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Indocin (Indomethacin)
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Indocin

Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.

Description

Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Dosage

Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of long-term ouabain treatment on the vascular reactivity and Na+, K+-ATPase activity of a conductance artery from normotensive and hypertensive rats.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are major factors in gastritis and peptic ulcer However, the role of NSAIDs and H. pylori infection in dyspepsia remains unclear. Gastric adaptive relaxation may be related to the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia because the response is often disturbed in dyspeptic patients. In this study, we investigated the effects of indomethacin or H. pylori water extracts on gastric adaptive relaxation. This experiment was performed using the modified method of Desai et al. Isolated guinea-pig stomach in an organ bath was monitored for intragastric pressure and volume. Adaptive relaxation was induced by gastric luminal distention. The effects of indomethacin and H. pylori on gastric relaxation were tested in this system. Indomethacin (> 1 x 10(-5) M) significantly inhibited adaptive relaxation. Indomethacin (> 3 x 10(-6) M) induced gastric relaxation in a dose-dependent fashion. However, aspirin at a concentration sufficient for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibition did not induce gastric relaxation. Preincubation with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide (NO)-synthase inhibitor, inhibited indomethacin-induced gastric relaxation. Adaptive relaxation was not affected by H. pylori water extracts. In conclusion, indomethacin inhibited adaptive relaxation via prior gastric relaxation. NO production, but not COX-1 inhibition, may be involved in this effect of indomethacin. H. pylori water extracts may not have direct effects on adaptive relaxation. Inhibition of adaptive relaxation may be one of the major mechanisms underlying NSAID-induced dyspepsia.

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Of 41 extremely-low-birth-weight infants with PDA, 3 infants had spontaneous closure and 3 died before treatment. Of the remaining 35 infants, 13 received enteral ethanol solution of indomethacin and 22 received the intravenous (IV) form. The total closure rates of the IV and enteral groups were 81.8% and 76.9%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the incidence of impaired renal function, necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease or severe retinopathy of prematurity between the 2 groups.

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Prophylactic use of ibuprofen reduces the incidence of PDA. However, further trials, which address potential adverse effects including pulmonary hypertension, are needed. Such trials should include long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Trials comparing the effectiveness of prophylactic use of indomethacin versus ibuprofen may be warranted with particular reference to IVH, need for surgical ligation and neurodevelopmental outcome.

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To evaluate the quality of life in patients with facial steroid dermatitis before and after the treatment of doxycycline and indomethacin plus support therapy.

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The half-lives of typical acute phase proteins in rats and beagle dogs during acute inflammation were investigated. Acute inflammation was induced by injection of turpentine oil in rats and administration of indomethacin in beagle dogs. Serum concentrations of α2-macroglobulin (α2M) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and α1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) was measured by single radial immunodiffusion. Half-life was calculated as 0.693/elimination rate constant (K). The mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of α2M and AAG were 68.1 and 164.8 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of α2M. Mean half-lives in the terminal elimination phase of CRP and AAG were 161.9 and 304.4 h, respectively. The half-life of AAG was significantly longer than that of CRP in beagle dogs. No significant differences in the half-life of AAG were observed between rats and beagle dogs. Furthermore, serum concentrations in the terminal elimination phase could be simulated with the K data acquired in this study.

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Tribulus terrestris has been used in traditional medicine for relieving rheumatic pain and as an analgesic plant for a long time. In this investigation the analgesic effect of methanolic extract of this plant on male albino mice was evaluated by formalin and tail flick test. Extraction of the fruits of the plant was done by two different methods (suxheletion and percolation) with methanol 80%. The percolated extract was injected intraperitoneally in mice at 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg. The results showed that a dose of 100 mg/kg of percolated extract had the highest significant analgesic effect compared to the control group (P < 0.01) in formalin and tail flick test. There is no significant difference in the analgesic effect of suxheleted and percolated extract. The analgesic effect of the extract was lower than morphine, 2.5 mg/kg in both tests, and higher than ASA 300 mg/kg in chronic phase of pain in formalin test (P < 0.05). Pretreatment of animal with naloxone did not change the analgesia induced by the plant extract in both tests, therefore the involvement of opioid receptor in the analgesic effect of this plant was excluded. The results of ulcerogenic studies indicate that the gastric ulcerogenecity of plant extract is lower than the indomethacin in the rat's stomach. It can therefore be concluded that T. terrestris extract has a suitable analgesic effect and further studies are required to produce a more effective product of this plant to substitute for conventional analgesic drugs.

