karela capsule benefits
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrient and phytochemical composition of bitter melon leaves under varying maturity levels and drying techniques. Fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried leaves were evaluated over 3 maturity stages. In fresh leaves at various stages, crude fat, crude protein, and soluble dietary fiber contents ranged from 4.2% to 13.6%, 6.4% to 23.1%, and 0.04% to 3.50% on dry-weight basis, respectively. The contents of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn ranged from 1850.8 to 2811.8, 837.4 to 4978.2, 317.3 to 512.4, 8.4 to 16.7, and 4.1 to 5.9 mg/100 g dry-weight basis, respectively. Vitamin C, beta-carotene, and lutein contents ranged from 397.4 to 1275.1, 154.2 to 422.8, and 737.6 to 1304.6 microg/g dry-weight basis. The major flavonoids and phenolic acids were rutin, gentistic acid, and o-coumaric acid, which ranged from 7.57 to 12.75, 2.53 to 10.11, and 4.24 to 9.75 mg/g dry-weight basis, respectively. In oven-dried samples, 40.2% to 52.3% of vitamin C, 35.4% to 55.4% of beta-carotene, 25.6% to 71.6% of lutein, 26.4% to 84.0% of rutin, trace to 11.4% of gentistic acid, and 7.4% to 46.6% of o-coumaric acid were retained, while the retainment ratios of these components in freeze-dried samples were 84.7% to 99.0%, 76.4% to 99.3%, 90.4% to 96.1%, 39.8% to 99.3%, 24.1% to 68.4%, and 75.8% to 87.0%, respectively. The data showed that freeze-drying better preserves the nutrient and phytochemical quality of bitter melon leaves in comparison to oven-drying. Bitter melon leaf is a rich source of selected nutrients and phytochemicals.
karela powder dosage
Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract from the leaves of Momordica charantia L. led to the isolation of two new (1, 2) and four known (3-6) cucurbitane-type triterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analyses of spectroscopic data including IR, UV, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Also the absolute configurations of momordicines I (3) and II (4) were determined for the first time by application of the modified Mosher's method, acid hydrolysis, and GC analysis.
karela tablets himalaya
These markers will be useful to study population ecology and population differentiation among M. charantia species and its related species.
karela 1250 mg
English and Spanish-language journals retrieved through a MEDLINE search of articles published between 1960 and December 2001 using these index terms: Opuntia, karela, gymnema, tecoma, alpha lipoic acid, thioctic acid, ginseng, panaxans, and diabetes.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of daily oral feeding Momordica charantia (MC) (200 mg/kg), Eugenia jambolana (EJ) (200 mg/kg), Mucuna pruriens (MP) (200 mg/kg) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extracts for 40 days on blood glucose concentrations and kidney functions in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Plasma glucose levels, body weight, urine volume and urinary albumin levels were monitored on every 10th day over a 40-day period while plasma creatinine levels were assessed at the beginning and end of experiment. Renal hypertrophy was assessed as the ratio between the kidney weight and total body weight. Plasma glucose concentrations in STZ-diabetic mice were reduced by the administration of extracts of MC, EJ, TC and MP by 24.4, 20.84, 7.45 and 9.07%, respectively (P<0.005 for MC, EJ, MP and P<0.05 for TC). Urine volume was significantly higher (P<0.005) in diabetic controls and MC, EJ, MP and TC treatment prevented polyuria (P<0.001, 0.0001, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively). After 10 days of STZ administration urinary albumin levels (UAE) were over 6 fold higher in diabetic controls as compared to normal controls. Treatment with MC, EJ, MP and TC significantly prevented the rise in UAE levels from day 0 to 40 in comparison to diabetic controls (P<0.0001, 0.0001, 0.05, 0.05, respectively). Renal hypertrophy was significantly higher in diabetic controls as compared to non-diabetic controls. MC and EJ partially but significantly (P<0.05) prevented renal hypertrophy as compared to diabetic controls. TC and MP failed to modify renal hypertrophy. Results indicate that these plant drugs should be studied further.
karela herbal capsules
Extracts of M.charantia demonstrated antimicrobial activity on tested microorganisms except on Proteus mirabilis and Cryptococcus neoformans. Fruit extracts showed higher antimicrobial activity than leaf extract. Further studies are recommended that will involve various parts of the plant, select different fractions of extracts and purify the active antimicrobial components.
Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P < 0.05). Additionally high doses of MCE and MCA significantly reduced the plasmatic insulin levels compared to the HFD groups (P < 0.05) to concentrations comparable to those found in the normal group. MCA and MCE supplementation also significantly modulated the lipid profiles in plasma, liver, and feces compared to mice fed the HFD (P < 0.05). Furthermore MCA and MCE significantly increased hepatic SOD activity, and reduced MDA generation in the liver of the HFD mice (P < 0.05).
karela capsules uk
The antitumor effect of momordica charantia lectin (MCL) was examined, using MTT, colony formation, AnnexinV/PI staining, western blot and animal model.
karela powder online
Potassium, which is abundant in vegetables, is inversely related to blood pressure. Although the situation has changed somewhat in recent years, the Okinawan diet has generally included a large amount of vegetables, and until recently Okinawans had the lowest rates of mortality due to stroke and coronary heart disease in Japan. Based on the hypothesis that these low mortality rates are partly attributable to increased potassium intake resulting from the high vegetable consumption, this study examined whether increasing the consumption of typical yellow-green Okinawan vegetables increases potassium intake. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether increased consumption of these vegetables should be one of the dietary modifications recommended in public health promotion programs for Okinawans. The study employed 56 healthy, normotensive, free-living Japanese women aged 18-38 years living in Okinawa. They were randomized to a dietary intervention group (n=27) or a control group (n=29). Members of the dietary intervention group received an average weight of 371.4 g/day of a combination of the following vegetables twice weekly through an express home parcel deliver service for a period of 14 days: Goya (Momordica charantia), green papaya (Carica papaya), Handama (Gynura bicolor), Karashina (Brassica juncea), Njana (Crepidiastrum lanceolatium), Fuchiba (Artemisia vulgaris) and Fudanso (Beta vulgaris); and they consumed an average of 144.9 g/day, resulting in a 20.5% increase in their urinary potassium excretion over the baseline (p=0.045). The members of the control group were asked to avoid these vegetables, and the change in potassium excretion in this group was not significant (p=0.595). Urinary sodium and magnesium excretions, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, folic acid, triglycerides and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterols changed non-significantly in both groups. Also, post-intervention urinary potassium excretion correlated positively with vegetable consumption in both the dietary intervention (p<0.0001) and control (p=0.008) groups and with Okinawan vegetable intake in the dietary intervention group (p=0.0004).
M. charantia L. plant material was acquired in municipality of Malta, Paraiba, Brazil. The extract was obtained through maceration, filtration and then concentrated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator, resulting in a dough, and was then dried in an oven for 72 hours at 40°C. Antimicrobial action of ethanolic extract of seed M. charantia L. was evaluated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against standard strains of bacteria, isolates multiresistant bacteria and Candida species, by microdilution in broth method.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antihelminthic effect of plants from the Ayurvedic system of medicine traditionally used in India.
Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.
karela capsule benefits
Livestock and aquaculture production is under political and social pressure, especially in the European Union (EU), to decrease pollution and environmental damage arising due to animal agriculture. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics and other chemicals, which have been shown to be effective in promoting growth and reducing environment pollutants because of the risk caused to humans by chemical residues in food and by antibiotic resistance being passed on to human pathogens. As a result of this, scientists have intensified efforts in exploiting plants, plant extracts or natural plant compounds as potential natural alternatives for enhancing the livestock productivity. This paper discusses work on the effects of various phytochemicals and plant secondary metabolites in ruminant and fish species. The focus is on (i) plants such as Ananas comosus (pine apple), Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) and Azadirachta indica (neem) containing anthelmintic compounds and for their use for controlling internal parasites; (ii) plants containing polyphenols and their applications for protecting proteins from degradation in the rumen, increasing efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in rumen and decreasing methane emission; for using as antioxidants, antibacterial and antihelmintic agents; and for changing meat colour and for increasing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in meat; (iii) saponin-rich plants such as quillaja, yucca and Sapindus saponaria for increasing the efficiency of rumen fermentation, decreasing methane emission and enhancing growth; for producing desired nutritional attributes such as lowering of cholesterol in monogastric animals; for increasing growth of fish (common carp and Nile tilapia) and for changing male to female ratio in tilapia; and for use as molluscicidal agents; (iv) Moringa oleifera leaves as a source of plant growth factor(s), antioxidants, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and various glucosinolates and their degraded products for possible use as antibacterial, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and antipest agents; (v) Jatropha curcas toxic variety with high levels of various phytochemicals such as trypsin inhibitor, lectin, phytate and phorbol esters in seeds limiting the use of seed meal in fish and livestock diets; and the use of phorbol esters as bio-pesticidal agent; and (vi) lesser-known legumes such as Entada phaseoloides seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhibitor and saponins, Sesbania aculeate seeds rich in non-starch polysaccharides and Mucuna pruriens var. utilis seeds rich in l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and their potential as fish feed; Cassia fistula seeds as a source of antioxidants; and the use of Canavalia ensiformis, C. gladiata and C. virosa seeds containing high levels of trypsin inhinitor, lectins and canavanine. The paper also presents some challenges and future areas of work in this field.
