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Glucotrol (Glipizide)

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Glucotrol is a medication consists in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas. Glucotrol is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol may be used along with diet, exercise and insulin therapy. Glucotrol works by controlling blood sugar levels in your organism.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Glipizide.


Glucotrol is a medication consists in a class of drugs called sulfonylureas.

Glucotrol is used to treat type 2 diabetes. Glucotrol may be used along with diet, exercise and insulin therapy.

Glucotrol is also known as Glipizide, Glytop SR.

Glucotrol works by controlling blood sugar levels in your organism.

Generic name of Glucotrol is Glipizide.

Brand names of Glucotrol are Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL.


Take Glucotrol orally.

Do not chew, divide or crush the tablet. Swallow it whole.

Glucotrol is usually taken before breakfast if it is taken once a day, or before meals if it is taken several times each day.

Take each dose of Glucotrol with a full glass of water.

The dosage and the kind of tablets depend on the disease and its prescribed treatment.

While taking Glucotrol follow diet, medication and exercise routines closely.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Glucotrol suddenly.


If you overdose Glucotrol and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Glucotrol overdosage: hunger, nausea, anxiety, cold sweats, weakness, drowsiness, unconsciousness, coma.


Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Glucotrol are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Glucotrol if you are allergic to Glucotrol components.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you have kidney disease, liver disease, thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes, serious infection, illness, or injury.

Be careful with Glucotrol if you take aspirin or another salicylate such as magnesium/choline salicylate (Trilisate), salsalate (Disalcid, others), choline salicylate (Arthropan), magnesium salicylate (Magan) or bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, others), ketoprofen (Orudis, Orudis KT, Oruvail), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam), etodolac (Lodine), indomethacin (Indocin), nabumetone (Relafen), oxaprozin (Daypro), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve) and others; sulfa-based drug such as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra), sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin), or sulfasalazine (Azulfidine); monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate) or phenelzine (Nardil); beta-blocker such as propranolol (Inderal), atenolol (Tenormin), acebutolol (Sectral), metoprolol (Lopressor) and others; diuretic (water pill) such as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, Hydrodiuril), chlorothiazide (Diuril) and others; steroid medicine such as prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone, others), methylprednisolone (Medrol, others), prednisolone (Prelone, Pediapred, others) and others; phenothiazine such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin, Permitil), prochlorperazine (Compazine), promethazine (Phenergan) and others; phenytoin (Dilantin); isoniazid (Nydrazid); prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal cough, cold, allergy or weight loss medications.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Glucotrol suddenly.

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The effects of glibenclamide and glipizide on the concentrations of S-glucose, S-insulin and S-lipids and on the 24-hour urinary glucose excretion were studied in 37 patients with maturity onset diabetes. A double-blind, cross over double-dummy technique was used. The fasting S-insulin concentration was higher during glibenclamide therapy, while the increase in insulin concentration one hour postprandially was stronger during glipizide therapy, supporting the concept that glibenclamide has a more prolonged and glipizide a more fast-acting effect on insulin secretion. The S-glucose concentration was lower in the fasting state as well as one hour postprandially during glibenclamide therapy which, together with a lower 24-hour urinary glucose excretion, indicates that glibenclamide has a stronger blood glucose-lowering effect. Although statistically significant, the differences were marginal from a clinical point of view. The lipid levels remained unchanged.

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To evaluate the effect of these plants on in vitro and in vivo enzymatic starch digestion.

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This study investigated the long-term effect of insulin or the combination of insulin and an oral hypoglycemic compound (glipizide) on the skeletal muscle capillary basement membrane width in insulin-requiring diabetic patients. Seventy diabetic patients were randomized to treatment with either insulin-placebo or insulin-glipizide (5 mg/d) for 3 years. Of these, only 61 patients completed the study; 27 patients received insulin-placebo and 34 patients received insulin-glipizide. Three skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris) biopsies were performed in all patients over a 3-year period. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1 was determined every 100 +/- 20 days, including plasma glucose levels. Muscle capillary basement membrane width was quantitated by a previously described method. After approximately 16 months, glycosylated hemoglobin A1 decreased significantly in each group from its baseline (P < 0.001 insulin-glipizide group and P < 0.025 insulin-placebo), although no statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups. After 3 years this decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.001) only in the insulin-glipizide group. At baseline, no statistically significant difference was found in the muscle capillary basement membrane width between the two groups. In spite of the significant decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin A1 in both groups after 14 to 16 months, only muscle capillary basement membrane width in the insulin-glipizide group decreased significantly compared with baseline. Patients receiving insulin-placebo showed a gradual increase in the muscle capillary basement membrane width, which after 3 years was significantly higher than baseline (P < 0.02). Although the mechanisms by which the addition of glipizide to insulin treatment reduced the thickening of the muscle capillary basement membrane are not clearly understood, the current findings suggest that diabetic microangiopathy is not necessarily progressive and that prophylaxis may be attained.

