Genetic polymorphisms in the oxidative metabolism of debrisoquine, mephenytoin, phenformin, sparteine, and tolbutamide have been discovered during recent years. Among these pharmacogenetic conditions, polymorphic oxidation of debrisoquine and sparteine has been intensively studied. Two phenotypes, the extensive (EM) and the poor (PM) metabolizers, have been observed in all populations so far investigated. The PM phenotype exhibits a grossly impaired or nearly absent capacity to metabolize these drugs. The incidence of the PM phenotype in European populations ranges from 5 to 9%. Pronounced variations in the incidence of the PM phenotype have been demonstrated among different ethnic groups. The metabolism of debrisoquine and sparteine is determined by two alleles at a single gene locus; PMs are homozygous for an autosomal recessive gene. Because of markedly impaired metabolism, the PM phenotype develops side effects if normal doses of debrisoquine and sparteine are administered. Defective metabolism in the PM phenotype is not restricted to debrisoquine and sparteine. Impaired metabolism of guanoxan , phenformin, perhexiline, methoxyamphetamine, phenacetin, encainide, metoprolol, alprenolol, bufuralol, nortriptyline, and desipramine have been described. As a consequence of impaired metabolism of these drugs, toxicity and therapeutic failure are observed in the PMs. With regard to molecular mechanisms, studies with microsomes from human liver provide evidence that in the PM phenotype a cytochrome P-450 isozyme is either missing or functionally inadequate.
728 individuals were studied, of whom 171 were treated using monotherapy (ACE inhibitor (n = 21), diuretic (n = 10), or beta blocker (n = 72)), or combination treatment (ACE inhibitor + diuretic (n = 32), ACE inhibitor + beta blocker (n = 7), diuretic + beta blocker (n = 22), ACE inhibitor + diuretic + beta blocker (n = 7)). The remaining 557 individuals were untreated. Indications for treatment were hypertension (75%), coronary artery disease with (12%) or without (3%) hypertension, or unknown (10%).
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Both beta-blockers significantly increased EF and reduced the volumes. In both groups the rise of contractility in EF < 30% was similar. EF augmentation in patients with DCMP was greater than that in patients with IHD and depended on improvement of segmental contractility.
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Since beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs were originally discovered and shown to be important therapeutic agents in the management of both angina pectoris and hypertension, many other similar drugs have become available. These share the common property of beta-adrenoceptor antagonism, though they may vary in terms of potency. However, they differ from one another in terms of their additional pharmacological properties--cardioselectivity, partial agonist activity, and membrane stabilizing activity. Cardioselectivity refers to the ability of some drugs, notably atenolol and metoprolol, to block beta 1 receptors without blocking beta 2 receptors. This has been considered to be of potential importance in patients with obstructive airways disease, patients with peripheral vascular disease, and patients with insulin-dependent diabetes during hypoglycemic crisis. Partial agonist activity is the intrinsic activity that some drugs have to stimulate the beta adrenoceptor while they are competitively antagonizing catecholamines. In consequence, they may have less effect on resting heart rate, cardiac output, peripheral vascular blood flow, and resting respiratory function. However, there is no good evidence that major adverse effects of beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs such as congestive heart failure, bronchospasm, or symptoms of peripheral vascular disease are prevented by drugs with partial agonist activity: bradycardia may be improved, but its importance has probably been overemphasized. Membrane-stabilizing activity appears to be unimportant. As far as pharmacokinetic differences between drugs are concerned, lipid solubility is seen to be of increasing importance. The more water-soluble drugs have longer elimination half-lives, produce less interindividual variation in steady-state plasma concentrations, and penetrate the central nervous system less readily.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The gill is the principle site of xenobiotic transfer to and from the aqueous environment. To replace, refine or reduce (3Rs) the large numbers of fish used in in vivo uptake studies an effective in vitro screen is required that mimics the function of the teleost gill. This study uses a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary gill cell culture system grown on permeable inserts, which tolerates apical freshwater thus mimicking the intact organ, to assess the uptake and efflux of pharmaceuticals across the gill. Bidirectional transport studies in media of seven pharmaceuticals (propranolol, metoprolol, atenolol, formoterol, terbutaline, ranitidine and imipramine) showed they were transported transcellularly across the epithelium. However, studies conducted in water showed enhanced uptake of propranolol, ranitidine and imipramine. Concentration-equilibrated conditions without a concentration gradient suggested that a proportion of the uptake of propranolol and imipramine is via a carrier-mediated process. Further study using propranolol showed that its transport is pH-dependent and at very low environmentally relevant concentrations (ng L(-1)), transport deviated from linearity. At higher concentrations, passive uptake dominated. Known inhibitors of drug transport proteins; cimetidine, MK571, cyclosporine A and quinidine inhibited propranolol uptake, whilst amantadine and verapamil were without effect. Together this suggests the involvement of specific members of SLC and ABC drug transporter families in pharmaceutical transport.