karela powder dosage
Recent research on nanoparticles in a number of crops has evidenced for enhanced germination and seedling growth, physiological activities including photosynthetic activity and nitrogen metabolism, mRNA expression and protein level, and also positive changes in gene expression indicating their potential use in crop improvement. We used a medicinally rich vegetable crop, bitter melon, as a model to evaluate the effects of seed treatment with a carbon-based nanoparticle, fullerol [C60(OH)20], on yield of plant biomass and fruit characters, and phytomedicine contents in fruits.
karela tablets himalaya
Serine proteinase inhibitors of the squash family were isolated from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds by the conventional purification method. Heat treatment of the extract of the seeds allowed removal of large amounts of protein without loss of trypsin and elastase inhibitory activities. From the supernatants thus obtained, the inhibitors were isolated to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and reversed phase chromatography. One trypsin inhibitor (Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor-III; MCTI-III) and three elastase inhibitors (Momordica charantia elastase inhibitor-II, -III, and -IV; MCEI-II, -III, and -IV) were newly isolated in addition to trypsin inhibitors MCTI-I and -II and elastase inhibitor MCEI-I previously reported [Hara, S. et. al. (1989). J. Biochem. 105, 88-92]. The primary structures of the four new inhibitors were determined as follows. [sequence: see text] The dissociation constants, Ki, of MCTI-III complex with bovine beta-trypsin, and of MCEI-II, -III, -IV with porcine elastase were determined to be 1.9 x 10(-7) M, 9.4 x 10(-9) M, 4.0 x 10(-9) M, and 4.7 x 10(-9) M, respectively. Although MCTI-III differed from MCTI-I in only two amino acids, having Gly(3) and Gln(13) in place of Arg(3) and Arg(13), the Ki value of MCTI-III was 20-fold larger than that of MCTI-I. Addition of an amino terminal Glu residue, a dipeptide (Glu-Glu-), and a tripeptide (Glu-Glu-Glu-) to MCEI-I strengthened its elastase inhibitory activity by 200-fold.
karela 1250 mg
Here we describe the determination and refinement of the crystal structures of alpha MMC in the native state and in complexes with the product, adenine, and a substrate analogue, formycin 5'-monophosphate (FMP) at high resolution. Both adenine and the base of FMP are tightly bound; the ribose of bound FMP adopts a strained, high-energy conformation, which may mimic the structure of the transition state.
Four hundred skin patients complaining of 'sense of heat' (in short S 0 H) were thoroughly studied regarding their constitution, temperament. disease, degree of S 0 H, eating habits, etc. Eighty consecutive patients attending the skin OPD were taken up to see the incidence of S 0 H in the skin patients. Two series of 400 and 90 patients were studied for their dietary habits. Non sattvic food habits and those with worrying, brooding nature are more iron to S 0 H and skin allergies. Sattvic food usually consists of simple, wholesome, fresh, non-pungent foods like milk, butter, fresh fruits, barley, bananas, almonds and vegetables like torai, parwal, karela and green dal. Pathogenesis, etiology and therapeutic approach are discussed.
