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The effects of glibenclamide and glipizide on the concentrations of S-glucose, S-insulin and S-lipids and on the 24-hour urinary glucose excretion were studied in 37 patients with maturity onset diabetes. A double-blind, cross over double-dummy technique was used. The fasting S-insulin concentration was higher during glibenclamide therapy, while the increase in insulin concentration one hour postprandially was stronger during glipizide therapy, supporting the concept that glibenclamide has a more prolonged and glipizide a more fast-acting effect on insulin secretion. The S-glucose concentration was lower in the fasting state as well as one hour postprandially during glibenclamide therapy which, together with a lower 24-hour urinary glucose excretion, indicates that glibenclamide has a stronger blood glucose-lowering effect. Although statistically significant, the differences were marginal from a clinical point of view. The lipid levels remained unchanged.
To evaluate the effect of these plants on in vitro and in vivo enzymatic starch digestion.
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This study investigated the long-term effect of insulin or the combination of insulin and an oral hypoglycemic compound (glipizide) on the skeletal muscle capillary basement membrane width in insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Seventy diabetic patients were randomized to treatment with either insulin-placebo or insulin-glipizide (5 mg/d) for 3 years. Of these, only 61 patients completed the study; 27 patients received insulin-placebo and 34 patients received insulin-glipizide. Three skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris) biopsies were performed in all patients over a 3-year period. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1 was determined every 100 +/- 20 days, including plasma glucose levels. Muscle capillary basement membrane width was quantitated by a previously described method. After approximately 16 months, glycosylated hemoglobin A1 decreased significantly in each group from its baseline (P < 0.001 insulin-glipizide group and P < 0.025 insulin-placebo), although no statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups. After 3 years this decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.001) only in the insulin-glipizide group. At baseline, no statistically significant difference was found in the muscle capillary basement membrane width between the two groups. In spite of the significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A1 in both groups after 14 to 16 months, only muscle capillary basement membrane width in the insulin-glipizide group decreased significantly compared with baseline. Patients receiving insulin-placebo showed a gradual increase in the muscle capillary basement membrane width, which after 3 years was significantly higher than baseline (P < 0.02). Although the mechanisms by which the addition of glipizide to insulin treatment reduced the thickening of the muscle capillary basement membrane are not clearly understood, the current findings suggest that diabetic microangiopathy is not necessarily progressive and that prophylaxis may be attained.
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The efficacy of the individual components of this treatment was demonstrated in the combination of insulin and octreotide. The combined administration of insulin and octreotide has limited application in patients with acromegaly and insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus.
Pistacia atlantica, Rheum ribes and Sarcopoterium spinosum can be considered as potential candidates for amelioration/management of type 2 diabetes.
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To evaluate use of the oral hypoglycemic drug glipizide in diabetic cats.
To compare the effects of repaglinide, glipizide, and glibenclamide on insulin secretion and postprandial glucose after a single standard 500-kcal test meal.
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Pancreatic islets and islet cells were isolated from albino mice by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion of incubated or perifused islets was measured by ELISA. The NADPH and NADP+ content of incubated islets was determined by enzymatic cycling. The cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in islets was measured by microfluorimetry and the activity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in islet cells by patch-clamping.
We present a case history of a man with a pituitary adenoma and diabetes mellitus and chronicle his response to various treatment modalities.
Dapagliflozin does not provide advantages over pharmacotherapy for DM2. Its lack of experience of use, the absence of significant clinical benefits and its high cost make it necessary to restrict its use.
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Glipizide is a 'second generation' oral hypoglycaemic agent similar in potency to glibenclamide. It is completely absorbed after oral administration and has a rapid onset of action, but the duration of its hypoglycaemic effect is shorter than that of glibenclamide. It is rapidly metabolised to inactive metabolites which are excreted in the urine. Therapeutic trials have shown the efficacy of glipizide in maturity onset diabetes mellitus to be comparable with that of glibenclamide and chlorpropamide in newly diagnosed patients unresponsive to diet as well as in patients previously treated with oral hypoglycaemic drugs. Glipizide is well tolerated, but careful adjustment of dosage and attention to diet may be needed to avoid hypoglycaemic symptoms a few hours after a single daily dose.
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In humans sitagliptin administration reduces fasting and postprandial glucose and A1c levels. Sitagliptin is as effective as glipizide (close to 0.7% mean A1c reduction), but has fewer hypoglycemic events than other oral insulin secretagogues. Since metformin reduces hepatic glucose production and increases GLP-1 release, combined therapy with sitagliptin becomes complementary and has been shown to have important additive effects. Sitagliptin combined with pioglitazone resulted in improved metabolic control when compared with pioglitazone plus placebo. Combined administration with insulin requires further studies. The weight neutral effect of sitagliptin, its glucose-dependent action (lower risk of hypoglycemia), the beneficial effects on beta-cell function and its eventual protective action on beta-cell mass makes it an excellent option for monotherapy or combined with metformin, glitazones or even sulfonylurea.
