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A total of 219 inpatients with a DSM-III diagnosis of major depression, 150 women and 69 men, were followed prospectively for 3-10 years and mortality was recorded. The patients were previous participants in psychopharmacological multicenter trials, which were carried out for the purpose of comparing the antidepressant effect of newer 5-HT reuptake inhibitors with that of the tricyclic antidepressant drug, clomipramine. The study comprised patients with a total Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of > or = 18 and/or a Hamilton subscale score of > or = 9. Diagnostic classification according to the Newcastle I Scale in endogenous and nonendogenous depression was performed. The observed mortality was significantly greater than that expected. The increased mortality was essentially due to suicides and mainly found among women. Patients scored as nonendogenously depressed had a significantly higher suicide rate than endogenously depressed patients. The excess number of suicides in the nonendogenous group largely occurred within the first year of observation. No association was found between response to the antidepressant treatment in the trial and the suicide risk in the first 3 years of observation.
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Visceral perception did not significantly differ between the citalopram and placebo condition. Citalopram administration enhanced affective memory performance because of a bias towards positive material but no significant changes in mood. Citalopram significantly increased plasma serotonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels compared with placebo. Citalopram did not differentially affect the patient or control group.
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A high level of patient compliance is essential in determining the efficacy and safety of treatment with new drugs. Alcohol abusers are generally considered to exhibit a low level of compliance with respect to the taking of medication. This study describes a selection strategy and compares methods of determining compliance in two clinical trials assessing the effects of zimelidine and citalopram on ethanol intake in nondepressed male heavy drinkers (greater than 4 drinks/day). Objective methods included the use of a tracer substance (riboflavin), measurement of neurochemical effects (serotonin uptake inhibition), and measurement of drug and metabolite concentrations in body fluids (blood and urine). Other methods included self-report and pill count. Mean compliance estimates for the taking of medication ranged from 78 to 97% depending on the method used. Methods to determine ethanol use included daily self-monitoring and daily urine alcohol measurement. Alcohol consumption correlated with urine alcohol measurement (r = 0.62, p less than .001). These comprehensive assessments of compliance allowed accurate evaluations of drug efficacy and toxicity. The study demonstrates that with stringent selection and reinforcement procedures, exceptionally high levels of compliance can be attained in this group of subjects. Similar procedures should be included in trials evaluating new drugs.
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This study employed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design in which 12 healthy male participants completed a facial expression recognition task tested under three acute conditions: (a) placebo, (b) citalopram (20 mg) and (c) reboxetine (4 mg).
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In genome-based drugs for depression (GENDEP), 811 patients with major depressive disorder treated with escitalopram or nortriptyline were assessed with the clinician-rated Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In sequenced treatment alternatives to relieve depression (STAR*D), 4,041 patients treated with citalopram were assessed with the clinician-rated and self-report versions of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS-C and QIDS-SR) in addition to HRSD.
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Vascular depression (VaD) hypothesis supports a bidirectional relationship between cerebrovascular risk factors (CRFs) and depression. We examined whether such concept is appropriate for clinical interventions; i.e., whether treating depressive symptoms has an impact on cerebrovascular risk and vice-versa.
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Panic disorder (PD) is a common and often chronic psychiatric condition that can lead to considerable disability in daily life. Using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, we examined brain baseline glucose metabolism in PD patients in comparison with normal controls and the changes in glucose metabolism after 12 weeks of escitalopram treatment.
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Post-stroke pathological crying is a distressing condition in which episodes occur in response to minor stimuli without associated mood changes. There is preliminary evidence of disturbed serotoninergic neurotransmission in such cases. We investigated the effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on uncontrolled crying in stroke patients in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. 16 consecutive patients (median age 58.5 years, range 40-83) entered the 9-week study a median of 168 days (range 6-913) post stroke and were treated with citalopram 10-20 mg daily for 3 weeks. Crying history was determined from semistructured interviews and from diaries kept by the patients. Psychiatric assessment was made with the Hamilton depression scale (HDS), and unwanted effects were measured with the UKU side-effect scale. In 13 patients in whom frequency of crying could be assessed, the number of daily crying episodes decreased by at least 50% in all cases during citalopram treatment vs 2 patients during placebo treatment (p < 0.005, McNemar's test), the effect being rapid (1-3 days) and pronounced in 11 (73%). There was a concomitant significant decrease in depression rating from HDS 8.9 to 5.3 (p < 0.005, Wilcoxon's test). Citalopram was well tolerated, the few side-effects being mild and transient. We conclude that serotoninergic neurotransmission plays an important part in post-stroke pathological crying and that citalopram is an effective and well-tolerated treatment.