karela herbal capsules
Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), also called bitter melon, has traditionally been used as a natural anti-diabetic agent for anti-hyperglycemic activity in several animal models and clinical trials. We investigated the differences in the anti-diabetic properties and mechanism of action of Taiwanese M. charantia (MC) between type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. To clarify the beneficial effects of MC, we measured non-fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin levels in KK/HIJ mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes (200 mg/kg/day of charantin-rich extract of MC [CEMC]) and in ICR mice with STZ-induced diabetes. After 8 weeks, all the mice were exsanguinated, and the expression of the insulin-signaling-associated proteins in their tissue was evaluated, in coordination with the protective effects of CEMC against pancreatic β-cell toxicity (in vitro). Eight weeks of data indicated that CEMC caused a significant decline in non-fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in the KK/HIJ mice, but not in the ICR mice. Furthermore, CEMC decreased plasma insulin and promoted the sensitivity of insulin by increasing the expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle and of IRS-1 in the liver of KK/HIJ mice; however, CEMC extract had no effect on the insulin sensitivity of ICR mice. In vitro study showed that CEMC prevented pancreatic β cells from high-glucose-induced cytotoxicity after 24 h of incubation, but the protective effect was not detectable after 72 h. Collectively, the hypoglycemic effects of CEMC suggest that it has potential for increasing insulin sensitivity in patients with T2D rather than for protecting patients with T1D against β-cell dysfunction.
A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women) with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years) were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle.
karela capsules uk
Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success.
karela powder online
The in vivo antitumor activity of a crude extract from the bitter melon (Momordica charantia) was determined. The extract inhibited tumor formation in CBA/H mice which had been given i.p. injections of 1.0 X 10(5) CBA/Dl tumor cells (77% of the untreated mice with tumors versus 33% of the treated mice with tumors after 6 weeks). The extract also inhibited tumor formation in DBA/2 mice which had been given i.p. injections of either 1 X 10(5) P388 tumor cells (0% of untreated mice survived after 30 days versus 40% survival of the treated mice) or 1 X 10(5) L1210 tumor cells (0% survival of untreated mice versus 100% of treated mice after 30 days). The in vivo antitumor effect required both the prior exposure of tumor cells to the extract (2 hr) in vitro and i.p., biweekly injections of the extract into the mice. The optimum dose for tumor inhibition (8 micrograms protein, biweekly, i.p.) was not toxic to mice for at least 45 days of treatment. This same treatment caused a marked enhancement of C3H mouse thymic cell response to concanavalin A in vitro. When compared to the untreated control mice, the bitter melon-injected animals exhibited a 4-fold-higher incorporation of tritiated thymidine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material after 48 hr of exposure to 50 micrograms of concanavalin A. Nylon wool-purified spleen cells from these same bitter melon-treated mice exhibited an enhanced mixed lymphocyte reaction when exposed to irradiated P388 stimulator cells (186% of the untreated control mice). These data indicate that in vivo enhancement of immune functions may contribute to the antitumor effects of the bitter melon extract.
Consumption of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) by diabetic patients is a common practice in India, with the belief that it has an useful hypoglycemic potential. In the absence of conclusive information on the hypoglycemic influence of continuous intake of bitter gourd, in the present investigation, we have examined the hypoglycemic potency of dietary bitter gourd in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats rendered hyperglycemic by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) were maintained on a semi-synthetic diet containing freeze dried bitter gourd powder at 0.5% level for 6 weeks. The excretion of glucose, protein, urea and creatinine was monitored during the experimental period. Plasma glucose, albumin, urea and cholesterol were analysed at the end of the experimental regime. Dietary bitter gourd did not show any beneficial hypoglycemic influence as evidenced by the blood glucose levels as well as the excretion of diabetes related metabolites.
Human colonic adenocarcinoma LS174T cells were used for the assessment of BME effects on colonic epithelial cells in vitro. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue exclusion and the effect of BME in ameliorating tunicamycin (TM)-induced ER stress was determined by analysing the mRNA expression of the common ER stress markers; ATF6, XBP1, GRP78, CHOP and PERK by quantitative RT-PCR and GRP78 and CHOP by western blot.
The effect of Momordica charantia on certain key hepatic enzymes was investigated using male Sprague-Dawley rats as the animal model. Fruit juice and seed extract of Momordica charantia were administered orally at a daily dose of 1 ml/100 g body weight for 30 days under light ether anaesthesia while the control group received equivalent amounts of distilled water under identical conditions (n = 10 in each case). Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (P < 0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.01-0.001) concentrations were found to be significantly elevated following oral administration of both the fruit juice and the seed extract. Consistent significant histopathological changes in the liver were not observed in either treatment group although the prevalence of dilatation and/or congestion of the central vein sinusoidal system appeared to be twice as high following fruit juice treatment than in the other 2 groups. Thus, Momordica charantia may either contain hepatotoxins capable of causing cellular damage at the molecular level without causing significant histopathological changes or the plant may have an enzyme inducing effect.