Eryngium creticum Lam. (Umbelliferae), Geranium graveolens L.Her.exn Ait (Geraniaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), and Varthemia iphionoides Boiss (Compositae) have traditionally been used as antidiabetic phytomedicines. However, their alleged benefits and mechanisms remain elusive.
Of 129 patients randomly assigned, 64 were in the sitagliptin group (mean baseline age, 61 years; HbA1c, 7.9%) and 65 were in the glipizide group (mean baseline age, 59 years; HbA1c, 7.8%). After 54 weeks, the least squares mean change from baseline in HbA1c level was -0.72% (95% CI, -0.95% to -0.48%) with sitagliptin and -0.87% (95% CI, -1.11% to -0.63%) with glipizide, for a difference of 0.15% (95% CI, -0.18% to 0.49%). The incidences of symptomatic hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia were 6.3% versus 10.8% (between-group difference, -4.8% [95% CI, -15.7% to 5.6%]) and 0% versus 7.7% (between-group difference, -7.8% [95% CI, -17.1% to -1.9%]) in the sitagliptin and glipizide groups, respectively. Higher incidences (ie, 95% CI around between-treatment difference excluded 0) of cellulitis and headache were found with sitagliptin compared to glipizide (6.3% vs 0%, respectively, for both).
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The single-dose kinetics and effects of tolbutamide (500 mg), chlorpropamide (250 mg), glibenclamide (5 mg) and glipizide (5 mg) were compared in 7 healthy male volunteers by measurements of serum concentrations of the drugs and of plasma insulin and blood glucose. The drugs were administered both on an empty stomach and together with a standardized breakfast. The concentrations of tolbutamide and chlorpropamide were measured by gas chromatography, those of glipizide with high-pressure liquid chromatography, those of glibenclamide and insulin by radioimmunoassay and those of glucose by the hexokinase method. Glipizide and glibenclamide were more potent inducers of insulin release and blood glucose reduction than tolbutamide and chlorpropamide. As the concentrations of the former two drugs were in the range of nmol/l and those of the latter two in the mumol/l range, the findings support the notion that the intrinsic activity of the two second-generation sulfonylureas is at least 1 000 times greater than that of the two first-generation drugs. Glipizide seemed to be a more potent and more rapid insulin releaser than glibenclamide, but this may be secondary to biopharmaceutic differences between the two preparations. The bioavailability of glipizide was apparently greater than that of glibenclamide. Both glibenclamide (t 1/2 = 1.8 h) and glipizide (t 1/2 = 4.3 h) showed much shorter elimination half-lives than tolbutamide (7 h) and chlorpropamide (34 h). It seems probable, however, that these half-lives are not fully informative as to the duration of action of the drugs.
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Hypoglycemia in the pediatric seizure patient is extremely rare, thus universal field BGT has low utility and potential downstream effects. We propose a novel algorithm for the initial evaluation and management of prehospital pediatric seizures. Although limited to a retrospective analysis of a single medical center, our findings suggest the importance of reassessing prehospital seizure protocols. A larger patient sample should be studied to validate these findings and identify unique cases where glucose testing might be useful.
Sustained release of drug was observed in all formulation batches with % drug release ranging from 87.50% to 100.67%, no significant effect on the drug release was observed after varying chitosan to xanthan gum ratio. Encapsulation efficiency was found to be in the range of 79.48 ± 1.10-94.48 ± 1.52. In vitro bioadhesion studies showed that beads had satisfactory bioadhesive strength ranging from 67.11% ± 1.73% to 93.12% ± 1.56%. Buoyancy studies revealed that beads possess comparable floating capacity in the gastric fluids. Swelling kinetics was carried in pH 1.2 and 7.4 buffers. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in swelling kinetics was observed. Drug to polymer interaction was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that formed beads were discrete with rough and wrinkled surfaces.
To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors ("gliptins") for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with moderate to severe renal impairment.
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Pancreatic islets were isolated from albino mice by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion in perifused islets was determined by ELISA. Bioluminometry was used to determine the ATP and ADP content of the incubated islets.
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We included 37 trials with 40 treatment comparisons involving 3227 participants. The duration of the interventions ranged from 2 to 12 months for parallel trials and two to four months for cross-over trials.The majority of trials had an unclear risk of bias in several risk of bias domains. Fourteen trials showed a high risk of bias, mainly for performance and detection bias. Insulin monotherapy, including once-daily long-acting, once-daily intermediate-acting, twice-daily premixed insulin, and basal-bolus regimens (multiple injections), was compared to insulin in combination with sulphonylureas (17 comparisons: glibenclamide = 11, glipizide = 2, tolazamide = 2, gliclazide = 1, glimepiride = 1), metformin (11 comparisons), pioglitazone (four comparisons), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (four comparisons: acarbose = 3, miglitol = 1), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) (three comparisons: vildagliptin = 1, sitagliptin = 1, saxagliptin = 1) and the combination of metformin and glimepiride (one comparison). No trials assessed all-cause mortality, diabetes-related morbidity or health-related quality of life. Only one trial assessed patients' treatment satisfaction and showed no substantial differences between the addition of either glimepiride or metformin and glimepiride to insulin compared with insulin monotherapy.Insulin-sulphonylurea combination therapy (CT) compared with insulin monotherapy (IM) showed a MD in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of -1% (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.6 to -0.5); P < 0.01; 316 participants; 9 trials; low-quality evidence. Insulin-metformin CT compared with IM showed a MD in HbA1c of -0.9% (95% CI -1.2 to -0.5); P < 0.01; 698 participants; 9 trials; low-quality evidence. We could not pool the results of adding pioglitazone to insulin. Insulin combined with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors compared with IM showed a MD in HbA1c of -0.4% (95% CI -0.5 to -0.2); P < 0.01; 448 participants; 3 trials; low-quality evidence). Insulin combined with DPP-4 inhibitors compared with IM showed a MD in HbA1c of -0.4% (95% CI -0.5 to -0.4); P < 0.01; 265 participants; 2 trials; low quality evidence. In most trials the participants with CT needed less insulin, whereas insulin requirements increased or remained stable in participants with IM.We did not perform a meta-analysis for hypoglycaemic events because the included studies used different definitions.. In most trials the insulin-sulphonylurea combination resulted in a higher number of mild episodes of hypoglycaemia, compared to the IM group (range: 2.2 to 6.1 episodes per participant in CT versus 2.0 to 2.6 episodes per participant in IM; low-quality evidence). Pioglitazone CT also resulted in more mild to moderate hypoglycaemic episodes compared with IM (range 15 to 90 episodes versus 9 to 75 episodes, respectively; low-quality evidence. The trials that reported hypoglycaemic episodes in the other combinations found comparable numbers of mild to moderate hypoglycaemic events (low-quality evidence).The addition of sulphonylureas resulted in an additional weight gain of 0.4 kg to 1.9 kg versus -0.8 kg to 2.1 kg in the IM group (220 participants; 7 trials; low-quality evidence). Pioglitazone CT caused more weight gain compared to IM: MD 3.8 kg (95% CI 3.0 to 4.6); P < 0.01; 288 participants; 2 trials; low-quality evidence. Metformin CT was associated with weight loss: MD -2.1 kg (95% CI -3.2 to -1.1), P < 0.01; 615 participants; 7 trials; low-quality evidence). DPP-4 inhibitors CT showed weight gain of -0.7 to 1.3 kg versus 0.6 to 1.1 kg in the IM group (362 participants; 2 trials; low-quality evidence). Alpha-glucosidase CT compared to IM showed a MD of -0.5 kg (95% CI -1.2 to 0.3); P = 0.26; 241 participants; 2 trials; low-quality evidence.Users of metformin CT (range 7% to 67% versus 5% to 16%), and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors CT (14% to 75% versus 4% to 35%) experienced more gastro-intestinal adverse effects compared to participants on IM. Two trials reported a higher frequency of oedema with the use of pioglitazone CT (range: 16% to 18% versus 4% to 7% IM).
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ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels in the human medulloblastoma TE671 cell line were characterized by membrane potential assays utilizing a potentiometric fluorescent probe, bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol (DiBAC4(3)), and by mRNA analysis. Membrane potential assays showed concentration-dependent and glyburide-sensitive changes in fluorescence upon addition of (-)-cromakalim, pinacidil, diazoxide and P1075. The rank order of potency for these openers was P1075 > (-)-cromakalim approximately = pinacidil > diazoxide. Additionally, glyburide and glipizide inhibited P1075-evoked responses in TE671 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 0.22 and 14 microM, respectively. The rank order potencies of both openers and inhibitors were similar to those observed in the rat smooth muscle A-10 cell line. In contrast, in the rat pancreatic insulinoma RIN-m5F cell line, only diazoxide was effective as an opener. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies detected sulfonylurea receptors SUR2B and SUR1 mRNA in TE671 cells whereas only SUR2B and SUR1 mRNA were, respectively, detected in A-10 and RIN-m5F cells. The inward rectifier Kir6.2 mRNA was detected in all three cell types whereas Kir6.1 was detected only in A-10 cells. Collectively, the molecular and pharmacologic studies suggest that K(ATP) channels endogenously expressed in TE671 medulloblastoma resemble those present in the smooth muscle.