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To describe and compare general practitioners' (GPs) opinions on antidepressant drugs and their prescriptions to depressed patients.
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Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) reduce the 5-HT release in vivo. This effect is due to the activation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors and it displays a regional pattern comparable to that of selective 5-HT1A agonists, i.e., preferentially in forebrain areas innervated by the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). However, despite a comparatively lower 5-HT1A-mediated inhibition of 5-HT release and a greater density of serotonergic uptake sites in hippocampus, the net elevation produced by the systemic administration of SSRIs is similar in various forebrain areas, regardless of the origin of serotonergic fibres. As terminal autoreceptors may also limit the SSRI-induced elevations of 5-HT in the extracellular brain space, we reasoned that a differential control of 5-HT release by terminal autoreceptors in DRN- and median raphe-innervated areas might be accountable. To examine this possibility, we have conducted a regional microdialysis study in the DRN, MRN and four forebrain regions preferentially innervated either by the DRN (frontal cortex, striatum) or the median raphe nucleus (MRN; dorsal and ventral hippocampus) using freely moving rats. Dialysis probes were perfused with 1 microM of the SSRI citalopram to augment the endogenous tone on terminal 5-HT autoreceptors. The non-selective 5-HT1 antagonist methiothepin (10 and 100 microM, dissolved in the dialysis fluid) increased extracellular 5-HT in frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus in a concentration-dependent manner. The 5-HT(1B/1D) antagonist GR 127935 was ineffective at 10 microM and tended to reduce 5-HT in dorsal hippocampus at 100 microM. The local infusion of 100 microM methiothepin significantly elevated the extracellular 5-HT concentration to 142-173% of baseline (mean values of 260 min post-administration) in the DRN, MRN, frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus (dorsal and ventral). Comparable elevations were noted in the four forebrain regions examined. As observed in frontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus, the perfusion of 10 microM GR 127935 did not elevate 5-HT in DRN. MRN, striatum or ventral hippocampus. Because the stimulated 5-HT release in the DRN has been suggested to be under control of 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors, we examined the possible contribution of these receptor subtypes to the effects of methiothepin in the DRN. The perfusion of sumatriptan (0.01-10 microM) or GR 127935 (0.01-10 microM) did not significantly modify the 5-HT concentration in dialysates from the DRN. Thus, the present data suggest that the comparable effects of SSRIs in DRN- and MRN-innervated forebrain regions are not explained by a preferential attenuation of 5-HT release by terminal 5-HT1B autoreceptors in hippocampus, an area with a low inhibitory influence of somatodendritic 5-HT1A receptors. Methiothepin-sensitive autoreceptors (possibly 5-HT1B) appear to play an important role not only in the projection areas but also with respect to the control of 5-HT release in the DRN and MRN. In addition, our findings indicate that GR 127935 is not an effective antagonist of the actions of 5-HT at rat terminal autoreceptors.
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Serotonin influences the growth and development of the nervous system, as well as its behavioral manifestations. The possibility exists that increased brain serotonin availability in young animals modulates their neuro-behavioral responses. This study investigated the body weight gain and reflex ontogeny of neonatal rats treated during the suckling period with two doses of citalopram (5 mg, or 10 mg/kg, s.c., daily). The time of the appearance of reflexes (palm grasp righting, free-fall righting, vibrissa placing, auditory startle response, negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance) as well as the body weight evolution were recorded. In general, a delay in the time of reflex development and a reduced weight gain were observed in drug-treated animals. These findings suggest that serotoninergic mechanisms play a role in modulating body weight gain and the maturation of most reflex responses during the perinatal period in rats.
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A chiral capillary electrophoresis (CE) system allowing simultaneous enantiomer determination of citalopram (CIT) and its pharmacologically active metabolite desmethylcitalopram (DCIT) was developed. Excellent chiral separation was obtained using 1% sulfated-beta-cyclodextrin (S-beta-CD) as chiral selector in combination with 12% ACN in 25 mM phosphate pH 2.5. Samples were prepared by liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) based on a rodlike porous polypropylene hollow fibre. CIT and DCIT were extracted from 1 ml plasma made alkaline with NaOH, into dodecyl acetate impregnated in the pores of a hollow fibre, and into 20 mM phosphate pH 2.75, inside the hollow fibre. The acceptor solution was directly compatible with the CE system. Efficient sample clean-up was seen, and the recoveries were 46 and 29% for the enantiomers of CIT and DCIT, respectively, corresponding to 31 and 19 times enrichment. The limit of quantification (S/N=10) was <11.2 ng/ml, intra-day precision was <12.8% RSD, and inter-day precision was <14.5% RSD, for all enantiomers. The validated method was successfully applied to simultaneous determination of enantiomer concentrations of CIT and DCIT in plasma samples from nine patients treated with racemic citalopram. The results confirm LPME-CE as a suitable and promising tool for enantiomeric determination of chiral drugs and metabolites in biological matrices.