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The efficacy of the individual components of this treatment was demonstrated in the combination of insulin and octreotide. The combined administration of insulin and octreotide has limited application in patients with acromegaly and insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus.

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Pistacia atlantica, Rheum ribes and Sarcopoterium spinosum can be considered as potential candidates for amelioration/management of type 2 diabetes.

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To evaluate use of the oral hypoglycemic drug glipizide in diabetic cats.

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To compare the effects of repaglinide, glipizide, and glibenclamide on insulin secretion and postprandial glucose after a single standard 500-kcal test meal.

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Pancreatic islets and islet cells were isolated from albino mice by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion of incubated or perifused islets was measured by ELISA. The NADPH and NADP+ content of incubated islets was determined by enzymatic cycling. The cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in islets was measured by microfluorimetry and the activity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels in islet cells by patch-clamping.

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We present a case history of a man with a pituitary adenoma and diabetes mellitus and chronicle his response to various treatment modalities.

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Dapagliflozin does not provide advantages over pharmacotherapy for DM2. Its lack of experience of use, the absence of significant clinical benefits and its high cost make it necessary to restrict its use.

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Glipizide is a 'second generation' oral hypoglycaemic agent similar in potency to glibenclamide. It is completely absorbed after oral administration and has a rapid onset of action, but the duration of its hypoglycaemic effect is shorter than that of glibenclamide. It is rapidly metabolised to inactive metabolites which are excreted in the urine. Therapeutic trials have shown the efficacy of glipizide in maturity onset diabetes mellitus to be comparable with that of glibenclamide and chlorpropamide in newly diagnosed patients unresponsive to diet as well as in patients previously treated with oral hypoglycaemic drugs. Glipizide is well tolerated, but careful adjustment of dosage and attention to diet may be needed to avoid hypoglycaemic symptoms a few hours after a single daily dose.

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In humans sitagliptin administration reduces fasting and postprandial glucose and A1c levels. Sitagliptin is as effective as glipizide (close to 0.7% mean A1c reduction), but has fewer hypoglycemic events than other oral insulin secretagogues. Since metformin reduces hepatic glucose production and increases GLP-1 release, combined therapy with sitagliptin becomes complementary and has been shown to have important additive effects. Sitagliptin combined with pioglitazone resulted in improved metabolic control when compared with pioglitazone plus placebo. Combined administration with insulin requires further studies. The weight neutral effect of sitagliptin, its glucose-dependent action (lower risk of hypoglycemia), the beneficial effects on beta-cell function and its eventual protective action on beta-cell mass makes it an excellent option for monotherapy or combined with metformin, glitazones or even sulfonylurea.

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Eryngium creticum Lam. (Umbelliferae), Geranium graveolens L.Her.exn Ait (Geraniaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), and Varthemia iphionoides Boiss (Compositae) have traditionally been used as antidiabetic phytomedicines. However, their alleged benefits and mechanisms remain elusive.

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Of 129 patients randomly assigned, 64 were in the sitagliptin group (mean baseline age, 61 years; HbA1c, 7.9%) and 65 were in the glipizide group (mean baseline age, 59 years; HbA1c, 7.8%). After 54 weeks, the least squares mean change from baseline in HbA1c level was -0.72% (95% CI, -0.95% to -0.48%) with sitagliptin and -0.87% (95% CI, -1.11% to -0.63%) with glipizide, for a difference of 0.15% (95% CI, -0.18% to 0.49%). The incidences of symptomatic hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia were 6.3% versus 10.8% (between-group difference, -4.8% [95% CI, -15.7% to 5.6%]) and 0% versus 7.7% (between-group difference, -7.8% [95% CI, -17.1% to -1.9%]) in the sitagliptin and glipizide groups, respectively. Higher incidences (ie, 95% CI around between-treatment difference excluded 0) of cellulitis and headache were found with sitagliptin compared to glipizide (6.3% vs 0%, respectively, for both).

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The single-dose kinetics and effects of tolbutamide (500 mg), chlorpropamide (250 mg), glibenclamide (5 mg) and glipizide (5 mg) were compared in 7 healthy male volunteers by measurements of serum concentrations of the drugs and of plasma insulin and blood glucose. The drugs were administered both on an empty stomach and together with a standardized breakfast. The concentrations of tolbutamide and chlorpropamide were measured by gas chromatography, those of glipizide with high-pressure liquid chromatography, those of glibenclamide and insulin by radioimmunoassay and those of glucose by the hexokinase method. Glipizide and glibenclamide were more potent inducers of insulin release and blood glucose reduction than tolbutamide and chlorpropamide. As the concentrations of the former two drugs were in the range of nmol/l and those of the latter two in the mumol/l range, the findings support the notion that the intrinsic activity of the two second-generation sulfonylureas is at least 1 000 times greater than that of the two first-generation drugs. Glipizide seemed to be a more potent and more rapid insulin releaser than glibenclamide, but this may be secondary to biopharmaceutic differences between the two preparations. The bioavailability of glipizide was apparently greater than that of glibenclamide. Both glibenclamide (t 1/2 = 1.8 h) and glipizide (t 1/2 = 4.3 h) showed much shorter elimination half-lives than tolbutamide (7 h) and chlorpropamide (34 h). It seems probable, however, that these half-lives are not fully informative as to the duration of action of the drugs.

