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Atorvastatin significantly reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events and procedures among diabetic patients with well-controlled hypertension and without a history of CHD or markedly elevated cholesterol concentrations. The proportional reduction in risk was similar to that among participants who did not have diagnosed diabetes. Allocation to atorvastatin prevented approximately 9 diabetic participants from suffering a first major cardiovascular event or procedure for every 1,000 treated for 1 year.
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To assess whether platelet activation and aggregation decrease with clopidogrel, and whether there is a reduction of the action of clopidogrel when associated with atorvastatin or simvastatin.
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Clinical pharmacists in the family medicine center implemented a therapeutic conversion program (30 patients), switching atorvastatin to a new formulary regimen of simvastatin, rosuvastatin, or ezetimibe-simvastatin, using an algorithm designed to achieve patient-specific goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL). Usual care occurred in the other ambulatory care clinics without clinical pharmacists (87 patients), where medical providers switched atorvastatin to a formulary regimen based on a suggested (but optional) equipotency conversion algorithm.
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Statins are inhibitors of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. Statins effectively prevent and reduce the risk of coronary artery disease through lowering serum cholesterol, and also exert anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects independently of changes in cholesterol levels. On the other hand, clinical and experimental evidence suggests that abrupt cessation of statin treatment (i.e. statin withdrawal) is associated with a deleterious rebound phenomenon. In fact, statin withdrawal increases the risk of thrombotic vascular events, causes impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation and facilitates experimental seizures. However, evidence for statin withdrawal-induced detrimental effects to the brain parenchyma is still lacking. In the present study adult male Wistar rats were treated with atorvastatin for seven days (10mg/kg/day) and neurochemical assays were performed in the cerebral cortex 30 min (atorvastatin treatment) or 24h (atorvastatin withdrawal) after the last atorvastatin administration. We found that atorvastatin withdrawal decreased levels of nitric oxide and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activity, whereas increased NADPH oxidase activity and immunoreactivity for the protein nitration marker 3-nitrotyrosine in the cerebral cortex. Catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities were not altered by atorvastatin treatment or withdrawal, as well as protein carbonyl and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal immunoreactivity. Immunoprecipitation of mitochondrial SOD followed by analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine revealed increased levels of nitrated mitochondrial SOD, suggesting the mechanism underlying the atorvastatin withdrawal-induced decrease in enzyme activity. Altogether, our results indicate the atorvastatin withdrawal elicits oxidative/nitrosative damage in the rat cerebral cortex, and that changes in NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities may underlie such harmful effects.
This randomized trial was conducted to investigate the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on uric acid homeostasis in patients treated for primary hyperlipidemia. A total of 180 patients were enrolled; patients were randomly assigned to 40 mg/d of either atorvastatin or simvastatin. Serum lipid and metabolic parameters were measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks of treatment; random urine samples were simultaneously obtained for creatinine, sodium, and uric acid determinations.
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Interviews and medical record review were conducted for 510 patients treated with lipid-lowering medications. Compliance with lipid-lowering medications was measured by patients' self-assessment of medication-taking practices.
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We compared 36 patients with polygenic hypercholesterolemia and 18 healthy subjects. Patients were randomized to either a low-fat diet (Group A) or low-fat diet plus atorvastatin 10 mg/day (Group B) for 30 days. Lower serum adiponectin levels and higher lipid profile, gp91(phox) serum levels, urinary isoprostanes, platelet oxygen free radicals, characterized patients. After 30 days of treatment, group B showed higher levels of adiponectin which is inversely correlated to reduced levels of sgp91(phox), urinary isoprostanes and platelet oxygen free radicals (p<0.001). In in vitro model, adiponectin dosages between 5 and 10 ng/ml inhibited p47(phox) translocation to gp91(phox) and soluble gp91(phox) cleavage indicating its ability in inhibiting the assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits on cell membrane and in turn the enzymatic system activation.
