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Relaxant responses of human ureteral smooth muscle were investigated in vitro using the organ bath technique. Cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP were determined by specific radioimmunoassays.
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Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 inhibitors reduce cyclic guanylate monophosphate breakdown, promoting vascular relaxation in the corpora cavernosa and penile erection during sexual stimulation. Sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil were approved as effective treatments for male erectile dysfunction. Because PDE5 is present in artery and vein smooth muscle cells throughout the body, PDE5 inhibitors have mild systemic vasodilatory effects and thus the potential to impact the vascular system. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved PDE5 inhibitors for treating pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, their systemic vasodilating properties theoretically make these drugs suitable for treating hypertension. Studies indicate that PDE5 inhibition may be an option for reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Additional benefits may be related to improved arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction, two early vascular abnormalities characterizing essential hypertension. More investigation is needed on PDE5 inhibitors as antihypertensive drugs, especially with slow-release formulations or compounds with long half-life. Studies on safety during long-term administration, interactions with antihypertensive and nonantihypertensive drugs, and effect on target organ damage are needed.
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383 patients were randomized to vardenafil (n=194) or placebo (n=189). Patients treated with vardenafil 8 hours before sexual activity achieved clinically meaningful (>or=18%) and statistically significantly greater least-squares mean per-patient SEP3 and SEP2 success rates over weeks 2-10, compared with patients receiving placebo (SEP3 69% vs 34%; SEP2 81% vs 51%; both p<0.001). SEP3 and SEP2 measures demonstrated the significant superiority of vardenafil over placebo from week 2 onwards (p<0.001). Measurements of IIEF-EF domain score, GAQ, GCQ and EQS showed that vardenafil led to significantly greater improvements in erectile function, compared with placebo (all p<0.001). Vardenafil was generally well tolerated.
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We examined whether phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibition can promote ischemia-induced angiogenesis.
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common medical condition that affects the sexual life of millions of men worldwide. Many drugs are now available for treating ED; oral pharmacotherapy represents the first-line option for most patients with ED. Sildenafil, an inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase type 5, is currently the most widely prescribed oral agent and has a very satisfactory efficacy-safety profile in all patient categories. Apomorphine SL is a dopamine D1- and D2-receptor agonist which has recently been approved for marketing in Europe. It is best selected for treating patients with mild to moderate ED. Vardenafil and tadalafil are new phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors which are expected to be approved this year. Both of them have significant positive efficacy-safety profiles. Patients who do not respond to oral pharmacotherapy or who cannot use it are good candidates for intracavernosal and intraurethral therapy. Alprostadil is the most widely used drug, both for injection therapy and for the intraurethral route. The efficacy of second-line treatment is high but the attrition rate remains significant.
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Complete T7-T8 spinalization was performed in 15 female adult Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g).
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Fifteen occasional cannabis users participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, six-way cross-over study. On separate test days, subjects received combinations of pretreatment (placebo, vardenafil 20 mg or rivastigmine 3 mg) and treatment (placebo or 1,376 mg cannabis/kg body weight). Cognitive tests were administered immediately after inhalation of treatment was finished and included measures of memory (visual verbal learning task, prospective memory test, Sternberg memory test), perceptual-motor control (critical tracking task), attention (divided attention task) and motor impulsivity (stop signal task).
Overall, 14,818 AEs were reported for sildenafil. There were 1,824 (12.3%) reported deaths, and reports of cardiovascular AEs numbered 2,406 (16.2%). Tadalafil was associated with 5,548 AEs and 236 deaths were reported. Vardenafil was associated with 6,085 AEs and 121 reports of deaths. The percentage of reported severe cardiovascular disorders has stabilized at 10% to 15% of all AE reports for sildenafil and tadalafil and 5% to 10% for vardenafil. Only 10% of AE reports sent to the FDA for PDE5-i were from pharmaceutical manufacturers.
This study included 75 male patients that experienced ejaculation failure due to temporary ED during ART treatment. We treated the patients with PDE5 inhibitors sildenafil, tadanafil and vardenafil, and then evaluated the hardness of penile erection using Erection Hardness Score (EHS) and analyzed the end-point efficacy.
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The intercontraction interval and bladder capacity, and were decreased in SHRs and restored by vardenafil. The in vitro relaxant effect of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 was higher in bladder strips from SHR than from WKY and reduced by vardenafil. Nomega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (a NO-synthase inhibitor, 40 mg/kg/day during the last week of the 2-week treatment with vardenafil) partially antagonized vardenafil effect on Y-27632 responsiveness. Vardenafil prevented RhoA membrane translocation/activation, decreased ROCK activity, and increased cGMP levels in vivo (rat) and in vitro (hBCs). Exposing hBCs to vardenafil increased Ser(188) RhoA phosphorylation, to the same extent as the PDE5-insensitive PKG agonist Sp-8-Br-PET-cGMP. Moreover, vardenafil inhibited several RhoA-dependent functions in hBCs, including smooth muscle gene transcription and endothelin-1-induced migration. These effects were reverted by the PKG inhibitor KT 5823, further suggesting a cGMP/PKG-dependency. In hBCs, vardenafil was active in the low nanomolar range.