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Hypoglycemia in the pediatric seizure patient is extremely rare, thus universal field BGT has low utility and potential downstream effects. We propose a novel algorithm for the initial evaluation and management of prehospital pediatric seizures. Although limited to a retrospective analysis of a single medical center, our findings suggest the importance of reassessing prehospital seizure protocols. A larger patient sample should be studied to validate these findings and identify unique cases where glucose testing might be useful.

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Sustained release of drug was observed in all formulation batches with % drug release ranging from 87.50% to 100.67%, no significant effect on the drug release was observed after varying chitosan to xanthan gum ratio. Encapsulation efficiency was found to be in the range of 79.48 ± 1.10-94.48 ± 1.52. In vitro bioadhesion studies showed that beads had satisfactory bioadhesive strength ranging from 67.11% ± 1.73% to 93.12% ± 1.56%. Buoyancy studies revealed that beads possess comparable floating capacity in the gastric fluids. Swelling kinetics was carried in pH 1.2 and 7.4 buffers. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in swelling kinetics was observed. Drug to polymer interaction was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed that formed beads were discrete with rough and wrinkled surfaces.

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To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DDP-4) inhibitors ("gliptins") for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with moderate to severe renal impairment.

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Pancreatic islets were isolated from albino mice by collagenase digestion. Insulin secretion in perifused islets was determined by ELISA. Bioluminometry was used to determine the ATP and ADP content of the incubated islets.

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We included 37 trials with 40 treatment comparisons involving 3227 participants. The duration of the interventions ranged from 2 to 12 months for parallel trials and two to four months for cross-over trials.The majority of trials had an unclear risk of bias in several risk of bias domains. Fourteen trials showed a high risk of bias, mainly for performance and detection bias. Insulin monotherapy, including once-daily long-acting, once-daily intermediate-acting, twice-daily premixed insulin, and basal-bolus regimens (multiple injections), was compared to insulin in combination with sulphonylureas (17 comparisons: glibenclamide = 11, glipizide = 2, tolazamide = 2, gliclazide = 1, glimepiride = 1), metformin (11 comparisons), pioglitazone (four comparisons), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (four comparisons: acarbose = 3, miglitol = 1), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4 inhibitors) (three comparisons: vildagliptin = 1, sitagliptin = 1, saxagliptin = 1) and the combination of metformin and glimepiride (one comparison). No trials assessed all-cause mortality, diabetes-related morbidity or health-related quality of life. Only one trial assessed patients' treatment satisfaction and showed no substantial differences between the addition of either glimepiride or metformin and glimepiride to insulin compared with insulin monotherapy.Insulin-sulphonylurea combination therapy (CT) compared with insulin monotherapy (IM) showed a MD in glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of -1% (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.6 to -0.5); P < 0.01; 316 participants; 9 trials; low-quality evidence. Insulin-metformin CT compared with IM showed a MD in HbA1c of -0.9% (95% CI -1.2 to -0.5); P < 0.01; 698 participants; 9 trials; low-quality evidence. We could not pool the results of adding pioglitazone to insulin. Insulin combined with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors compared with IM showed a MD in HbA1c of -0.4% (95% CI -0.5 to -0.2); P < 0.01; 448 participants; 3 trials; low-quality evidence). Insulin combined with DPP-4 inhibitors compared with IM showed a MD in HbA1c of -0.4% (95% CI -0.5 to -0.4); P < 0.01; 265 participants; 2 trials; low quality evidence. In most trials the participants with CT needed less insulin, whereas insulin requirements increased or remained stable in participants with IM.We did not perform a meta-analysis for hypoglycaemic events because the included studies used different definitions.. In most trials the insulin-sulphonylurea combination resulted in a higher number of mild episodes of hypoglycaemia, compared to the IM group (range: 2.2 to 6.1 episodes per participant in CT versus 2.0 to 2.6 episodes per participant in IM; low-quality evidence). Pioglitazone CT also resulted in more mild to moderate hypoglycaemic episodes compared with IM (range 15 to 90 episodes versus 9 to 75 episodes, respectively; low-quality evidence. The trials that reported hypoglycaemic episodes in the other combinations found comparable numbers of mild to moderate hypoglycaemic events (low-quality evidence).The addition of sulphonylureas resulted in an additional weight gain of 0.4 kg to 1.9 kg versus -0.8 kg to 2.1 kg in the IM group (220 participants; 7 trials; low-quality evidence). Pioglitazone CT caused more weight gain compared to IM: MD 3.8 kg (95% CI 3.0 to 4.6); P < 0.01; 288 participants; 2 trials; low-quality evidence. Metformin CT was associated with weight loss: MD -2.1 kg (95% CI -3.2 to -1.1), P < 0.01; 615 participants; 7 trials; low-quality evidence). DPP-4 inhibitors CT showed weight gain of -0.7 to 1.3 kg versus 0.6 to 1.1 kg in the IM group (362 participants; 2 trials; low-quality evidence). Alpha-glucosidase CT compared to IM showed a MD of -0.5 kg (95% CI -1.2 to 0.3); P = 0.26; 241 participants; 2 trials; low-quality evidence.Users of metformin CT (range 7% to 67% versus 5% to 16%), and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors CT (14% to 75% versus 4% to 35%) experienced more gastro-intestinal adverse effects compared to participants on IM. Two trials reported a higher frequency of oedema with the use of pioglitazone CT (range: 16% to 18% versus 4% to 7% IM).