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Ws/Ws rats and control (W+/W+) rats were given indomethacin (15 mg/kg) subcutaneously, and the intestinal mucosal damage was estimated after 24 h.

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Post-dural (post-lumbar or post-spinal) puncture headache (PDPH) is one of the most common complications of diagnostic, therapeutic or inadvertent lumbar punctures. Many drug options have been used to prevent headache in clinical practice and have also been tested in some clinical studies, but there are still some uncertainties about their clinical effectiveness.

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This study provides Class I evidence that in ED patients with acute migraine, IV valproate is inferior to metoclopramide or ketorolac in improving headache outcomes.

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Collagen-mediated adhesion is a multifaceted event requiring multiple receptors and platelet-derived soluble agonists. We investigated the influence of NO on these processes.

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A novel injectable formulation of diclofenac, Dyloject, utilizes hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) as a solubilizing agent, allowing dosing as a small-volume intravenous bolus for postoperative pain. In this test of the efficacy and safety of HPβCD diclofenac, we hypothesized that HPβCD diclofenac would relieve moderate and severe pain after orthopedic surgery.

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FIMA showed high inhibitory potency and selectivity for COX-2. Radioiodinated FIMA showed specific accumulation into COX-2 induced macrophages, no significant in vivo deiodination and rapid blood clearance. Radioiodinated FIMA deserves further investigation as a SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging COX-2 expression.

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The highest level of endothelin-1 was found in the radial artery. Endothelin-1 contracted both arteries. The contraction was sensitive to endothelinA-receptor agonism and enhanced in both arteries by inhibition of prostacyclin and nitric oxide formation. In the internal mammary artery the endothelinB-receptor agonist caused an endothelinA-receptor sensitive contraction augmented by inhibition of nitric oxide and prostacyclin. However, in the radial artery this contraction was only observed in the presence of inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin.

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Either 0.5% or 0.25% preservative-free ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution (0.1 mL) was injected into the vitreous of the right eye of 15 rabbits. Physiologic saline solution (BSS; Alcon, Ft. Worth, TX) was injected into the left eye of each rabbit as a control. A standard electroretinogram and intraocular pressure measurements were obtained before injection, and repeated 1 day and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after injection. After 4 weeks, the rabbits were euthanatized and the retinas examined by light and electron microscopy. Differences in the electroretinograms, intraocular pressure, and histopathology between the two eyes were recorded. Further, the elimination half-life of the drug in the vitreous was assessed.

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A prospective, randomized, and parallel-group study.

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Although generally well-tolerated, rilonacept in combination with indomethacin and rilonacept alone did not provide additional pain relief over 72 hours relative to indomethacin alone in patients with acute gout flare.

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The MBF response to acetylcholine was significantly lower in CBDL and tended to be lower in PPVL than in sham. L-NAME and indomethacin significantly decreased the MBF response to acetylcholine in all groups. The hyporeactivity to acetylcholine in CBDL and PPVL was maintained after L-NAME and indomethacin. The MBF response to pinacidil, deta-NONOate and phenylephrine, before and after NO synthase and cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, was lower in CBDL and PPVL than in sham.

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Following the new IHS classification, cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT syndrome) are included in the classification as trigeminal autonomic cephalgias (TAC). The similarities of these syndromes suggest a considerable shared pathophysiology. These syndromes have in common that they involve activation of trigeminovascular nociceptive pathways with reflex cranial autonomic activation. Clinically, this physiology predicts pain with some combination of lacrimation, conjunctival injection, nasal congestion, or eyelid edema. Broadly the management of TAC comprises acute and prophylactic treatment. Some types of trigeminal autonomic headaches such as paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua have, unlike cluster headaches, a very robust response to indomethacin, leading to a consideration of indomethacin-sensitive headaches. This review covers the clinical picture and therapeutic options. Although studies following the criteria of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are rare, most patients can be treated sufficiently.

