Lopid is an effective medication which helps to fight with high levels of serum triglycerides. Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Gemfibrozil.
Lopid target is to fight against high levels of serum triglycerides.
Lopid acts by reducing the production of triglycerides in the liver. It is fibrates.
Generic name of Lopid is Gemfibrozil.
Brand name of Lopid is Lopid.
Take Lopid tablets orally.
Take Lopid twice a day with water at the same time.
Do not crush or chew it.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Lopid suddenly.
If you overdose Lopid and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Lopid overdosage: arthralgia, muscle pain, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Protect from light and humidity. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Lopid are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Lopid if you are allergic to Lopid components.
Do not take Lopid if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.
Be careful with Lopid if you are taking cholesterol-lowering medications (statins) such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), and simvastatin (Zocor); and repaglinide (Prandin), anticoagulants ('blood thinners') such as warfarin (Coumadin).
Be careful with Lopid if you suffer from or have a history of kidney, liver, gallbladder disease.
Do not stop taking Lopid suddenly.
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A novel analytical approach involving an improved rotating-disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) procedure and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an ultraspray electrospray ionization source (UESI) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS), in trap mode, was developed to identify and quantify four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and two anti-cholesterol drugs (ACDs) (clofibric acid and gemfibrozil) that are widely used and typically found in water samples. The method reduced the amount of both sample and reagents used and also the time required for the whole analysis, resulting in a reliable and green analytical strategy. The analytical eco-scale was calculated, showing that this methodology is an excellent green analysis, increasing its ecological worth. The detection limits (LOD) and precision (%RSD) were lower than 90ng/L and 10%, respectively. Matrix effects and recoveries were studied using samples from the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). All the compounds exhibited suppression of their signals due to matrix effects, and the recoveries were approximately 100%. The applicability and reliability of this methodology were confirmed through the analysis of influent and effluent samples from a WWTP in Santiago, Chile, obtaining concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 20.5μg/L and from 0.5 to 8.6μg/L, respectively.
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The risk assessment of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is an indispensable part of drug development. We previously reported that in vitro inhibitory potencies of several inhibitors on OATP1B1 depend on the substrates when prototypical substrates, estradiol-17β-glucuronide (E₂G), estrone-3-sulfate, and sulfobromophthalein were used as test substrates. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively investigate this substrate-dependent inhibition of OATP1B1 using clinically relevant OATP1B1 inhibitors and substrate drugs. Effects of cyclosporine A (CsA), rifampin, and gemfibrozil on OATP1B1-mediated uptake of 12 substrate drugs were examined in OATP1B1-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The Ki values (μM) for CsA varied from 0.0771 to 0.486 (6.3-fold), for rifampin from 0.358 to 1.23 (3.4-fold), and for gemfibrozil from 9.65 to 252 (26-fold). Except for the inhibition of torasemide uptake by CsA and that of nateglinide uptake by gemfibrozil, the Ki values were within 2.8-fold of those obtained using E₂G as a substrate. Preincubation potentiated the inhibitory effect of CsA on OATP1B1 with similar magnitude regardless of the substrates. R values calculated based on a static model showed some variation depending on the Ki values determined with various substrates, and such variability could have an impact on the DDI predictions particularly for a weak-to-moderate inhibitor (gemfibrozil). OATP1B1 substrate drugs except for torasemide and nateglinide, or E₂G as a surrogate, is recommended as an in vitro probe in the inhibition experiments, which will help mitigate the risk of false-negative DDI predictions potentially caused by substrate-dependent Ki variation.
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Leibovitz L-15 medium was superior to RPM11640 in both maintenance and induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes. Serum was not required for maintenance or induction of beta-oxidation. Cell plating density had only slight effects on maintenance and did not affect induction. Bezafibrate caused time- and dose-related increases in beta-oxidation, as well as increases in catalase, peroxisome volume fraction, and peroxisome number. This system maintained a greater percentage of control beta-oxidation than previously reported, and responded to several hypolipidemics with sizeable increases in activity. The flexibility of this system with respect to serum and cell-plating density facilitates simultaneous studies of cell parameters which are regulated by these variables.