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The augmentation index (AI), the reflection time index (RTI) and the time to the beginning of the reflected wave (CT-1) were estimated (Sphygmocor ATCOR Medical). IgA titers >or= 40 and IgG >or=80 were considered as positive (microimmunofluorescence test). Patients also underwent coronary angiography, ultrasound carotid measurements and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements.
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Hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a loss of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which may facilitate the occurrence of myocardial ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The improvement of endothelial dilator function after 4 to 6 weeks of oral lipid-lowering therapy has been documented. Whether this early restoration of endothelial function by statins translates into anti-ischaemic effects is unknown. This study was designed to determine the effect of 4 weeks' treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin daily on exercise-induced ischaemia in patients with stable ischaemic heart disease (IHD) receiving standard anti-anginal drug therapy.
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High-dose atorvastatin used before angiography is more effective than the regular dose in attenuating contrast agent-induced renal dysfunction, and its mechanism is related with the inhibition of oxidative stress.
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The rate and degree of LDL cholesterol reduction, in the first 2 weeks of therapy, may relate to the early benefit of hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor therapy. In patients with similar baseline LDL cholesterol levels as in the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) trial, we report the results of a 2-week placebo-controlled, double-blind investigation of 10 mg/day atorvastatin.
Retrospective analysis using medical and pharmacy claims linked to laboratory results from a national health plan encompassing private and MedicareAdvantage enrollees age > or = 18 years and newly treated with statins from 1 August 2003 to 28 February 2005. Predictors of failure to reach goal were statin treatment group, age, gender, NCEP risk level, per cent reduction required to attain goal and days from index to LDL-C measurement.
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By the end of BPLA in both groups originally assigned statin or placebo, approximately 65% were receiving a statin, and lipid levels had equalized. The benefits of atorvastatin observed in LLA were sustained throughout BPLA. At the end of BPLA, in those assigned amlodipine-based therapy, atorvastatin reduced coronary heart disease deaths and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) by 46% [hazard ratio 0.54, confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.72, P < 0.0001], stroke by 37% [hazard ratio 0.63, CI 0.46-0.87, P = 0.004] and total cardiovascular events and procedures by 27% [hazard ratio 0.73, CI 0.63-0.86, P < 0.0001]. In the atenolol-based group, atorvastatin reduced coronary heart disease death and nonfatal MI by 25% [hazard ratio 0.75, CI 0.57-0.97, P = 0.03], stroke by 10% [hazard ratio 0.90, CI 0.69-1.18, P = 0.43] and total cardiovascular events and procedures by 13% [hazard ratio 0.87, CI 0.76-1.0, P = 0.05]. P values for heterogeneity were low, but failed to achieve statistical significance (0.10, 0.10 and 0.11 for chronic heart disease, stroke and total cardiovascular events, respectively).
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Nitric oxide (NO) is the main endothelial-derived relaxation factor and plays a major role in cardiovascular homeostasis. This key signalling molecule is synthesised by a family of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and the endothelial isoform (eNOS) is the most important for nitric oxide formation in the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular drugs including statins increase eNOS expression and up-regulate NO formation, and this effect may be responsible for protective, pleiotropic effects produced by statins. However, the genetic background may also affect NO formation in the cardiovascular system, and recent studies have shown that genetic polymorphisms in the eNOS gene modify endogenous NO formation and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. For example, cases with the CC genotype for the T(-786)C polymorphism in the eNOS gene are at increased cardiovascular risk when compared with those with the TT genotype. Interestingly, pharmacogenetic studies have recently indicated that atorvastatin improves NO formation more clearly in these individuals. However, it is not known whether this polymorphism really increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and whether atorvastatin or other statins attenuate the morbidity and mortality rates in cases with the CC genotype. If proved true, then statins-induced up-regulation of eNOS and increased NO formation could compensate for a genetic 'disadvantage' in cases with the CC genotype. This could be a significant advance in the prevention of cardiovascular events. It is necessary although to validate this hypothesis with clinical trials which will require a long follow-up to assess relevant clinical events and not only surrogate biomarkers.