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Evaluation of the effects of adrenergic agonists and antagonists on in-vivo net fluid secretion in chronic small bowel obstruction in rats.
Placebo run in, followed by an open study.
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A 54-year-old man presented with hypertensive crisis. He was found to have bilateral pheochromocytomas and left paraaortic sympathetic paraganglioma. Although he had no family history of paragangliomas or pheochromocytomas, he had been diagnosed with bilateral head and neck paragangliomas 10 years prior. The patient had symptoms of catecholamine excess exacerbated by vanilla ice-cream consumption. Biochemical testing revealed elevated plasma-free metanephrines and chromogranin A levels. Computed tomography showed bilateral carotid body tumors and four reteroperitoneal masses (two in the right adrenal, one in the left adrenal and one in the left paraaortic area). Metaiodobenzylguanidine-SPECT scans showed functional tumors in both the adrenal gland and left paraaortic area. Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography did not show any visceral or skeletal metastasis. We carried out gene mutation analysis for succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B, and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D. The patient was diagnosed with hereditary paraganglioma syndrome type 1 with a previously unreported subunit D mutation in exon 3 (c.198G > A, p.W66X). He was treated with phenoxybenzamine at 10 mg/day and with metoprolol at 12.5 mg/day. His blood pressures as well as symptoms of catecholamine excess were controlled. He then underwent bilateral adrenalectomy and reteroperitoneal dissection. His blood pressure normalized and he discontinued antihypertensive medications after surgery. He is currently on replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone.
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Nebivolol (NEB) is a [beta]1-receptor blocker with nitric oxide-dependent vasodilating properties. NEB-induced nitric oxide release is mediated through the estrogen receptor.
New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided in three groups (n=7 in each group): normal group, metoprolol-untreated group and metoprolol-treated group. Cardiac function was determined by echocardiography and hemodynamic assays. The SR Ca2+ leak was measured by a calcium-imaging device, and the expression and activities of related proteins were evaluated by Western blotting and auto-phosphorylation.
The METOCARD-CNIC trial is testing the hypothesis that the early initiation of IV metoprolol pre-reperfusion reduces infarct size in comparison to initiation of oral metoprolol post-reperfusion. Given the implications of infarct size reduction in STEMI, if positive, this trial might evidence that a refined use of an approved inexpensive drug can improve outcomes of patients with STEMI.
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The use of various doses of metoprolol (spesicor, Leiras, Finland), a selective beta 1-adrenoblocker, in patients with CHD combined with clinical or instrumentally detectable symptoms of bronchial asthma or stage I-II essential hypertension with angina pectoris of I-II functional classes, has shown that metoprolol cardioselective blockade is a relative phenomenon which has definite correlation with a dose, duration of therapy, and the initial status of the bronchopulmonary system. An antianginal effect was observed in 68.5% of patients, an antihypertensive effect--in 71.3%, side-effects--in 6.4%.
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Thirty-six male rabbits were divided into six groups, six in each, group 1 received distilled water, group 2 were treated with paracetamol (1 g/kg/day, orally), group 3, 4,5 and 6 were treated at a dose in (mg/kg/day) of the following: Carvedilol (10 mg), prazosin (0.5 mg), metoprolol (10 mg), and a combination of metoprolol (10 mg) and prazosin (0.5 mg) respectively 1 h before paracetamol treatment. All treatments were given for 9 days; animals were sacrificed at day 10. Liver function tests, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenates were estimated. Histopathological examinations of liver were performed.
We conclude that the decrease in LV end-diastolic pressure in cardiomyopathy patients treated with metoprolol is an indicator of improvement in LV diastolic properties resulting from more complete myocardial relaxation.