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A total of 115 randomised controlled trials (26,134 participants) were included. In 54 studies paroxetine was compared with older ADs, in 21 studies with another SSRI, and in 40 studies with a newer or non-conventional antidepressant other than SSRIs. For the primary outcome (patients who responded to treatment), paroxetine was more effective than reboxetine at increasing patients who responded early to treatment (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.66, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.50 to 0.87, number needed to treat to provide benefit (NNTb) = 16, 95% CI 10 to 50, at one to four weeks, 3 RCTs, 1375 participants, moderate quality of evidence), and less effective than mirtazapine (OR: 2.39, 95% CI 1.42 to 4.02, NNTb = 8, 95% CI 5 to 14, at one to four weeks, 3 RCTs, 726 participants, moderate quality of evidence). Paroxetine was less effective than citalopram in improving response to treatment (OR: 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.28, NNTb = 9, 95% CI 5 to 102, at six to 12 weeks, 1 RCT, 406 participants, moderate quality of evidence). We found no clear evidence that paroxetine was more or less effective compared with other antidepressants at increasing response to treatment at acute (six to 12 weeks), early (one to four weeks), or longer term follow-up (four to six months). Paroxetine was associated with a lower rate of adverse events than amitriptyline, imipramine and older ADs as a class, but was less well tolerated than agomelatine and hypericum. Included studies were generally at unclear or high risk of bias due to poor reporting of allocation concealment and blinding of outcome assessment, and incomplete reporting of outcomes.
Outcome data were collected on 97% of randomized women and 87% of women took at least 70% of their study medication. Treatment with escitalopram resulted in significantly greater improvement in total MENQOL scores (mean difference at 8 weeks of -0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.71 to -0.11; p<0.001), as well as Vasomotor, Psychosocial, and Physical domain scores with the largest difference seen in the Vasomotor domain (mean difference -0.75; 95% CI -1.28 to -0.22; p=0.02). There was no significant treatment group difference for the Sexual Function domain. Escitalopram treatment resulted in statistically significant improvements in PEG scores compared to placebo (mean treatment group difference at 8 weeks of -0.33; 95% CI -0.81 to 0.15; p=0.045).
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Both QRS complex widening and QTc interval prolongation should be monitored in cases of escitalopram and citalopram overdoses.
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Escitalopram reversibly inhibited TREK-1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner. Chronic treatment with escitalopram significantly reversed the reductions in weight gain, locomotor activity, and sucrose preference in PSD rats. The expressions of TREK-1 mRNA and protein were significantly increased in hippocampal CA1, CA3, DG, and PFC in PSD rats, with the exception of TREK-1 mRNA in hippocampal CA1. NSC proliferation was significantly decreased in hippocampal DG of PSD rats. Escitalopram significantly reversed the regional increases of TREK-1 expression and the reduction of hippocampal NSC proliferation in PSD rats.
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Three hundred five patients achieved remission and were randomly assigned to treatment with escitalopram (N = 152) or placebo (N = 153). The primary analysis showed a clear beneficial effect of escitalopram relative to placebo on the time to relapse (log-rank test, chi(2) = 27.6, df = 1, p <0.001). The risk of relapse was 4.4 times higher for placebo- than for escitalopram-treated patients (chi(2) test, chi(2) = 22.9, df = 1, p <0.001). Significantly fewer escitalopram-treated patients relapsed (9%) compared with placebo (33%) (chi(2) test, chi(2) = 27.1, df = 1, p <0.001). Escitalopram was well tolerated with 53 patients (13%) withdrawn as a result of adverse events during the open-label period and three (2%) escitalopram-treated patients and six (4%) placebo-treated patients during double-blind treatment (not significant). The overall withdrawal rate, excluding relapses, was 7.2% for escitalopram and 8.5% for placebo during the double-blind period (not significant).