A series of 1-alkyl-3-phenylthiourea analogues were prepared and evaluated as HDL- and Apo A-I-elevating and triglyceride-lowering agents. Several derivatives were superior to gemfibrozil. The optimal analogue (HDL376) was shown to raise HDL cholesterol in the rat, hamster, dog, and monkey models.
Twenty patients with mixed hyperlipidemia type IIb were treated for two weeks with the lipid lowering agent gemfibrozil at a dose of 900 mg/day. The mean age of the 10 younger ambulatory patients was 32.3 +/- 4.1 years, that of the 10 geriatric inpatients 76.9 +/- 7.1 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn from the patients on days 1, 7 and 14, and plasma lipids and apolipoproteins determined. In addition, the plasma phospholipids were isolated and the fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography.
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In vitro hepatic transport of repaglinide, gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil 1-O-β-glucuronide was characterized using sandwich-culture human hepatocytes. A PBPK model, implemented in Simcyp (Sheffield, UK), was developed utilizing in vitro transport and metabolic clearance data.
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Statin monotherapy is generally well tolerated, with a low frequency of adverse events. The most important adverse effects associated with statins are myopathy and an asymptomatic increase in hepatic transaminases, both of which occur infrequently. Because statins are prescribed on a long-term basis, however, possible interactions with other drugs deserve particular attention, as many patients will typically receive pharmacological therapy for concomitant conditions during the course of statin treatment. This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic properties of statins and emphasizes their clinically relevant drug interactions.
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To further clarify some peculiar molecular mechanisms related to the physiology and pathophysiology of erythrocytes with respect to oxygen binding and release, metabolism and senescence, we investigated the oxidative effects of gemfibrozil in normal and beta-thalassemic red blood cells. Our results showed that the oxidative stress promoted by the drug, through a direct interaction with hemoglobin, may lead to activation of caspase 3, which in turn influences the band 3 anion flux and glucose metabolism. In a comparative context, we also evaluated the effect on band 3 and caspase 3 activation of orthovanadate (a phosphatase inhibitor) and t-butylhydroperoxide (a known oxidant). The results support the hypothesis that gemfibrozil influences band 3 function through several mechanisms of action, centered on oxidative stress, which induces significant alterations of glucose metabolism.
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Simvastatin is lipophilic statin with a short half-life that is primarily metabolized by CYP450 3A4. At doses of 5 - 80 mg, simvastatin lowers LDL cholesterol by 25 - 50%. Simvastatin has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by 35% and overall mortality by up to 30% over 5 years. The recommended starting dose of simvastatin 40 mg is approved as a lipid-lowering agent and for all high-risk patients, including those with cardiovascular disease and diabetes, regardless of the baseline LDL level. Simvastatin dose should be adjusted in those receiving CYP3A4 inhibitors, gemfibrozil, or ciclosporin, amiodarone, or in those with severe renal insufficiency. Coformulation of simvastatin with ezetimibe is now available, and coformulation with extended release niacin is under development.
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The demography of dyslipidemia has changed towards a more complex atherogenic dyslipidemia involving increased levels of LDL cholesterol, in particular highly atherogenic small dense particles, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol, together with increased levels of markers of inflammation, thrombogenesis and endothelial dysfunction. Statins were shown to significantly lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but treated patients are still left with a high residual risk, in particular for those with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, or low HDL cholesterol levels. Fibrates have been shown to reduce plasma triglycerides and increase HDL cholesterol, while improving inflammation, thrombogenesis and endothelial dysfunction. Clinical trials with fibrates have demonstrated their potential to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality too, often through other mechanisms than those of statins. Combination trials of statins with fibrates have shown a more complete improvement of lipid profile and risk markers than each class separately. In contrast with gemfibrozil, fenofibrate does not interact significantly with the pharmacokinetics of statins, and its combination with statins has been shown to have a low risk of muscular side-effects or liver toxicity. The ACCORD outcome trial is exploring possible benefits of the combination of fenofibrate with statins on morbidity and mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes.