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We studied the metabolic disposition of imipramine by measuring imipramine and its metabolites in plasma and urine simultaneously after a single oral dose of 25 mg of imipramine hydrochloride administered to 16 healthy (three Japanese and 13 Korean) volunteers. Four of the subjects were poor metabolizers (PMs) of metoprolol but extensive metabolizers (EMs) of S-mephenytoin (PMML/EMMP), five subjects were EMs of metoprolol but PMs of S-mephenytoin (EMML/PMMP) and seven subjects were EMs of both metoprolol and S-mephenytoin (EMML/EMMP). The mean (+/- S.D.) oral clearances of imipramine were smaller in the PMML/EMMP group and the EMML/PMMP group than in the EMML/EMMP group, although a statistical difference (P < .05) was found only in the EMML/PMMP vs. the EMML/EMMP group. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of desipramine was 9 times greater (P < .01) in PMML/EMMP group, whereas the mean value was 0.6 times smaller (P < .05) in the EMML/PMMP group than in the EMML/EMMP group. The log10 metoprolol/alpha-hydroxymetoprolol ratio correlated positively with the AUC of desipramine (P < .01) and with the AUC ratio of desipramine/imipramine (P < .05) but negatively with the AUC ratio of 2-hydroxyimipramine/imipramine (P < .05). Log10 percent 4'-hydroxymephenytoin excreted in 8-hr urine correlated positively with the AUC of desipramine (P < .01) and with the AUC ratio of desipramine/imipramine (P < .01). The urinary excretions of imipramine and its metabolites also reflected the data derived from plasma samples in the three different phenotype-paired panels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This study investigates effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on total silent ischemic time assessed by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring and its relation to heart rate and time of day in ambulatory men with coronary artery disease. Metoprolol, when titrated to optimal dose in a controlled trial in 9 patients, reduced both total silent ischemic time (from 156 +/- 65 to 20 +/- 15 minutes, p = 0.04) and frequency of silent ischemic episodes (from 8 +/- 2 to 2 +/- 2 episodes, p = 0.03) compared with placebo. Mean daily heart rate was reduced, from 82 +/- 2 beats/min during placebo to 58 +/- 1 beats/min, as was heart rate at onset of 1 mm of ST-segment depression (106 +/- 2 to 74 +/- 4 beats/min, both p less than 0.001). Heart rate increased 10 +/- 1 beats/min during silent ischemia with placebo therapy, but increased only 4 +/- 1 beats/min during metoprolol treatment (p less than 0.03). During placebo administration the largest proportion of silent ischemic time occurred between 0600 and 1200 hours. Metoprolol attenuated this circadian variation in silent ischemia while reducing (p less than 0.05) total silent ischemic time in all periods. Thus, beta-adrenergic blockade reduces the frequency of silent myocardial ischemic episodes and total silent ischemic time, while mean daily heart rate and heart rate at onset of ischemia and maximal ischemia decrease. Metoprolol treatment also attenuates circadian variation of silent ischemia. These data may be interpreted to suggest that beta-adrenergic activation operates in the pathogenesis of silent myocardial ischemia and its circadian variation.
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This study was undertaken to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment has any effect on the rate of progression of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six insulin-dependent diabetic men with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms/min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 h) were first given metoprolol (200 mg daily) with the subsequent addition of hydroflumethiazide. At the start of antihypertensive treatment, mean patient age was 32 +/- 4.2 years (SD) and mean duration of diabetes was 18 +/- 1.2 years. The patients were followed with repeated measurements of urinary albumin excretion for a mean of 5.4 +/- 3.1 years prior to, and for 4.7 +/- 1.3 years (SD) during treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure declined significantly during treatment, e.g., the values at 6 months before initiation of treatment being compared with values during the last 6 months of treatment fell from 107 mmHg +/- 7.6 to 93 +/- 3.8 (2p = 1.5%). Albumin excretion decreased from 131.0 micrograms/min X/divided by 2.9 (geometric mean X/divided by tolerance factor) to 41.7 micrograms/min X/divided by 2.9 (2p = 1.2%). Albumin clearance in per cent of glomerular filtration rate decreased from a mean of 0.0030 +/- 0.0019% (SD) to 0.0011 +/- 0.0010% (2p = 4.6%). The mean yearly increase in urinary albumin excretion before treatment was 18.0 +/- 17.0% (mean +/- SD); during treatment urinary albumin excretion decreased 19 +/- 10% per year (2p = 0.7%). No changes were seen in renal plasma flow (516 +/- 31.0 ml/min to 520 +/- 66 ml/min (n = 5)).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Carvedilol is an antihypertensive drug available as a racemic mixture. (-)-(S)-carvedilol is responsible for the nonselective β-blocker activity but both enantiomers present similar activity on α(1)-adrenergic receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first study of carvedilol enantiomers in human plasma using a chiral stationary phase column and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The method involves plasma extraction with diisopropyl ether using metoprolol as internal standard and direct separation of the carvedilol enantiomers on a Chirobiotic T® (Teicoplanin) column. Protonated ions [M + H](+) and their respective ion products were monitored at transitions of 407 > 100 for the carvedilol enantiomers and 268 > 116 for the internal standard. The quantification limit was 0.2 ng ml(-1) for both enantiomers in plasma. The method was applied to study enantioselectivity in the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol administered as a single dose of 25 mg to a hypertensive patient. The results showed a higher plasma concentration of (+)-(R)-carvedilol (AUC(0-∞) 205.52 vs. 82.61 (ng h) ml(-1)), with an enantiomer ratio of 2.48.