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Men aged 45-64 yr with BPH/LUTS and an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) > or =12 were randomised to receive either 10mg vardenafil or placebo twice daily. LUTS were assessed with the use of two primary efficacy parameters, IPSS score and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), as well as postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume; ED was measured with the use of the erectile function (EF) domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF); and QoL was assessed with the Urolifetrade mark QoL-9 questionnaire.
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In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 354 patients received placebo or vardenafil (5-20 mg) for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were diary responses to the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) questions 2 (vaginal insertion) and 3 (maintenance of erection). Additional efficacy measures included positive responses to the Global Assessment Question (GAQ).
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The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the first intake of tadalafil and vardenafil in men with DN and DED.
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PubMed search utilizing the terms "phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor," PDE5 inhibitor,"sildenafil,"vardenafil," and "tadalafil." Articles were screened based on whether or not they addressed issues of routine dosing of PDE5I. Manuscripts on the newly approved daily dose tadalafil for erectile dysfunction (ED) were deferred for analysis in a separate manuscript in this series.
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There were statistically significant differences between groups only with regards to the vacuolar degeneration parameter and to the cleaved caspase-3 digital method.
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Based upon the well known protective effect of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) accumulation, we tested the hypothesis that storage solution enriched with optimal concentration of the phosphodiestherase-5 inhibitor vardenafil could provide better protection of vascular grafts against reperfusion injury after long-term cold ischaemic storage.
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The contamination of wastewater and sewage sludge has been examined for three phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil, active agents of Viagra, Levitra and Cialis, respectively. Sensitive quantification methods based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) have been developed to analyse these compounds in wastewater and sewage sludge. Effluent water of nine sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been analysed to assess the impact of the phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors on the environment. One municipal STP (Tarragona, Spain) has been thoroughly studied over the year 2008 (i) with respect to the distribution of these compounds among influent and sewage sludge and (ii) the elimination efficiency. The developed methods allowed quantification at trace concentrations. Sildenafil was present in all investigated samples at the low ng/L and ng/g range, respectively. Tadalafil was not detected or below the limit of detection (LOQ) in effluent water taken in Spain but in sewage sludge (12 ng/g - < LOQ). Vardenafil was present only in one sludge sample and between 5 ng/g and < LOQ in effluent water. The overall removal efficiency of the STP in Tarragona (Spain) is 68%, 69% and 80% for sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil, respectively. This study shows for the first time the determination of these compounds in wastewater and sewage sludge.
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In vitro treatment with tadalafil or vardenafil on hBPH reduced IL-8 secretion induced by either TNFα or metabolic factors, including oxidized low-density lipoprotein, oxLDL, to the same extent as a PDE5-insensitive PKG agonist Sp-8-Br-PET-cGMP. These effects were reverted by the PKG inhibitor KT5823, suggesting a cGMP/PKG-dependency. Treatment with tadalafil or vardenafil significantly suppressed oxLDL receptor (LOX-1) expression. Histological evaluation of anti-CD45 staining (CD45 score) in prostatectomy specimens of BPH patients showed a positive association with MetS severity. Reduced HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglycerides were the only MetS factors significantly associated with CD45 score. In the MetS cohort there was a significant lower CD45 score in the vardenafil-arm versus the placebo-one.
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is strongly linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially in diabetics. ED is associated with deleterious changes in the overall vasculature and is recognized as an indicator of higher risk for adverse cardiovascular events. Endothelial dysfunction, vascular smooth muscle changes and increased fibrosis are indicated as major players in both ED and CVD. ED in diabetics is more refractory to acute treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors (Viagra, Cialis, Levitra, Zydena) than in non-diabetics, but recent studies indicate that chronic administration of these drugs improves endothelial function, preserves vascular smooth muscle and decreases fibrotic changes. Use of PDE5 inhibitors in pre-diabetic and diabetic men may protect cardiovascular health, including vascular function in penile tissues.
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To assess the efficacy and tolerability of vardenafil in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) due to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI).
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To determine whether a causative relationship exists between non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and the use of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
The molecular bases for phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) catalytic-site affinity for cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and potency of inhibitors are poorly understood. Cocrystal structures of PDE5 catalytic (C) domain with inhibitors reveal a hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions with Tyr-612, hydrogen bonds with Gln-817, a hydrophobic clamp formed by Phe-820 and Val-782, and contacts with His-613, Leu-765, and Phe-786 [Sung et al. (2003) Nature 425, 98-102; Huai et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 13095-13101]. Present results of point mutations of full-length PDE5 showed that maximum catalysis was decreased 2650-fold in H613A and 55-fold in F820A. Catalytic-site affinities for cGMP, vardenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) were respectively weakened 14-, 123-, 30-, 51-, and 43-fold for Y612A; 63-, 511-, 43-, 95- and 61-fold for Q817A; and 59-, 448-, 71-, 137-, and 93-fold for F820A. The data indicate that these three amino acids are major determinants of affinity for cGMP and potency of selective and nonselective inhibitors, and that higher vardenafil potency over sildenafil and tadalafil results from stronger contacts with Tyr-612, Gln-817, and Phe-820. Affinity of V782A for cGMP, vardenafil, sildenafil, tadalafil, or IBMX was reduced 5.5-, 23-, 10-, 3-, and 12-fold, respectively. Change in affinity for cGMP, vardenafil, sildenafil, or IBMX in Y612F, H613A, L765A, or F786A was less, but affinity of H613A or F786A for tadalafil was weakened 37- and 17-fold, respectively. The results quantify the role of PDE5 catalytic-site residues for cGMP and inhibitors, indicate that Tyr-612, Gln-817, and Phe-820 are the most important cGMP or inhibitor contacts studied, and identify residues that contribute to selectivity among different classes of inhibitors.