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ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels in the human medulloblastoma TE671 cell line were characterized by membrane potential assays utilizing a potentiometric fluorescent probe, bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol (DiBAC4(3)), and by mRNA analysis. Membrane potential assays showed concentration-dependent and glyburide-sensitive changes in fluorescence upon addition of (-)-cromakalim, pinacidil, diazoxide and P1075. The rank order of potency for these openers was P1075 > (-)-cromakalim approximately = pinacidil > diazoxide. Additionally, glyburide and glipizide inhibited P1075-evoked responses in TE671 cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 0.22 and 14 microM, respectively. The rank order potencies of both openers and inhibitors were similar to those observed in the rat smooth muscle A-10 cell line. In contrast, in the rat pancreatic insulinoma RIN-m5F cell line, only diazoxide was effective as an opener. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies detected sulfonylurea receptors SUR2B and SUR1 mRNA in TE671 cells whereas only SUR2B and SUR1 mRNA were, respectively, detected in A-10 and RIN-m5F cells. The inward rectifier Kir6.2 mRNA was detected in all three cell types whereas Kir6.1 was detected only in A-10 cells. Collectively, the molecular and pharmacologic studies suggest that K(ATP) channels endogenously expressed in TE671 medulloblastoma resemble those present in the smooth muscle.

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glucotrol user reviews 2017-06-06

Several oral antidiabetics and diuretics show phototoxic effects in the HaCaT cell line. Inhibiting effects of antioxidants point towards involvement of reactive oxygen species in phototoxic DNA damage, suggesting a link between the phototoxic and photocancerogenic potential buy glucotrol of the sulfonamide-derived oral antidiabetic and diuretic drugs. Excessive exposure to UV light may be deleterious for patients treated with oral antidiabetic and diuretic drugs.

glucotrol diabetes medicine 2016-10-07

For type 2 diabetes treatment, combinations of drugs from the thiazolidinedione and sulfonylurea groups are now available in the same tablet or capsule. Therefore, a stability-indicating and validated HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and glipizide in combined dosage forms. The examined drugs were subjected to different conditions such as acid and base, temperature, and UV light, and degradation of pioglitazone and glipizide was observed under thermal and acidic stress. However, selectivity of the presented method for pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and glipizide assay against their degradation products was confirmed. It was also demonstrated to be robust, resisting small deliberate changes in pH of the buffer, flow rate buy glucotrol , and percentage of acetonitrile in the mobile phase. The presented method utilizes a LiChrospher RP18 column (125 x 4.0 mm), acetonitrile in phosphate buffer at pH 4.3 (40 + 60, v/v) as the mobile phase, and UV detection at 225 nm for pioglitazonel glipizide or 245 nm for rosiglitazone/glipizide. The method was validated with respect to linearity, precision, and accuracy. Finally, the elaborated procedure was applied for the QC of pioglitazone/glipizide and rosiglitazone/glipizide mixtures.

glucotrol tablet 2015-04-23

The pretreatment decreased the islet ATP/ADP ratio. Whereas glucose and α-ketoisovalerate were ineffective or weakly effective, respectively, when tested separately, their combination strongly enhanced the insulin secretion. Compared with glucose, the strong amplifier α-ketoisocaproate caused less increase in NAD(P)H-fluorescence and less mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Compared with α-ketoisovalerate, α-ketoisocaproate caused greater increase in NAD(P)H-fluorescence and greater mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Neither α-ketoacid anion enhanced the islet ATP/ADP ratio during onset of the insulin buy glucotrol secretion. α-Ketoisocaproate induced a higher pyruvate content than glucose, slowly elevated the citrate content which was not changed by glucose and generated a much higher acetoacetate content than other fuels. α-Ketoisovalerate alone or in combination with glucose did not increase the citrate content.