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Several observational studies suggest that statins modulate the pathophysiology of sepsis and may prevent its progression. The aim of this study was to determine if the acute administration of atorvastatin reduces sepsis progression in statin naïve patients hospitalized with sepsis.
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To compare extra-lipid effects of statins and fibrates in relation to the baseline metabolic status of patients.
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In this randomized, 2-way crossover study, the potential for interaction was investigated between atorvastatin and ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor. Healthy female and male volunteers (n = 16) received atorvastatin 40 mg as a single oral dose and, in a separate study period, ximelagatran 36 mg twice daily for 5 days plus a 40-mg oral dose of atorvastatin on the morning of day 4. In the 15 subjects completing the study, no pharmacokinetic interaction was detected between atorvastatin and ximelagatran for all parameters investigated, including melagatran (the active form of ximelagatran) area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration, atorvastatin acid AUC, and AUC of active 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors. Atorvastatin did not alter the melagatran-induced prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time, and both drugs were well tolerated when administered in combination. In conclusion, no pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interaction between atorvastatin and ximelagatran was observed in this study.
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Forty-five hypercholesterolemic patients with the first episode of an ACS were included in the study. Patients were randomized to receive daily either 10 mg of atorvastatin (n=21) or 40 mg of pravastatin (n=24). Thirty patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) received a loading dose of 375 mg of clopidogrel, followed by 75 mg/d for at least 3 months. In the remaining 15 patients who refused to undergo PCI, clopidogrel therapy was not administered. Eight normolipidemic patients with the first episode of an ACS were also included and received only clopidogrel. The serum levels of soluble CD40L and the adenosine 5'-diphosphate- or thrombin receptor activating peptide-14-induced platelet aggregation, as well as P-selectin and CD40L surface expression, were studied at baseline (within 30 minutes after admission) and 5 weeks later. Neither atorvastatin nor pravastatin significantly influenced the clopidogrel-induced inhibition of platelet activation, nor did clopidogrel influence the therapeutic efficacy of atorvastatin.
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Chronic atorvastatin treatment could interfere with cardioprotective effects of Ipost on limiting infarct size and contractile dysfunction, possibly via inhibition of Akt and eNOS activity. This study suggests that Ipost should be used carefully when atorvastatin is taken by patients with AMI.
An integrated database, consisting of 33 trials whose databases were locked up to and including September 16, 2005, was used to examine adverse events and laboratory data.
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Although cholesterol embolism syndrome was recognized as a clinicopathologic entity more than 50 years ago, it is attracting growing attention recently. It is a multisystemic disorder in which cholesterol crystals released from atherosclerotic plaques obstruct small arterioles, resulting in local ischemia and end-organ damage. There are no established treatments, and with the limited treatment options available, it is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible. We present the case of a 68-year-old man with cholesterol embolism who had a few fluttering atheromas in the aorta, as demonstrated by transesophageal ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin biopsy, and treatment with statins and steroids proved effective, as renal failure progressively improved. This case emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and shows the possible therapeutic effects of statins and steroids for patients with this syndrome.
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Epidemiological research suggests that there is an inverse relationship between serum cholesterol level and the occurrence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). In the SPARCL (Stroke prevention by aggressive reduction in cholesterol levels) study in over 4000 patients who suffered stroke, ICH or TIA, the risk of ICH was found to be higher in the atorvastatin group than in the placebo group. In meta-analyses of large statin trials no increased risk of ICH was found, most likely as a consequence of a low absolute risk of ICH. Results of available studies indicate that the possibility that use of statins increases the risk of ICH cannot be excluded but that this is only of clinical relevance in patients with a history of ICH. Statins do not need to be terminated immediately in patients with ICH. At check-up following ICH, the decision to start or to continue statins should be made based on the risk to the patient of ischemic cardiovascular disease and the estimated risk of recurrent haemorrhage, depending on the type of haemorrhage.