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Hemicrania continua (HC) is a primary headache disorder characterized by a continuous, unilateral headache that varies in intensity, waxing and waning without disappearing completely. Ipsilateral cranial autonomic features and response to indomethacin are essential features for the diagnosis of HC. We hereby, describe three patients with the clinical phenotypes of HC in whom response to indomethacin was either incomplete or not sustained. We also review the literature especially for the presence of indomethacin response and ipsilateral cranial autonomic features.

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Various NSAIDs are being used in newborns. Indomethacin and ibuprofen are used worldwide for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Both have been tested in randomized clinical trials and are approved by FDA and EMEA for PDA closure in newborns. Indomethacin, but not ibuprofen is used for prevention of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Ketorolac is being studied as a potential parenteral analgesic and as a topical drug for prevention of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Others are associated with severe adverse events.

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The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism via cyclooxygenase (COX) in the endothelial dysfunction of penile arteries from pre-diabetic, obese Zucker rats (OZR).

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Observations were carried out in 98 normal healthy human subjects and in 178 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, erosions, ulcer, polyps, cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal polyps, cancers). The gastric secretory responses and their chemical composition, gastric emptying, sugar loading test, gastric transmucosal potential difference (GTPD) were investigated following with administration of (a) capsaicin alone, (b) ethanol alone or with capsaicin, and (c) indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal microbleeding with or without capsaicin, both before and after 2 weeks capsaicin treatment. Immunohistochemical investigations were performed to establish the presence of the capsaicin (vanillinoid) receptor (TRVP1), CGRP and SP in the whole GI tract. Conventional molecular pharmacological methods were applied to study the effects of capsaicin and other drugs for their inhibitory effects on the gastric basal acid output.

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indocin generic 2017-09-12

Seven patients with hemicrania continua were studied in two sessions each. In one session buy indocin , the patients were scanned during baseline pain and when rendered completely pain free after being administered indomethacin 100 mg intramuscularly. In the other session, the patients were scanned during baseline pain and when still in pain after being administered placebo intramuscularly. Seven age- and sex-matched nonheadache subjects acted as the control group. The scan images were processed and analyzed using SPM99.

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A systematic search using electronic databases up to March 2015 was conducted. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random and fixed-effect inverse variance buy indocin method. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the potential source of heterogeneity.

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After total- buy indocin hip replacement, intrathecal route of sufentanil administration rapidly offers excellent analgesia of better quality and longer duration when compared with the intravenous route.

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2-PQ provides gastroprotection by reducing oxidative damage and inhibiting buy indocin acid secretion mediated by histaminergic and gastrinergic regulatory pathways.

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Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal buy indocin anti-inflammatory drug used frequently to control chronic or temporary pain. In the kidney, indomethacin decreases medullary and cortical perfusion, resulting in hypoxia. Kidney hypoxia has many effects, including changes in gene expression, and is a strong stimulus for angiogenesis. Other angiogenic factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta1), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Our goal was to examine the influence of indomethacin on mRNA expression of these factors and their selected receptors in the renal cortex of healthy rats. Groups of 8 healthy, male, six-week-old Wistar rats received either indomethacin (5 mg/kg/day) or placebo orally for three months. RNA from renal cortex biopsies was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify the mRNA levels of each cytokine. We observed significantly higher mRNA levels for VEGF (1.73-fold), FGF-2 (5.6-fold) and TGFbeta receptor III (2.93-fold), PDGF receptor alpha (2.93-fold) and receptor beta (2.91-fold) in rats receiving indomethacin compared to rats given placebo (p < 0.05). Amounts of mRNA for TGFbeta1, PDGF, FGF receptors 1 and 2 and TGFbeta receptor I did not differ between analysed groups. Our data indicates that indomethacin may regulate the expression of potent angiogenic factors VEGF and FGF-2.