glucotrol dosage 2017-06-19

The effects of the potent ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glipizide were measured on the locomotor activity of rats after bilateral intracerebral administration into the dorsal pallidum. Glipizide (10 pmol) was found to reduce spontaneous locomotor activity measured during the night cycle of the rats, whereas the ATP-sensitive K+ channel activator (-)-cromakalim (5 fmol) enhanced spontaneous locomotor activity. Glipizide (0.5, 2.5 and 10 pmol) was buy glucotrol also found to depress noticeably d-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity (1 mg/kg s.c.). These results are in agreement with the idea that ATP-dependent potassium channels within the dorsal pallidum are involved in controlling motor activity in the rat.

glucotrol drug classifications 2015-07-02

In the USA, 45% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are elderly (≥ 65 years old). In general, use of sulfonylurea increases with patient age as does the associated risk for hypoglycaemia, and the consequences of hypoglycaemia can be more pronounced buy glucotrol in elderly patients. Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, improves glycaemic control in adult patients of all ages with T2DM, with a low risk of hypoglycaemia when used alone or in combination with other antidiabetic agents that are not generally associated with hypoglycaemia when used independently.

cost of glucotrol 2015-08-25

Pharmacological intervention with methylphenidate to address the neurobehavioural deficits associated with various neurological disorders has increased during the past decade. One potential effect of methylphenidate use is its possible influence on serum glucose. This case report illustrates a significant post-intervention decrease in blood glucose levels subsequent to initiation of methylphenidate to address neurocognitive deficits, status post-acute cerebellar tumour resection, in a 38-year-old female with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A decrease of 26% in serum glucose values was seen from the pretreatment to the post-treatment phase (p = 0.003). Hypotheses concerning drug-drug interactions are offered to explain this unusual outcome. Although anecdotal, this finding has important implications for use of methylphenidate in the buy glucotrol treatment of persons with diabetes and should be considered in light of the recent vote of the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee of the US FDA urging 'black box' warnings on stimulant medications used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

glucotrol pill identifier 2017-07-04

Glipizide is mainly absorbed in the proximal areas of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this study was formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive films to prolong the stay of drug in its absorption area. Glipizide was formulated in a mucoadhesive film that could be retained in the stomach for prolonged intervals. Polymeric films were designed with various compositions of hydroxypropyl cellulose and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400). Properties of the mucoadhesive film such as tensile strength, percentage elongation, swelling index, moisture content, pH and viscosity of polymeric dispersion, film thickness, content uniformity and mucoadhesion in a simulated gastric environment were characterized. In addition, percentage drug retained in stomach mucosa was estimated using a simulated dynamic stomach system as a function of time. Increase in hydroxypropyl cellulose concentration resulted in a higher tensile strength and elongation at break, while increase in concentration of PEG buy glucotrol 400 was reflected in a decrease in tensile strength and increase of elongation at break. Glipizide/hydroxypropyl cellulose/PEG 400 (2.5:1:0.5) (GF5) was found to be the optimal composition for a novel mucoadhesive stomach formulation that showed good peelability, relatively high swelling index, moderate tensile strength, and stayed on rat stomach mucosa up to 8 h. In vivo testing of the mucoadhesive films with glipizide demonstrated a potential hypoglycemic effect.

glucotrol renal dosing 2016-03-31

The gene coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) buy glucotrol enzyme 2C9 (CYP2C9) carries numerous inherited polymorphisms. Those coding for R144C (*2) and I359L (*3) amino acid substitutions have both significant functional effects and appreciable high population frequencies, and their in vivo consequences have been studied in humans with regard to drug metabolism. This review summarizes present knowledge about the pharmacokinetics, drug responses, and outcomes of clinical studies in individuals with different CYP2C9 genotypes. Tentative estimates of how CYP2C9 genotyping might be applied to dose adjustments in clinical therapy were based on dose-related pharmacokinetic parameters such as clearance or trough drug concentrations. Mean clearances in homozygous carriers of the *3 allele were below 25% of that of the wild type for S -warfarin, tolbutamide, glipizide, celecoxib, and fluvastatin. In the more frequent heterozygous carriers (genotype *1/*3), the clearances were between 40% and 75%. In these cases in which individual dosages are derived from clinical drug effects, such as for the oral anticoagulants, the pharmacogenetics-based dose adjustments showed a good correlation with the genotype-specific empirically derived doses. In addition to its role in pharmacokinetics, CYP2C9 contributes to the metabolism of fatty acids, prostanoids, and steroid hormones, and it may catalyze potentially toxic bioactivation reactions. However, our current understanding of the role of CYP2C9 in biotransformation of endogenous signaling molecules and in drug toxicity is relatively meager.