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An in vitro study was carried out in order to examine the metabolic basis of the interaction between fibrates and statins. Metabolic inhibition of statins was noted in the presence of gemfibrozil. However, increase in the unchanged form was fairly small for pitavastatin, compared with other statins. Several CYP enzymes were shown to be principally responsible for the metabolism of gemfibrozil in contrast to other fibrates. In the presence of gemfibrozil, a focal point was obtained in Dixon plots, demonstrating that there was inhibition of CYP2C8-, CYP2C9- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. We propose that the increase of plasma concentration caused by co-administration of gemfibrozil and statins is at least partially due to CYP-mediated inhibition.
lopid normal dosage
The major effect of the fibrates on triglycerides is to promote triglyceride-rich lipoprotein catabolism through increased lipoprotein lipase activity. Fibrates also enhance lipolysis of plasma triglycerides by a means different from that of caloric restriction. Their effect on very low-density lipoprotein metabolism also differs from that of nicotinic acid. The effect of fibrate therapy upon low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations depends upon the patients' overall lipoprotein status. The responsible mechanisms are not understood. In hypertriglyceridemic patients, fibrates often reverse abnormal changes in low-density lipoprotein composition; low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity is reduced and small dense low-density lipoproteins are eliminated, apparently secondary to reduced levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Kinetic studies indicate that fibrates do not enhance low-density lipoprotein formation rates, thus contradicting the idea that fibrate therapy causes increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels via increased conversion of very low-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein. Though enhanced low-density lipoprotein catabolism in hypertriglyceridemia could occur via several mechanisms, the responsible factors are largely reversed by fibrate therapy. In non-hypertriglyceridemic patients, fibrates may actually enhance the fractional clearance of low-density lipoprotein and thus reduce low-density lipoprotein levels. Fibrate therapy reverses the typical high-density lipoprotein pattern of hypertriglyceridemic patients, producing more high-density lipoprotein2a and less high-density lipoprotein2b. Such treatment also increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients without definite hypertriglyceridemia. Synthesis rates of apolipoproteins AI and AII may be affected by fibrates. The fibrates' major effects on sterol metabolism are interference with cholesterol and bile acid synthesis and increased cholesterol secretion into bile. Although bile saturation increases in most patients, in only a relatively small percentage do gallstones actually develop; super-saturated bile is not sufficient to induce gallstone formation in most patients. Available data strongly imply that fibrates mobilized cholesterol out of tissue pools, perhaps by altering tissue cell membranes to allow cholesterol release from the cell surfaces.
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Increases in empagliflozin exposure were <2-fold, indicating that the inhibition of the OATP1B1/1B3, OAT3 transporter, and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases did not have a clinically relevant effect on empagliflozin exposure. No dose adjustments of empagliflozin were necessary when it was coadministered with gemfibrozil, rifampicin, or probenecid. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01301742 and NCT01634100.
lopid renal dosing
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α has been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects in autoimmune disorders. However, until now, no data were present in the literature about the effect of PPARα activation on CXCL9 and CXCL11 chemokines in general or on secretion of these chemokines in thyroid cells.
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Gemfibrozil (GEM) is a clofibrate analog used to treat moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemias. In lab animals, GEM causes peroxisome proliferation, an effect that has been associated with hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. In humans, hepatobiliary disorders, but not carcinogenesis, have been associated with GEM therapy. In the present study [14C]GEM was administered orally to rats at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. At various time points, radioactivity in urine was analyzed by liquid scintillation spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometryn, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Nine metabolites of GEM were identified, some that have not been reported previously. Although the majority of metabolites were glucuronidated, some nonglucuronidated metabolites were identified in urine, including a diol metabolite (both ring methyls hydroxylated), and the product of its further metabolism, the acid-alcohol derivative (ortho ring methyl hydroxylated, meta ring methyl completely oxidized to the acid). Hydroxylation of the aromatic ring also was a common pathway for GEM metabolism, leading to the production of two phenolic metabolites, only one of which was detected in the urine in the nonconjugated or free form. Also of interest was the finding that both acyl and ether glucuronides were produced, including both glucuronide forms of the same metabolite (e. g., 1-O-GlcUA, 5'-COOH-GEM, and 5'-COO-GlcUA-GEM); the positions and functionality of the glucuronide conjugates were identified using base hydrolysis or glucuronidase treatment, in combination with liquid chromatography/MSn and nuclear magnetic resonance.