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Preoperative administration of ibuprofen or ketorolac has no significant effect on success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block in buy indocin patients with irreversible pulpitis.

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AERD requires a multidimensional approach to treat the disease given the multiple conditions. With successful ASA desensitization and maintenance of ASA administration, all patients are able to achieve ASA tolerance and select patients are able to achieve improvement in clinical markers such as global scores and reduction in use of topical and buy indocin systemic corticosteroids.

indocin capsule 2015-03-29

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key recognition structures of immune system and recently emerged as potential contributors to the inflammation observed in human and rodent models of arthritis. Present study aims to investigate the effect of N-(2-hydroxy phenyl)-acetamide (NA-2) on modulation of TLRs in the development of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced by intradermal administration of heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. The treatment of NA-2 (5 mg/kg) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg) was started in their respective group on the day of arthritis induction. Body weights, paw volume measurements, and nociception sensation (Plantar test) were done on alternate days to monitor the progression of the disease until arthritis score of four was observed in arthritic control group. Along with the clinical signs, histopathology of knee joints was also performed. The splenocytes cultures were prepared from each group; TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNAs were analyzed in 48-h cultured splenocytes using RT-PCR; and the supernatants were used to determine IL-1β and TNF-α by ELISA. A significant reversal of deficit seen in body weights of the arthritic control group was observed in NA-2-treated animals with a parallel decrease in paw edema and transmission of nociception. Remission of the clinical signs and nociception was associated with improved histology. Compared with arthritic control, NA-2 treatment significantly decreased the level of IL-1β (p < 0.003) and buy indocin TNF-α (p < 0.001) in the supernatants of cultured splenocytes. Likewise, NA-2 also reduced the expression of TLRs mRNA. Our findings suggest that NA-2 affects AIA in a pleiotropic manner, suppressing TLRs-mediated joint inflammation and related symptoms.

indocin gout dose 2016-02-24

This article reviews our recent studies on NSAID-induced gastric damage, focusing on the relation between COX inhibition and pathogenic events. Conventional NSAIDs such as indomethacin, at a dose that inhibits PG production, enhance gastric motility, resulting in an increase in mucosal permeability and MPO activity, and eventually, gastric lesions. The development of these lesions can be prevented by administering PGE2 or antisecretory drugs, and also via an atropine-sensitive mechanism, not related to any antisecretory action. The selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib has no effect on PG production and does not induce damage in the stomach. The selective COX-1 inhibitor SC-560 also does not cause damage, despite buy indocin evoking a decrease in the PGE2 level. The combined administration of SC-560 and rofecoxib, however, provokes the formation of gastric lesions. SC-560, but not rofecoxib, causes gastric hypermotility and an increase in mucosal permeability, although the level of MPO activity increases only when rofecoxib is co-administered. COX-2 mRNA is expressed in the stomach after administration of SC-560 and indomethacin but not rofecoxib. The up-regulation of COX-2 expression in response to indomethacin is prevented by atropine at a dose that inhibits gastric hypermotility but not by omeprazole at an antisecretory dose. We conclude that the gastric ulcerogenic properties of NSAIDs are not accounted for solely by the inhibition of COX-1 and require the inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2, the inhibition of COX-1 up-regulates COX-2 expression in association with gastric hypermotility, and PGs produced by COX-2 counteract the deleterious influences of the COX-1 inhibition.

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Fatty acids, tocols and total phenolics were analyzed. The acute toxicity test for each CPO was estimated during buy indocin 14 d. Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema was used for assessment of anti-inflammatory activity of CPO. Animals were fasted overnight, and via oral gavage given indomethacin (10 mg/kg) or CPO (400 mg/kg) to investigate ulcerogenecity. Histopathological changes in liver, kidney, heart, spleen and stomach were screened.

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The results confirmed that there are important discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo toxicogenomic experiments. However, the contribution of this paper is to provide a tool to identify genes that are buy indocin disconnected between the two systems. Pathway analysis of disconnected genes may improve our understanding of uncertainties in the mechanism of actions of drug candidates in humans, especially concerning the early detection of toxicity.