glucotrol cost 2015-02-27

In a double-blind cross-over trial we compared the effects of placebo and propranolol on iv tolbutamide and oral glipizide-stimulated insulin secretion in 10 non-insulin dependent diabetics. The patients were randomly allocated for 2 weeks treatment with placebo and propranolol 80 mg twice daily. At the end of each period an iv tolbutamide test and an oral glipizide-glucose-test were performed. Tolbutamide-stimulated insulin secretion was not affected by propranolol. There was no change in blood glucose levels during the iv tolbutamide test (IVTT), which excluded an effect of blood glucose on insulin secretion. During the oral glipizide-glucose challenge propranolol decreased blood glucose at 60 min (P less than 0.01) and increased C-peptide at 0 min (P less than 0.01) and buy glucotrol 30 min (P less than 0.05) compared with placebo. In contrast to earlier results obtained in animals and healthy subjects propranolol does not inhibit insulin- or C-peptide responses to sulphonylurea in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

glucotrol usual dosage 2016-10-13

The exposure of infants to second-generation sulfonylureas (eg, glipizide, glyburide) through breast milk is expected to be minimal, based on the limited data available. Women with type 2 diabetes treated with sulfonylureas should not be discouraged from breastfeeding. The benefits of breastfeeding greatly buy glucotrol outweigh the risks of these medications, if any. The baby should, however, be monitored for signs of hypoglycemia.

glucotrol dose 2016-09-13

Articles pertaining to the buy glucotrol pharmacology of sitagliptin, its pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy were reviewed.

glucotrol 5 mg 2016-07-10

The effect of combined insulin-glibenclamide therapy on glucose control was evaluated in a double-blind placebo controlled study of 20 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes buy glucotrol mellitus (NIDDM) and second failure to oral antidiabetic therapy with glibenclamide or glipizide. After an observation period of 1-3 months, insulin treatment was initiated which resulted in rapid improvement of the glycemic control within 6 weeks. Thereafter glibenclamide or placebo was added to insulin for a further 12 weeks. Glibenclamide improved the glycemic control as expressed by a diminution of blood glucose and HbA1c. This was observed in spite of the fact that the daily insulin dose was reduced by approximately 30% in the glibenclamide-treated group of patients. It is concluded that in NIDDM patients with second failure to glibenclamide ot glipizide therapy, the responsiveness to glibenclamide may be at least partially restored by a short period of insulin treatment. It is suggested that therapy with insulin and glibenclamide is an appropriate treatment regimen for NIDDM patients with second failure to sulfonylurea therapy.

glucotrol xl reviews 2017-12-22

Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem due to its increasing prevalence and life-threatening complications. Antidiabetic sulfonylureas represent the first-line drugs in type 2 diabetes even though the most common buy glucotrol associated risk is pharmacologically-induced hypoglycemia. In the development of this side effect are involved several factors including the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of the drug, patient age and behavior, hepatic or renal dysfunctions, or other drugs associated with a high risk of interactions. If all these are controlled, the risk-benefit balance can be equal to other oral antidiabetic drugs.

glucotrol and alcohol 2015-12-12

A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an academic health centre enterprise-wide electronic health record (EHR) system to identify 23 915 patients with type 2 diabetes who initiated monotherapy with metformin (N = 12774), glipizide (N = 4325), glyburide (N = 4279) or glimepiride (N = 2537), ≥ 18 years of age, with and without a history of CAD, and not on insulin or a non-insulin buy glucotrol injectable at baseline. The patients were followed for mortality by documentation in the EHR and Social Security Death Index. Multivariable Cox models with propensity analysis were used to compare cohorts.

glucotrol dosage administration 2016-03-26

In the present study, a simple, rapid and reliable ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine simultaneously epalrestat (EPA) and puerarin (PUE) in rat plasma for evaluation of the pharmacokinetic interaction of these two drugs. Both the analytes and glipizide (internal standard, IS) were extracted using a protein precipitation method. The separation was performed on a C18 reversed phase column using acetonitrile and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate in water as the mobile phase with a gradient elution program. The analytes, including IS, were quantified with multiple reaction monitoring under negative ionization mode. The optimized mass transition ion pairs (m/z) were 318.1 → 274.0 for EPA, 415.1 → 266.9 for PUE and 444.2 → 166.9 for IS. The linear calibration curves for EPA and PUE were obtained in the concentration ranges of 10-4167 and 20-8333 ng/mL, respectively (r > 0.99). The current method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic interaction study in rats following administration of EPA and PUE alone or co-administration (EPA 15 mg/kg Augmentin Xr Dosage , oral; PUE 30 mg/kg, intravenous). The results showed that the combination of EPA and PUE could increase t1/2 of EPA and reduce Tmax of EPA. These changes indicated that EPA and PUE might cause drug-drug interactions when co-administrated.