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The analysis pools previously unpublished data on flushing and related side effects from four randomized, double-blind studies of niacin ER, and also reviews long-term data on flushing from a 96-week open label, uncontrolled study.
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We sought to investigate if, similar to what has been described in other rodent tissues, ageing changes the activity of several transcription factors, namely signal transducer and activator of transcription, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB), activated protein-1 (AP-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), in cortex of Sprague-Dawley rats. We also investigated if the administration of two hypolipidemic drugs, gemfibrozil (GFB) and atorvastatin (ATV), could prevent those changes. To this purpose, we determined the expression and binding activity of these transcription factors in cortex samples from 3-month and 18-month old male and female rats, and in 18-month old rats of both sexes treated for 21 days with a daily dose of 3mg GFB/kg or 10mg ATV/kg. Ageing increased rat cortex NFkappaB binding activity by 35-40%, and decreased by 22-26% the amount of PPARalpha in rats of both sexes, while cortex AP-1 binding activity and c-Jun content were reduced only in old females (-26 and -50%, respectively). Cortex cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) and receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1) expression was also reduced by old age. Hypolipidemic drugs prevented the age-related decrease of cortex AP-1 in old females and increased AP-1 binding activity and c-Jun protein in cortex from both old male and female rats. GFB increased also by 80% the cortex PPARalpha content in old males. Our data indicate that 18-month old rats show signs of cortex biochemical deterioration related to the ageing process, and that hypolipidemic drug administration partially prevents the appearance of some of the age-related changes in cortex biochemistry.
lopid 60 mg
Eighty patients with coronary heart disease with a baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) level above 130 mg/dl or a triglyceride level of 200 mg/dl or higher who had been receiving gemfibrozil 600 mg twice/day. Thirty-nine (49%) patients had received concomitant therapy with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) for a minimum of 9 months.
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The 643R allele of R643G polymorphism (also known as R670G in the premature protein) in PECAM-1 has been associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), while the 643G allele has been associated with risk of coronary artery stenosis (CAS). The aim of this study was to investigate this apparently conflicting association. The association of R643G with risk of MI was determined in the second Northwick Park Heart study (2037 men with 138 CHD events; mean age: 56 years). Smokers homozygous for the 643R allele showed increased risk of MI with a hazard ratio of 2.47 (95% CI: 1.23-4.97; P=0.01) compared to smokers homozygous for the 643G allele. Progression of disease was determined in the Lopid Coronary Angiography Trial (279 men; mean age: 58.9 years). The 643G homozygotes showed greater focal (-0.08 +/- 0.02 mm) and diffuse (-0.01 +/- 0.01 mm) progression of CAS compared to 643R homozygotes (-0.02 +/- 0.02 mm and 0.001 +/- 0.01 mm, respectively; P=0.04). While there was no genotype effect on platelet aggregation, PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in HUVECs of GG genotype was 2.4-fold greater (P <0.01) than cells of RR genotype, and the level of transendothelial migration of monocytes of GG genotype was greater than that of monocytes of RR genotype following stimulation with either IL-1beta (12% higher, P <0.01) or TNF-alpha (10% higher, P=0.05). These data confirm the association of the R643G polymorphism with MI and CAS and suggest that greater influx of monocytes in individuals homozygous for the 643G may explain the association with CAS.
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Eight type III hyperlipoproteinemic (type III HLP), homozygous E 2/2 patients were enrolled in two periods of long-term diet-gemfibrozil treatment. The combined therapy resulted in highly significant decreases in their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low density lipoprotein triglycerides, and increases in their high-density lipoprotein cholesterol during the first treatment period of 24 to 28 months. Type III HLP reasserted itself following an 8-week interruption of gemfibrozil therapy. Resumption of gemfibrozil therapy again lowered the high lipid-lipoprotein concentrations of these patients toward normal. Tuboeruptive xanthomata, palmar xanthoma, and xanthoma striata palmare subsided with treatment. Follow-up coronary arteriograms performed 2.5 to 3.0 years after initiation of diet-drug treatment showed stabilization of coronary arterial lesions, which was associated with improvement in exercise tolerance.
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