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NSAIDs are generally considered to be safe and well tolerated, but, even with the advent of selective COX-2 inhibitors, nephrotoxicity remains a buy indocin concern. An impaired renal perfusion caused by the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis is claimed like the more frequent cause of an acute renal failure due to NSAIDs, while a chronic interstitial nephritis or an analgesic nephropathy are believed the causes of a chronic renal failure. The real incidence of renal side effects of NSAIDs is still unclear and it differs between the age of the patients and the reports present in the literature. The occurrence of renal side effects following prenatal exposure to NSAIDs seems to be rare considering the large number of pregnant woman treated with indomethacin or other prostaglandin inhibitors. NSAID-related nephrotoxicity remains an important clinical problem in the newborns, in whom the functionally immature kidney may exert a significant effect on the disposition of the drugs. Instead, nephrotoxicity is a rare event in children and the risk is lower than adults. In healthy adult patients the incidence of renal adverse effects is very low, less than 1%. The risk increased with age. The elderly are at higher risk, and it is correlated at the presence of pretreatment renal disease, hypovolemia due to use of diuretics, diabetes, congestive heart failure or alteration of NSAID pharmacokinetics.

indocin purchase 2015-01-18

The aim of this study was to design and synthesize pharmaceutical agents containing imidazolidine heterocyclic ring in the hope of developing potent, safe and orally active anti-inflammatory agents. A number of substituted-imidazolidine derivatives (3a-k) were synthesized starting from ethylene diamine and aromatic aldehydes. The imidazolidine derivatives (3a-k) were investigated for their anticipated anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Bioactivity score, molecular and pharmacokinetic properties of the imidazolidine derivatives were calculated by online computer software programs viz. Molinspiration and Osiris property explorer. The results of biological testing indicated that among the synthesized compounds only three imidazolidine derivatives namely 4-[1,3-Bis(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3g), 4-[1,3-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3i) and 4-(1,3-Bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-methylimidazolidin-2-yl)-phenyl-diethylamine (3j) possess promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. Additionally these derivatives displayed superior GI safety profile (low severity index) with respect to the positive control, Indomethacin. All synthesized compounds showed promising bioactivity score for drug targets by Molinspiration software. Almost all the compounds were predicted to have very low toxicity risk by Osiris online software. Compound number (3i) emerged as a potential candidate for further research as it obeyed Lipinski's rule of five for drug likeness, exhibited promising biological activity in-vivo and showed no buy indocin risk of toxicity in computer aided screening.

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The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide can increase optic nerve blood flow. The aim of the buy indocin study reported here was to investigate the effect of dorzolamide on isolated rabbit ciliary arteries that supply the optic nerve.

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The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for the vasorelaxant effect Motilium 200 Mg of Nigella sativa (N. sativa).

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Acemetacin (ACM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [ Altace Cost nicotinamide (NAM), isonicotinamide (INA), and picolinamide (PAM)], caprolactam (CPR), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and piperazine (PPZ). The structures of an ACM-INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM-PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM-PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM-INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid⋯pyridine heterosynthon and N-H⋯O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid⋯amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM-PAM cocrystal, while ACM-CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid-carbonyl (ACM) hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM-INA, ACM-PAM and ACM-CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl⋯carboxyl synthon in ACM-PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM-PPZ salt and ACM-nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM-PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable piperazine salt of acemetacin exhibits superior stability, faster dissolution rate and is able to overcome the hydration tendency of the reference drug.