buy glucotrol 2017-08-08

A. elata is often considered an example of a medicinal plant used in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese traditional medicine. However, the contemporary applications of Aralia in officinal medicine result primarily from a large number of pharmacological and clinical investigations carried out in the former USSR in the mid-20th century. Since the 1950s, medicinal preparations from radices of A. elata and radices of A. mandshurica have secured an established position within Russian/USSR medicine as evidenced by the inclusion of the drug in recent editions of the National Pharmacopoeia of the USSR and in the Register of Medicinal Preparations of Russia. Pharmacological studies on animals have shown that Aralia increases physical working capacity and affords a stress-protective effect against a broad spectrum of harmful factors including cold stress, immobilization, UV irradiation, and low air pressure. The phytoadaptogen exerts an effect on the central nervous, reproductive, immune, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems; the metabolic syndrome including hypolipidemic and antidiabetic effects; and blood coagulation. Together with general properties of adaptogens, Aralia has its own specificity, which manifests in cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic activities. Studies on isolated organs, cells, and enzymes have revealed that Aralia preparations exhibit antioxidant activities and enhance sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis markers (GRP78, CHOP, Caspase-12, and JNK), and increase phosphorylation of STAT3 and Bcl2/Bax ratio; they also show cytotoxic activities against some Aciphex Medicine tumor cell lines; affect NF-κB and PPARs activities; and regulate biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related protein expression, tissue respiration, and oxygen consumption. In healthy subjects, Aralia increases mental performance, working capacity, and endurance of movement. Numerous clinical trials have shown the efficiency of Aralia preparations in patients with traumatic brain injury (accompanied with asthenic syndrome and neurotic reactions, depression, neurasthenia, and psychasthenia), neurological diseases (accompanied with astheno-depressive and astheno-hypochondriasis syndromes), myasthenia syndrome (accompanied with chronic post-influenza arachnoiditis), and arterial hypotension. Aralia tincture and "Saparal" are useful as antiviral remedies. Radioprotective properties of Aralia have been reported in pregnant women. Synergistic antiobesity effect was reported for the combination of A. mandshurica and Engelhardtia chrysolepis extracts and antidiabetic effect for the combination of Aralia and glipizide. Promising stress-relieving effects of Aralia are reported for professionals whose work requires a high level of attention. Its proposed ability to moderate stress-induced damage and dysfunction in the cardiovascular tissue might make Aralia the adaptogen of choice among patients with higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. Because Aralia extract administration appears to affect plasma glucose level and hepatic lipid accumulation and ameliorate hyperinsulinemia, it might also provide benefits and be the adaptogen of choice for patients with obesity and diabetes.

glucotrol xl medication 2016-02-06

1. The aim of this study was to characterize the K(ATP) channel of intact rat skeletal muscle (rat flexor digitorum brevis muscle). Changes in membrane currents were recorded with two-electrode voltage-clamp of whole fibres. 2. The K(ATP) channel openers, levcromakalim and pinacidil (10-400 microM), caused a concentration-dependent increase in whole-cell chord conductance (up to approximately 1.5 mScm(-2)). The activated current had a weak inwardly rectifying current-voltage relation, a reversal potential near E(K) and nanomolar sensitivity to glibenclamide--characteristic of a K(ATP) channel current. Concentration-effect analysis revealed that levcromakalim and pinacidil were not particularly potent (EC50 approximately 186 microM, approximately 30 microM, respectively), but diazoxide was completely inactive. 3. The ability of both classical K(ATP) channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, tolbutamide, glipizide and 5-hydroxydecanoic acid) and a number of structurally related glibenclamide analogues to antagonize the levcromakalim- Atarax Review induced current was determined. Glibenclamide was the most potent compound with an IC50 of approximately 5 nM. However, the non-sulphonylurea (but cardioactive) compound 5-hydroxydecanoic acid was inactive in this preparation. 4. Regression analysis showed that the glibenclamide analogues used have a similar rank order of potency to that observed previously in vascular smooth muscle and cerebral tissue. However, two compounds (glipizide and DK13) were found to have unexpectedly low potency in skeletal muscle. 5. These experiments revealed K(ATP) channels of skeletal muscle to be at least 10x more sensitive to glibenclamide than previously found; this may be because of the requirement for an intact intracellular environment for the full effect of sulphonylureas to be realised. Pharmacologically, K(ATP) channels of mammalian skeletal muscle appear to resemble most closely K(ATP) channels of cardiac myocytes.