Vertigo and dizziness are not independent disease entities, but instead symptoms of various diseases. Accordingly, a variety of treatment approaches are required. Here we review the most relevant drugs for managing dizziness, vertigo, and nystagmus syndromes. It is important to differentiate symptomatic treatment of nausea and vomiting with, for example, dimenhydrinate and benzodiazepines, and prophylactic treatment of motion sickness with scopolamine from a causal therapy of the underlying disorders. Examples of such causal therapy include aminopyridines for downbeat nystagmus and episodic ataxia type 2; carbamazepine for vestibular paroxysmia, paroxsymal dysarthria and ataxia in multiple sclerosis, and superior oblique myokymia; betahistine, dexamethasone, and gentamicin for Menière's disease; gabapentin and memantine for different forms of acquired and congenital nystagmus; corticosteroids for acute vestibular neuritis and Cogan's syndrome; metoprolol and topiramate for vestibular migraine; and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as paroxetine for phobic postural vertigo. The clinical entities are briefly described, the various medications are discussed in alphabetical order, and dosage, major side effects, contraindications, and alternative medications of each drug are displayed in boxes for easy reference.
1 Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the 133xenon inhalation method in 33 newly-diagnosed hypertensive patients prior to commencing therapy. 2 Blood pressure was treated by using a varying sequence of four different drugs, namely labetalol, metoprolol, oxprenolol and sotalol, each of which is a beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent, but with differing additional properties. 3 CBF measurements were repeated when blood pressure was controlled. No significant change in CBF was found with any of the four drugs, in contrast to the fall which has been reported when drugs of this type are administered acutely.
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Four studies using different daily doses (100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg and 400 mg) have examined the bioequivalence of the once daily formulation metoprolol CR/ZOK and conventional metoprolol tablets (CT). These studies showed metoprolol CR/ZOK to have a similar beta 1-blocking activity to metoprolol CT but that the bioavailability of the new formulation was lower. This paper presents the analysis of data from all four studies, looking at the relationship between plasma concentrations and beta 1-blockade measured as reduction of exercise induced tachycardia. The log linear pharmacodynamic model was used for each of the four doses to compare the two formulations. Mean slopes and intercepts in the linear regression analysis of log plasma concentration of metoprolol versus beta 1-blockade did not differ significantly between CR/ZOK and CT in any of the four studies. After having shown lack of influence of the absorption rate of the plasma concentration-effect relationship, data for CR/ZOK and CT formulations from the 200 mg study were pooled for each individual subject and fitted to an Emax model. The maximal beta 1-blocking effect (Emax) was 28% (95% confidence interval: 25-31%) and the plasma concentration for obtaining 50% of Emax (C50) was 105 nmol/L (95% confidence interval: 74-135 nmol/L). The plasma concentration-effect data from the 100 mg, 300 mg and 400 mg studies were reasonably well within the 95% prediction interval based on the 200 mg study, which showed the validity of the obtained relationship.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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As compared with metoprolol therapy, electrophysiologically guided antiarrhythmic drug therapy did not improve the overall outcome of patients with sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. However, effective suppression of inducible arrhythmia by antiarrhythmic drugs was associated with a better outcome than was lack of suppression.
Eleven patients with moderate COPD were recruited. Treatments were well-tolerated although two did not participate in the high-dose metoprolol phase. The area under the salbutamol-response curve was lower after propranolol compared with placebo (P=0.0006). The area under the curve also tended to be lower after high-dose metoprolol (P=0.076). The per cent recovery of the methacholine-induced fall was also lower after high-dose metoprolol (P=0.0018). Low-dose metoprolol did not alter the bronchodilator response. Oxygen saturation at peak exercise was lower with all beta-blocker treatments (P=0.046).