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Citalopram is a member of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class of antidepressants. In 1998, citalopram was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depression. Like the other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, citalopram enjoys a relatively benign side effect profile compared with the tricyclic antidepressants and the monoamine oxidase inhibitors. However, citalopram has been associated with electrocardiographic changes and seizures at doses greater than 600 mg per day. Fatalities have occurred with citalopram-only overdoses. We report the case of a healthy 21-year-old woman who developed QTc interval prolongation after ingestion of approximately 400 mg citalopram. We discuss the cardiac effects of citalopram, review previous cases of citalopram overdose, and discuss treatment recommendations.
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Five trace impurities were detected in the bulk drug citalopram using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A simple and sensitive method suitable for liquid chromatography tandem multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS(n)) analysis was developed. Using this method, the fragmentation behavior of citalopram and the impurities was investigated. Four impurities were rapidly characterized, and an unknown impurity was elucidated as 3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N-(1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-yl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carboxamide on the basis of the MS(n) and exact mass evidence, and the proposed structure was further confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments after preparative isolation.
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Depression is a frequent neuropsychiatric complication of Alzheimer's Disease.
Long-term treatment of depression encompasses two separate phases: relapse and recurrence prevention. Relapse prevention aims to consolidate the response to acute treatment. Some tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have been shown to be effective, possibly in lower than standard acute treatment doses. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to be effective at the same minimum effective doses used to treat acute depression, or in a lower dose as with citalopram. Recurrence prevention aims to reduce the risk of onset of a new episode of depression in patients with recurrent depression. Imipramine has been thoroughly studied in unipolar depressed patients in full therapeutic doses for up to five years and is clearly effective. Other TCAs have not been adequately tested and may not all be equally effective. The SSRIs fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline have also been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of new episodes of depression.
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We sought to recruit a large sample of participants with melancholic depression for a 12-week trial but inclusion criteria compromised recruitment and testing the second hypothesis. The first hypothesis was evaluated by comparing 18 participants receiving antidepressant medication to 11 receiving CBT. Primary study measures were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Hamilton Endogenous Subscale (HES), rated blindly, while several secondary measures also evaluated outcome.
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Depressed patients with atypical features have an earlier onset of depression, a more chronic course of illness, several distinctive biological and familial features, and a different treatment response than those without atypical features. The efficacy and tolerability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not been fully evaluated in depression with atypical features. This report evaluates data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study to determine whether depressed outpatients with and without atypical features respond differently to the SSRI citalopram. Treatment-seeking participants with non-psychotic major depressive disorder were recruited from primary- and psychiatric-care settings. The presence/absence of atypical features was approximated using baseline ratings on the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Clinician-rated. Following baseline assessments, participants received citalopram up to 60 mg/d for up to 14 wk. Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes, were compared between participants with and without atypical features. Of the 2876 evaluable STAR*D participants, 541 (19%) had atypical features. Participants with atypical features were significantly more likely to be female, younger, unemployed, have greater physical impairment, a younger age of depression onset, a longer index episode, greater depressive severity, and more concurrent anxiety diagnoses. Those with atypical features had significantly lower remission rates, although this difference was no longer present after adjustment for baseline differences. Depressed patients with atypical features are less likely to remit with citalopram than those without atypical features. This finding is probably due to differences in baseline characteristics other than atypical symptom features.
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Electronic searches of MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, and PsycINFO from 1966 through July 2002 followed by bibliographic searches identified 67 relevant studies (two unpublished). By consensus the authors identified 57 studies of maternal plasma, breast milk, and/or infant plasma antidepressant levels from nursing mother-infant pairs, measured by liquid chromatography.
Primary outcome measures were based on scores from the 18-point Neurobehavioral Rating Scale agitation subscale (NBRS-A) and the modified Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (mADCS-CGIC). Other outcomes were based on scores from the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), ability to complete activities of daily living (ADLs), caregiver distress, cognitive safety (based on scores from the 30-point Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE]), and adverse events.
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Spasmophemia has been associated with dopaminergic hyperactivity, so that studies have been conducted with atypical antipsychotics. Fundamentally, olanzapine and risperidone have revealed promising results. Furthermore, several studies have shown that these patients have higher rates of anxiety. That is why antidepressants and antianxiety drugs such as clomipramine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, citalopram, sertraline and alprazolam have been used.
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The sample included 150 participants 18-58 years old (59% women, 65% African American, 61% with depression). Monocyte-depleted PBMCs were treated with phytohemagglutinin for 72 hours and then cultured in the presence of interleukin-2 with vehicle control or the SSRI (10(-6) mol/L) for 2 hours. To generate monocyte-derived macrophages, monocytes were cultured for 7 days, after which either vehicle control or SSRI (10(-6) mol/L) was added for 2 hours. RNA was collected from both cell types, and messenger RNA expression of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction.