A total of eight anticholinergic drugs (aprophen, atropine, azaprophen, benactyzine, biperiden, procyclidine, scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl) were tested in parallel with diazepam for the ability to terminate seizure activity induced by the nerve agent soman. Guinea pigs, implanted with electrodes to record cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, were pretreated with pyridostigmine Br (0.026 mg/kg, i.m.) and 30 min later challenged with 2 x LD50 soman (56 microg/kg, s.c.) followed 1 min later by treatment with atropine SO4 (2 mg/kg, i.m.) and pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM Cl; 25 mg/kg, i.m.). All guinea pigs developed sustained seizure activity following this treatment. Dose-effect curves were determined for the ability of each drug to terminate seizure activity when anticonvulsant treatment was given either 5 or 40 min after seizure onset. Body weight gain and recovery of behavioral performance of a previously trained one-way avoidance task were measured after exposure. With the exception of atropine, all anticholinergic drugs were effective at lower doses than diazepam in terminating seizures when given 5 min after seizure onset; benactyzine, procyclidine and aprophen terminated seizures most rapidly while scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, and diazepam were significantly slower. When given 40 min after seizure onset, diazepam was the most potent compound tested, followed by scopolamine, benactyzine and biperiden; atropine was not effective when tested 40 min after seizure onset. For diazepam, the time to terminate the seizure was the same whether it was given at the 5- or 40-min delay. In contrast, most anticholinergics were significantly slower in terminating seizure activity when
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response refers to an attenuation in response to a strong stimulus (pulse) if this is preceded shortly by a weak non-startling stimulus (prepulse). Patients with schizophrenia have repeatedly been found to show reduced PPI when compared to healthy people. Anticholinergic drugs are often used to control extrapyramidal symptoms induced by antipsychotic medication in schizophrenic patients. Antipsychotic medication, in particular with atypical drugs, has been shown to improve a range of cognitive functions and normalize PPI deficits in schizophrenia, whereas anticholinergic drugs disrupt cognitive functions in both normal and schizophrenic populations and also impair PPI in experimental animals. No previous study has investigated the effects of anticholinergic drugs on human PPI.
kemadrin injection dose
Procyclidine was administered to 25 chronic psychotic inpatients, stabilised on chlorpromazine, haloperidol or fluphenazine decanoate injection. We observed a significant reduction in mean serum levels of all three neuroleptic drugs which was reversed on stopping procyclidine and was inversely correlated with mean serum procyclidine levels. No significant alterations occurred on the BPRS scores or in serum prolactin levels throughout the study in any of the three groups. Possible mechanisms of this interaction and its clinical relevance are discussed.
We found 19 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
kemadrin tablets 5mg
Microinfusion of anticonvulsants into the perirhinal cortex through 1 guide cannula in each hemisphere only invades a small area of this seizure controlling site in rats exposed to soman. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether infusions made through 2 cannulas in each perirhinal cortex may produce more efficacious anticonvulsant action against soman intoxication than the use of 1 cannula only in rats infused with the ionotropic antagonists procyclidine and caramiphen or the metabotropic glutamate modulators DCG-IV and MPEP. The results showed that the mere presence of indwelling double cannulas caused proconvulsant effect in response to subsequent systemic administration of soman. Both the control and caramiphen groups with double cannulas had significantly shorter latencies to seizure onset than the corresponding groups with single cannula. Procyclidine resulted in anticonvulsant efficacy, even in rats with double cannulas. In rats that received twin infusions of DCG-IV or MPEP, the anticonvulsant impact was very high, inasmuch as a majority of the rats in each group was protected against seizure activity. Drugs possessing powerful anticonvulsant potency can apparently counteract the proconvulsant effect of double cannulas, and some can even gain enhanced anticonvulsant capacity when invading a larger area of the perirhinal cortex. Perirhinal EEG recordings (electrodes in indwelling cannulas) in a separate set of rats not exposed to soman or drugs showed no differences in basal electrical activity (total power 0.5-25Hz or the theta band 4-12Hz) between groups with single or double cannulas. The intrinsic excitability and synaptic connectivity of the perirhinal cortex may be associated with the proconvulsant impact observed in rats with double cannulas when exposed to soman.
The effects of eight antiparkinsonian anticholinergic drugs on motor activity in mice were studied. Trihexyphenidyl, biperiden, benztropine, etybenztropine, procyclidine and tropacine clearly stimulated motor activity. Orphenadrine did not change motor activity, and profenamine had sedative properties. The classification of these drugs by order of their effect on this animal model does not agree with the classification proposed by Deniker et al (1980).
The authors found a 31% incidence of tardive dyskinesia among 261 schizophrenic outpatients treated with neuroleptics. Multiple linear logistic regression analysis revealed a higher incidence of tardive dyskinesia among elderly patients, those with longer records of hospitalization, those for whom neuroleptic medication had little therapeutic effect, and those treated with fluphenazine. Patients manifesting tardive dyskinesia tended to have fewer parkinsonian symptoms than those without the disorder, especially when tremors and akathisia were excluded from consideration. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that brain-damaged patients and male patients were more susceptible to severe forms of the disorder, even though these factors were not implicated in its initial appearance.
A case is reported in which platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity fluctuated in the course of a schizophreniform psychosis in a way which suggests a direct relationship between low levels of MAO activity and the psychosis.
A sensitive (50-100 pg/ml) method is described for the analysis of the anticholinergic drugs cycrimine, procyclidine and trihexyphenidyl by capillary gas chromatography with flame thermionic detection. Since these anticholinergic drugs are frequently administered in combination with antipsychotic medication for the treatment of mental illness, the potential interference by antipsychotic drugs in this assay was examined. No interference was observed from a series of antipsychotic drugs in the quantitation of cycrimine, procyclidine or trihexyphenidyl. The use of this technique to study trihexyphenidyl pharmacokinetics in man is described.
kemadrin tablet cost
This study assessed misuse of anticholinergic drugs in a population of 50 patients with serious mental illness who were assertively managed by a community-based outreach team in Sydney, Australia. One-third of the subjects reported having misused anticholinergics over the previous month. All anticholinergics were misused, and trihexyphenidyl (benzhexol) was misused most frequently. Most subjects misused at least one other drug as well. On direct questioning, the reason given most frequently was "to get high"; on indirect questioning, reasons were related more to peer participation and feelings of futility. Marginalized patients living in the community are vulnerable to the misuse of anticholinergic drugs.
A case of procyclidine abuse is described in which the clinical presentation was indistinguishable from mania. The patient was a long-standing poly-drug abuser and was obtaining the drugs from medical sources. Controlled exposure on the ward to drugs of abuse, including a double-blind comparison with placebo, confirmed that procyclidine caused a manic response in this patient.
Atropine, azaprophen, biperiden, scopolamine, and trihexyphenidyl increased both ambulations and fine motor activity significantly during the first hour post-injection, but the increased activity levels returned to vehicle control levels within 2-6 h post-injection. Benactyzine and procyclidine only increased fine motor activity significantly above vehicle control levels and activity levels returned to vehicle control levels within 2-3 h. Finally, aprophen and diazepam generally did not increase measures of activity significantly above vehicle controls at the dose ranges examined.
kemadrin 5mg tab
The authors present a setting for abrupt withdrawal treatment with the following targets: 1. To facilitate the addicts the voluntary use of medical and psychiatric service. 2. To develop methods for withdrawal treatment, as riskless and easy to handle as possible. 3. To use the time of inpatient treatment for building up confidence in psychiatric services to motivate the patients for a following therapy. Drugs and dosage of peroral and intravenous neuroleptic treatment and possible complications are discussed. Peroral treatment has the advantage of lower doses, easier handling and lower complication rates. The setting and the used drugs seem to be attractive enough for many addicts to contact the clinic on their own account.
Reports identified in the search were included if they were controlled trials dealing with people with neuroleptic-induced TD and schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness who had been randomly allocated to either an anticholinergic agent or to a placebo (or no intervention).
improvement was observed in cases of grand mal as well as temporal lobe seizures in 70% of patients, EEG improvement was found in 50% of patients. Side effects including oral dryness, accomodation disturbances developed in 17 patients but were usually slight and transient, in only 4 cases they were sufficiently severe as to justify reduction of dosage. Improvement of mood and contact with surroundings was noted in 60% of cases.
kemadrin drug classification
The effects of clinically available drugs targeting muscarinic cholinergic, adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic receptors; intracellular calcium levels and/or the function of calcium-dependent biochemical pathways; ion channels; and cellular pumps were tested against a keratitis isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. In vitro growth inhibition (amoebistatic) assays were performed by incubating A. castellanii with various concentrations of drugs in the growth medium for 48 h at 30°C. To determine amoebicidal effects, amoebae were incubated with drugs in phosphate-buffered saline for 24 h, and viability was determined using trypan blue exclusion staining. For controls, amoebae were incubated with the solvent alone. Of the eight drugs tested, amlodipine, prochlorperazine, and loperamide showed potent amoebicidal effects, as no viable trophozoites were observed (>95% kill rate), while amiodarone, procyclidine, digoxin, and apomorphine exhibited up to 50% amoebicidal effects. In contrast, haloperidol did not affect viability, but all the drugs tested inhibited A. castellanii growth. Importantly, amlodipine, prochlorperazine, and loperamide showed compelling cysticidal effects. The cysticidal effects were irreversible, as cysts treated with the aforementioned drugs did not reemerge as viable amoebae upon inoculation in the growth medium. Except for apomorphine and haloperidol, all the tested drugs blocked trophozoite differentiation into cysts in encystation assays. Given the limited availability of effective drugs to treat amoebal infections, the clinically available drugs tested in this study represent potential agents for managing keratitis and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba spp. and possibly against other meningoencephalitis-causing amoebae, such as Balamuthia mandrillaris and Naegleria fowleri.
kemadrin maximum dose
The absolute configuration of the more active (-)-enantiomer of the anticholinergic trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride has been established as (R) by syntheses of (S)-(+)-procyclidine hydrochloride, whose absolute configuration has been established previously, and (S)-(+)-trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride from the same chiral building block, viz. (S)-(-)-cyclohexyl-3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid. Both enantiomers of this chiral synthon were prepared by optical resolution of the corresponding racemate, employing (R)- and (S)-1-phenylethylamine, respectively, as resolving agents.
kemadrin tab 5mg
The administration of PRN medication by mental health nurses is an important, yet poorly explored aspect of psychiatric inpatient care. An examination of nurses' reasons for administering PRN medication is essential in ensuring its appropriate and effective use. Data were gathered from the drug charts of 44 inpatients on two acute psychiatric wards. Most PRN medication was given orally and the most frequently administered drugs were procyclidine, lorazepam, ibuprofen, diazepam and droperidol. The main reason for administering PRN medication was because patients had 'requested' it. Results were broadly consistent with previous research. It is recommended that nurses should give clear and specific reasons for administering PRN medication based on a valid assessment. Implications for clinical practice and further research are also discussed.
The present study compared the effects of aprophen hydrochloride, atropine sulfate, azaprophen hydrochloride, benactyzine hydrochloride, biperiden hydrochloride, diazepam, procyclidine hydrochloride, scopolamine hydrobromide, and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride on activity levels in rats.
The results of evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of the new psychotropic drugs adepren, didepil, anq tempalgin made by the "Farmakhim" plant (the People's Republic of Bulgaria) are presented. Clinical trials revealed new facts that allowed to expand the scope of the indications for use formulated in the "Farmakhim" recommendations. It was found that Adepren could be used with success (in addition to the indications suggested by "Farmakhim") in the treatment of patients with depressive-paranoid paroxysms of periodic schizophrenia taking its course in the presence of general depression, as well as patients with somatogenic lingering astheno-depressive states. The therapeutic efficacy of didepil (an antiepileptic) was found to be in a direct relationship with the disease duration, character of the attacks, presence or absence of epileptic chandes of personality. The effect was the best in cases of a short duration of the disease and absence of gross epileptic personality changes, when the paroxysmal disorders were confined mostly to grand mals. A new scheme for arresting the epileptic status with didepil solution is offered. For the first time the efficacy of tempalgin in the treatment of patients suffering from alcoholic abstinence syndrome was substantiated. Optimal doses of the drugs have been determined with regard to the disease nosology and the leading syndrome. Contraindications to the use of the drugs have also been formulated.
kemadrin 5 mg
1. A variety of atropine-like drugs effective in the treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal syndromes have been investigated with regard to their interaction with dopamine-containing neurones in rat brain.2. Under some conditions benztropine, trihexyphenidyl, atropine and ethopropazine significantly antagonized the chlorpromazine-induced increase in subcortical concentrations of homovanillic acid.3. Most of the atropine-like drugs investigated also decreased the turnover of dopamine in the subcortex as measured by following the disappearance of dopamine after administration of alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine.4. These findings are suggestive that an imbalance between a dopaminergic and cholinergic system might be closely linked to the pathogenesis of extra-pyramidal movement disorders.
dose of kemadrin
IBS and major depression are characterized by a pro-inflammatory profile, whereas IBS patients alone exhibit an exaggerated muscarinic receptor-mediated IL-6 response.