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We retrospectively analyzed the effects on the erectile function (EF) of no treatment (NT), and an oral therapy (OT; on-demand therapy (OD) or a regimented rehabilitation (RR) program with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is)), in a cohort of 196 consecutive patients following nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (NSRRP). Patients undergoing bilateral NSRRP (BP; n = 147) and unilateral NSRRP (UP; n = 49), chose between OT (PDE5-Is OD or RR program) and NT. Patients who chose OD therapy received PDE5-Is (100 mg sildenafil, 20 mg tadalafil and vardenafil), whereas patients who chose the RR program received 100 mg sildenafil or 20 mg vardenafil three times a week, or 20 mg tadalafil twice a week at bedtime. The t-test for unpaired data and Fisher test were used for univariate analyses, logistic regression multivariate analysis was used to test the accuracy of available variables to predict EF recovery after radical prostatectomy. Potency rates were significantly correlated with the surgical technique and with OT when compared to NT (P < 0.02), respectively 68.7% for BP (61% with no therapy and 71% with PDE5-Is) and 44% for UP (29% with no therapy and 51% with PDE5-Is), while no statistically significative differences were found between OD and rehabilitation protocols (72% with rehabilitation and 70% with OD therapy in BP, 52% with rehabilitation and 50% with OD therapy in UP; P = NS). Early OT with PDE5-Is (OD or RR program) was superior to NT in recovery of EF in NSRRP. Furthermore, an RR program with PDE5-Is did not appear to be superior to OD therapy.
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The type-5 PDE inhibitor vardenafil reduces myocardial infarct size in situ, following ischemia/reperfusion, when applied at reperfusion in animal models. Little is known about the underlying protective signaling. Here, we test whether vardenafil is protective in rat isolated hearts and in a cell model of calcium stress.
Of the intent to treat population 70% had severe ED (erectile function less than 11) at baseline. After 12 weeks both vardenafil doses were significantly superior to placebo (p <0.0001) for all efficacy variables. Improved erections (based on GAQ) were reported by 65.2% and 59.4% of patients on 20 and 10 mg vardenafil, respectively, and by only 12.5% of patients on placebo (p <0.0001). Among men with bilateral neurovascular bundle sparing, positive GAQ responses were reported by 71.1% and 59.7% of patients on 20 and 10 mg vardenafil, respectively, versus 11.5% of those on placebo (p <0.0001). The average intercourse success rate per patient receiving 20 mg vardenafil was 74% in men with mild to moderate ED and 28% in men with severe ED, compared to 49% and 4% for placebo, respectively. Few adverse events were observed. They were generally mild to moderate headache, flushing and rhinitis.
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The NO--cGMP system plays a key role in the regulation of sinusoidal tonus and liver blood flow with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) terminating the dilatory action of cGMP. We, therefore, investigated the effects of PDE-5 inhibitors on hepatic and systemic hemodynamics in rats.
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Primary outcome measure was the percentage of subjects with an IIEF-EF score of > or =22 after the 2-mo washout period. Secondary variables included mean per-patient success rates for Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) questions 2 and 3.
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The Real-Life Safety and Efficacy of vardenafil study is an international, open-label, prospective, noncomparative, noninterventional study in men with erectile dysfunction (ED).
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Utilization rates and preferences for PDEi's by brand.
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At baseline, the intention-to-treat population had moderate ED (International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function domain score of 13). For SEP-2 (penetration), the first-attempt and subsequent success rate was 44% and 74% for placebo, 71% and 81% for vardenafil 5 mg, 76% and 86% for vardenafil 10 mg, and 76% and 91% for vardenafil 20 mg, respectively. For SEP-3 (maintenance), first-attempt and subsequent success rate was 25% and 56% for placebo, 51% and 76% for vardenafil 5 mg, 65% and 76% for vardenafil 10 mg, and 59% and 84% for vardenafil 20 mg, respectively. For overall satisfaction with the sexual experience, the first-attempt and subsequent success rate was 19% and 48% for placebo, 48% and 68% for vardenafil 5 mg, 57% and 72% for vardenafil 10 mg, and 56% and 79% for vardenafil 20 mg, respectively. The reliability of vardenafil was similar or slightly greater in sildenafil-naive subjects compared with prior sildenafil responders. The most common adverse events were mild-to-moderate headache, flushing, and rhinitis.