or losartan (with low lipophilicity and short half-life). The primary endpoint was the difference in the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio between the groups at 52 weeks. The geometric coefficient of variation and the mean of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio fell in both groups at 52 weeks but both were significantly greater for the telmisartan compared to the losartan cohort. Mean systolic blood pressure reductions were not significantly different between groups at trial end. We conclude that telmisartan is superior to losartan in reducing proteinuria in hypertensive patients with diabetic nephropathy, despite a similar reduction in blood pressure.
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We examined the effects of treatment with an ARB [telmisartan (TEL), 1.93 +/- 0.04 mg/kg per day] or an ACEI [ramipril (RAM), 1.00 +/- 0.02 mg/kg per day] on the cerebral circulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
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The vascular drug concentration, not the plasma drug concentration, may be related to the hypotensive effect after administration of telmisartan.
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An overview of the published data regarding the pharmacokinetic properties of telmisartan as well as a summary of the results from selected small exploratory and large clinical outcome trials involving telmisartan.
A simple, rapid, and precise method was developed for the quantitative simultaneous determination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in combined pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatographic separation of two drugs was achieved on an ACE 5 C18 25-cm analytical column using buffer-acetonitrile (60:40, v/v) of pH 5.5, adjusted with acetic acid. The buffer used in mobile phase contains 50mM ammonium acetate in double distilled water. The instrumental settings were: flow rate, 1 mL/min; column temperature, 30 degrees C; and detector wavelength, 260 nm. The internal standard method was used for the quantitation of the ingredients of this combination. Methyl paraben was used as an internal standard. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and robustness. The calibration curve shows excellent linearity over the concentration range for telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide were 10-150 and 5-75 microg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient for telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide were 0.9999. The relative standard deviation for six replicate measurements in two sets of each drug in tablets are always less than 2%. The proposed method was found to be suitable and accurate for quantitative determination of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical preparation and it can be used for the quality control of formulation products.
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Consecutive patients with stable CAD admitted to our hospital (Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Iwate, Japan) for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and stent implantation and with no previous treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockers or statins were recruited. Patients with CAD who met all eligibility criteria were randomly assigned using computer-generated numbers in a 1:1 ratio to receive telmisartan (40 mg/d) or enalapril (5 mg/d) for 6 months. In addition, all patients with CAD were treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/d). The patients without CAD received no treatment with telmisartan, enalapril, or atorvastatin. Plasma concentrations of total and HMW adiponectin were measured using a highly sensitive ELISA system before PCI or drug treatment (ie, baseline) and after 6 months of treatment. In addition, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured. To evaluate cardiac events, follow-up coronary angiography was performed at least 6 months after PCI.
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This post hoc analysis does not support dual therapy over monotherapy in high-vascular risk patients with low glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria. This observation is a post hoc comparison and should be interpreted appropriately.
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Cardiovascular risk is determined by multiple risk factors. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is an important approach to the prevention of cardiovascular events. In the largest angiotensin receptor blocker cardiovascular outcome study to date, the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) program will compare the efficacy of therapy with telmisartan and ramipril, in reducing cardiovascular events in patients at high risk (history of coronary artery disease, stroke or transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease, or diabetes with evidence of end-organ damage). Recruited patients (n = 31,546) will be followed up for a period of 6 years, and more than 150,000 patient-years of data will be recorded. The primary endpoint is a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and hospitalization for congestive heart failure; secondary endpoints focus on reductions in newly diagnosed heart failure, new-onset type 2 diabetes, cognitive decline, atrial fibrillation, and nephropathy. In addition, an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring substudy will be conducted to assess the effect of treatment on endpoints after adjustment for 24-hour blood pressure values. Other substudies of the treatment effects on erectile dysfunction, blood markers, arterial stiffness, oral glucose tolerance, and the progression of target organ damage are also planned. The results of the ONTARGET program are due in 2008, and the findings are expected to have important clinical implications for the management of patients at high cardiovascular risk.
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OBJECTIVE This prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study examined the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) supplementation on the antialbuminuric action of telmisartan with or without hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate (AER), and habitual low dietary salt intake (LDS; <100 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions) or high dietary salt intake (HDS; >200 mmol sodium/24 h on two of three consecutive occasions). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Following a washout period, subjects (n = 32) received 40 mg/day telmisartan for 4 weeks followed by 40 mg telmisartan plus 12.5 mg/day HCT for 4 weeks. For the last 2 weeks of each treatment period, patients received either 100 mmol/day NaCl or placebo capsules. After a second washout, the regimen was repeated with supplements in reverse order. AER and ambulatory blood pressure were measured at weeks 0, 4, 8, 14, 18, and 22. RESULTS In LDS, NaCl supplementation reduced the anti-albuminuric effect of telmisartan with or without HCT from 42.3% (placebo) to 9.5% (P = 0.004). By contrast, in HDS, NaCl supplementation did not reduce the AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT (placebo 30.9%, NaCl 28.1%, P = 0.7). Changes in AER were independent of changes in blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS The AER response to telmisartan with or without HCT under habitual low salt intake can be blunted by NaCl supplementation. By contrast, when there is already a suppressed renin angiotensin aldosterone system under habitual high dietary salt intake, the additional NaCl does not alter the AER response.
Telmisartan, a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), has been investigated in many trials, in particular, in order to assess its antihypertensive effect in various situations and its ability to protect organs susceptible to hypertension. In addition to its antihypertensive properties, it has positive metabolic and vascular effects (partly because of its sustained action). Several large-scale trials have focused on the effect of telmisartan on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, including comparisons of that with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in subjects at high vascular risk. Telmisartan was used in the largest ARB research programme (the Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial [ONTARGET] and Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease [TRANSCEND] trial).
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Hypertension is an important independent risk factor for renal disease. If hypertension and chronic renal disease co-exist, as is common in patients with diabetes mellitus, the risk of cardiovascular disease is heightened. The importance of rigorous blood pressure control is recognized in current guidelines, with a recommended target of office blood pressure of < 130/80 mmHg; although ambulatory blood pressure may be more appropriate in order to identify the 24-hour hypertensive burden. Even lower blood pressure may further reduce the progression of chronic kidney disease, but the incidence of cardiovascular events may increase. Albuminuria not only indicates renal damage, but is also a powerful predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality at least in patients with high cardiovascular risk and potentially pre-existing vascular damage. Management of the multiple factors for renal and cardiovascular disease is mandatory in the diabetic patient. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the progression of renal disease, as well as in hypertension and target-organ damage. The use of agents that target the RAS confer renoprotection in addition to antihypertensive activity. There is extensive evidence of the renoprotective effect of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), and specifically telmisartan. In addition to providing 24-hour blood pressure control, clinical studies in patients with diabetes show that telmisartan improves renal endothelial function, prevents progression from microalbuminuria to macroalbuminuria, slows the decline in glomerular filtration rate and reduces proteinuria in overt nephropathy. These effects cannot be solely attributed to blood pressure control. In contrast to other members of the ARB class, the renoprotective effect of telmisartan is not confined to the management of diabetic nephropathy; slowing the progression of albuminuria has been demonstrated in the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET), which included diabetic and non-diabetic patients at high risk of cardiovascular events.
In-office blood pressure (BP) measurements have recognized limitations, including the inability to collect BP information over a long period of time, and during an individual's usual daily activities. Home or ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) may therefore be used to complement conventional office measurements, thereby improving prognostic value. Of particular relevance is the ability of 24 h ABPM to quantify the degree of BP variability over 24 h, which has been shown to be a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Twenty-four hour BP variability is indeed strongly associated with clinical outcomes, and the ability of ABPM to provide a quantification of BP throughout the 24-h period during an individual's normal daily routine is one of the reasons for its high prognostic value. The smoothness index (SI) provides a useful measure of antihypertensive treatment efficacy over the 24 h dosing period, its values being highest with antihypertensive agents that have large and consistent effects across 24 h. Telmisartan and amlodipine are long-acting antihypertensive drugs that, in combination, not only reduce 24 h mean BP more than the respective monotherapies but also provide a significantly greater SI. The provision of homogeneous 24 h BP control has important clinical implications. Maintaining smooth BP over the entire 24 h dosing period may contribute to the improvement of CV outcomes, and reductions in BP variability may decrease end organ damage, and reduce CV risk.
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The results led to thermal stability data and also to the interpretation concerning the thermal decomposition. Thermogravimetry data allowed determination of the kinetic parameters such as, activation energy and frequency factor.
The results from the ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) indicated that the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan was not inferior to the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor ramipril in reducing the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or hospitalization for congestive heart failure in high-risk patients, and telmisartan was associated with slightly superior tolerability. The combination of the two drugs was associated with more adverse events without an increase in benefit. This study aimed to analyze the data from ONTARGET obtained from a subgroup of patients enrolled in China and to evaluate the demographic and baseline characteristics, the compliance, efficacy, and safety of the different treatment strategies in randomized patients in China.
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Out of 6319 patients 52.9% were male. Mean age was 59.9 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.8 kg/m2. 70% of patients had grade 2 or 3 hypertension, 59% had a high or very high additional cardiovascular risk. In 34.6% of patients hypertension was newly diagnosed, while the remaining 65.4% had been hypertensive for an average of 7.2 years. 3386 patients initially received telmisartan (54%: 40 mg; 45.4%: 80 mg). 2928 patients were given telmisartan plus hydrochlorothiazide (56.9%: 80/12.5 mg; 43.1%: 40/12.5 mg). In 69.8% of the patients the dose remained unchanged throughout the study. The remaining patients were either given a higher dose or changed over to the combination. Under treatment, the systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased by an average of 28.5 mmHg and 14.1 mmHg, respectively. Mean pulse pressure decreased by 14.4 mmHg. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed "very good" or "good" in 94.2% of all patients, and tolerability in 98.8%. Adverse events occurred in 43 (0.7%) patients, and adverse drug reactions in 28 (0.4%) patients.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) play a significant role in monocyte activation, vascular inflammation, and atherogenesis. Angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers are antihypertensive drugs with established efficacy and a favorable safety profile. We investigated the effect of telmisartan--an angiotensin receptor blocker with PPAR-γ agonist activity--and amlodipine on the activation state of peripheral blood monocytes with respect to MCP-1 and PPAR-γ gene expression in hypertensives. We recruited 31 previously untreated patients with essential hypertension who were randomly assigned to receive treatment with telmisartan (n = 16) or amlodipine (n = 15). Blood samples were taken before and 3 months after therapy initiation. Mononuclear cells were isolated and mRNAs of MCP-1 and PPAR-γ were estimated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction each time. The 2 treatments decreased all blood pressure components significantly (p <0.001). In contrast, in the amlodipine group, MCP-1 gene expression was significantly downregulated after treatment with telmisartan (from 21.4 ± 20.5 to 8.1 ± 6.5, p = 0.009), whereas the amlodipine group did not show any significant change (12.5 ± 8.5 vs 17.6 ± 16.4, p = NS). In addition, PPAR-γ mRNA levels showed a significant increase in telmisartan-treated patients (from 20 ± 18.5 to 42.6 ± 36, p = 0.006) and no significant alterations in the amlodipine group (from 29.6 ± 42.5 to 24.2 ± 27.7, p = NS). In conclusion, treatment with telmisartan results in a significant attenuation of MCP-1 gene expression and an increase of PPAR-γ gene expression in peripheral monocytes in patients with essential hypertension. Our findings may provide new insights into the cardiovascular protection of telmisartan in hypertensives.
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From the cohort of 550 436 hypertensive patients, 1965 were hospitalized with sepsis during follow-up (rate 6.9 per 10 000 per year), of whom 824 died and 346 developed acute renal failure within 30 days. Compared with use of β-blockers, calcium-channel blockers or diuretics, use of ARBs, including telmisartan, was not associated with an elevated risk of sepsis (relative risk 1.09; 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.43); but use ACEIs was (relative risk 1.65; 95% confidence interval 1.42-1.93). Users of ARBs, β-blockers, calcium-channel blockers or diuretics, but not users of ACEIs, had lower rates of hospitalization for sepsis compared with untreated hypertensive patients. Findings were similar for sepsis-related 30 day mortality and renal failure.
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The ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial (ONTARGET) and concurrent Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) are multi-center, randomized, controlled investigations of different approaches to angiotensin receptor blockade in over 30,000 high CV risk subjects. Baseline data in both trials was used to analyze relationships between measures of glycemic control and cognition.