buy glucotrol online 2017-08-30

The aim of this paper was to report the case of type 2 diabetes and significant insulin resistance that improved dramatically after removal of a pheochromocytoma in a liver transplant recipient , and to provide a review of the relevant literature. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic results and management of the patient. In addition, we performed a PubMed search for related English language articles, to provide an overview of the pertinent literature. A 53 year old woman with a history of an orthotopic liver transplantation and insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes was admitted to the hospital with fever, diaphoresis, tachycardia and hypertension. A pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and removed. The patient subsequently developed hypoglycemia and required no further insulin therapy. Pheochromocytomas have been described to lead to hyperglycemia and diabetes, due to the suppression of insulin release and increased insulin Vermox Con Alcohol resistance. Furthermore, a review of the literature revealed only 3 other reported cases of pheochromocytomas in organ transplant recipients. None of these pheochromocytomas were believed to have occurred de novo after transplantation. This is the first report of a pheochromocytoma in a liver transplant recipient and possibly the first case of a de novo pheochromocytoma in any organ transplant recipient. Moreover, this case showcases pheochromocytomas as a rare cause of diabetes mellitus.

glucotrol brand name 2017-12-26

Present study deciphers preparation of co-crystals of lipophilic glipizide by using four different acids, oxalic, malonic, stearic, and benzoic acids, in order to achieve enhanced solubility and dissolution along with stability. All co-crystals were prepared by dissolving drug and individual acids in the ratio of 1:0.5 in acetonitrile at 60-70°C for 15 min, followed by cooling at room temperature for 24 h. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed no molecular interaction between acids and drug as the internal structure and their geometric configurations remain unchanged. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed closer melting points of raw glipizide and its co-crystals, which speculates absence of difference in crystallinity as well as intermolecular bonding of the co-crystals and drug. PXRD further revealed that all the co-crystals were having similar crystallinity as that of raw Protonix Tab 40mg glipizide except glipizide-malonic acid co-crystals. This minor difference in the relative intensities of some of the diffraction peaks could be attributed to the crystal habit or crystal size modification. SEM revealed difference in the crystal morphology for all the co-crystals. Micromeritic, solubility, dissolution, and stability data revealed that among all the prepared co-crystals, glipizide-stearic acid co-crystals were found superior. Hence, it was concluded that glipizide-stearic acid co-crystals could offer an improved drug design strategy to overcome dissolution and bioavailability related challenges associated with lipophilic glipizide.

glucotrol medication 2015-01-22

An enhanced levels of VLDL-C, TC/HDL-C ratio, TG Accutane Dosage Length , lipid peroxidation, glycoprotein components, and decreased concentrations of total proteins (TPs) and albumin were observed in hyperlipidemic patients with diabetes while the decrease was more marked in GSH, vitamin C, CAT and GPx among antioxidants.

glucotrol tab 2016-11-08

A chitosan(CS)-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel bead was prepared by the ionic gelation method for the controlled delivery of glipizide. The structure and surface morphology of the beads were characterized by FT-IR and SEM, separately. Factors influencing the swelling behavior of the hydrogel beads were also investigated, such as CS concentration (X(1)), TPP concentration (X(2)), the weight ratio of drug to polymer (X(3)), crosslinking time (X(4)), and the volume ratio of CS to TPP (X(5)). In addition, the swelling property and the delivery behavior of the hydrogel bead was studied as well. With decreasing of pH value, the swelling ratio of the bead was increasing. The swelling ratio of hydrogel bead at pH 1.5 was relatively high, while this value was low at pH 6.8. The amount of glipizide released from the hydrogel bead at pH 1.5 Singulair 4mg Dosage was about 90%, while this value approached 36% at pH 6.8. The results clearly suggested that the CS-TPP hydrogel beads were used as a pH-sensitive controlled release system for the delivery of glipizide.

glipizide glucotrol dosage 2015-11-16

The present study aimed at 1) investigating the effect of a combined insulin + glipizide treatment on the metabolic control (HbA1c levels) and insulin requirements (Biostator assessment) in ten non-obese Type-II diabetic patients with recent secondary failure to sulfonylureas; and 2) characterizing the relative contributions of changes in endogenous insulin secretion (C-peptide response) and insulin sensitivity (insulin-induced glucose disposal in clamped conditions) to this effect. The patients were treated in a randomized cross-over order with either insulin alone or insulin + glipizide (3 X 10 mg/day) during two periods averaging 6 weeks each. Mean HbA1c levels were similar in both experimental conditions (8.2 +/- 0.6 vs 7.9 +/- 0.6%, NS). In fact, during the combined therapy, HbA1c levels decreased in five subjects (from 8.6 +/- 0.7 to 7.1 +/- 0.5%; 'responder'), but not in the five others ('non-responders'); the 20-h Biostator insulin infusion was significantly decreased in the responders (29%; P less than 0.05), but not in the non-responders. Basal (0.271 +/- 0.086 vs 0.086 +/- 0.017 nmol/l; P less than 0.05) and post-glucagon (0.468 +/- 0.121 vs 0.180 +/- 0.060 nmol/l; P less than 0.05) C-peptide plasma levels were significantly higher in the responders than in the non-responders; in addition, glipizide significantly increased basal C-peptide concentrations in the responders only (+68%; P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)