indocin 25 mg 2016-04-05

Chemical investigation of the 80% Me(2)CO extract from the seeds of Prunus tomentosa led to the isolation and identification of six flavonoids: kaempferol (1), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2; afzelin), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-(6-acetyl)-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (3; multiflorin A), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (4; multiflorin B), quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (5; quercitrin), and quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (6; multinoside A). Anti-oxidative and inhibitory activities on nitric oxide ( Suprax Liquid Storage NO) and prostaglandin E(2) production in interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells in vitro (COX-2) of the isolated compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1, 5, and 6 exhibited potent anti-oxidative activity in the DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC(50) values of 57.2, 59.4, and 54.3 microg/mL respectively. The positive control, ascorbic acid, had an IC(50) of 55.5 mug/mL. Compounds 1, 5, and 6 also reduced COX-2 levels in a dose dependent manner with IC(50) values of 10.2, 8.7, and 9.6 microg/mL respectively, with the positive control, indomethacin, having an IC(50) of 5.1 microg/mL. All six compounds inhibited NO production in a dose dependent manner with IC(50) values of 35.1, 42.8, 40.0, 44.8, 43.7, and 43.9 microg/mL respectively, while the positive control, L-NMMA, had an IC(50) of 42.1 microg/mL.

indocin 50mg capsules 2016-08-07

The %PDA closed by ibuprofen (n=24) and indomethacin (n=24) is 77.7±14.1 and 77.3±11.0, respectively. For ibuprofen, the gestational age of the infants included in the study ranged from 25.0 to 39.0 weeks (mean±SD=29.3±3.1 weeks). The %PDA did not correlate with the gestational age (p=0.2516). For indomethacin, the gestational age of infants included in the study ranged from 25.0 and 39.0 weeks (mean±SD=29.4±2.9 Albenza Albendazole Tablets weeks). The %PDA did not correlate with the gestational age (p=0.3742). The treatment with ibuprofen reduces the urine output and increases the serum creatinine concentrations less extensively than indomethacin. The half-life (t1/2) of ibuprofen and indomethacin is lengthened and the clearance is reduced in preterm infants as compared with fullterm infants.

indocin drug class 2016-09-10

Intraocular neovascularization is the leading cause of severe visual loss and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy is currently performed for choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Despite its potent anti-angiogenic effect, there are concerns about its long-term safety. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are common therapeutic agents used for treating inflammatory diseases, and their anti-stress effects are attracting attention now. We studied the effects of topical NSAIDs on CNV, focusing on anti-stress proteins. Cultured retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were treated with NSAIDs: bromfenac, indomethacin, or vehicle control. Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream anti-oxidant protein heme oxygenase (HO)-1 were assessed using western blot and immunohistochemistry. As a result, NSAIDs induced translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus and the robust expression of HO-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that bromfenac inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis in cultured RPE cells. Next, Benicar Generic Launch we studied the effects of topical bromfenac on laser-induced CNV model in rat. The expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1, infiltrations of ED-1-positive macrophages at CNV lesions and size were analyzed. VEGF in the ocular fluid of these rats was also measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rats administered an inhibitor of HO-1 stannic mesoporphyrin (SnMP) were also studied. The results showed that topical bromfenac led to translocation of Nrf2 and induction of HO-1 in CNV lesions and that the number of infiltrating macrophages at the CNV lesion decreased. The sizes of CNV lesions were significantly smaller in bromfenac-treated rats than control CNV, and the effects were diminished by SnMP. VEGF increased in the ocular fluid after laser treatment and was inhibited by bromfenac and SnMP canceling these effects. NSAIDs inhibit CNV through the novel anti-stress protein HO-1-dependent pathway, indicating its potential therapeutic value for various intraocular angiogenic diseases including CNV.

indocin 150 mg 2015-07-14

Forty white male rats (12-weeks old; body weight: 230-250 g) were divided into four groups (10 rats each) and were given the treatment once a day for 2 consecutive months. Group A (control group) rats were given the reverse osmosis Common Dosage Paxil water; group B rats were given 10 mg/kg celecoxib; group C rats were given 3 mg/kg ketorolac; and group D rats were given 150 mg/kg paracetamol. A precalibrated closed Sentalloy coil spring was placed inside each rat mouth to deliver a constant force of 50 cN. The magnitude of tooth movement was measured intraorally. After 2 months, the rats were sacrificed, and the sections were mounted on L-polylysine-coated glass slides. Slides from each specimen were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and others were stained with MMP-13. Data were analyzed with the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).