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Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy can reduce the RR of miscarriage and premature birth incidence in PCOS patients with no serious side effects.
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Fibulin-3 has been considered as a regulator of glioma cell invasion, but little is known about the molecules regulating fibulin-3 expression. Metformin, an oral antidiabetic drug in the biguanide class, is known to inhibit proliferation and metastasis in a variety of cancer cells. In the present study, we determined the effect of metformin on the expression of fibulin-3 in U251 Human glioma cells. Metformin potently suppressed U251 cell adhesion and invasion. Metformin inhibited the expression of fibulin-3 at the transcriptional level. Moreover, metformin abolished the protein expression of fibulin-3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, this compound suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, a key effector of glioma cell invasion, regulated by fibulin-3. Taken together, our results suggest that metformin abolishes fibulin-3 expression and subsequently inhibits invasion of glioma cells.
Phytotherapy has been achieved to maintain glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antihyperglycemic properties of the Juglans regia leaf extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Nicotinamide was injected intraperitonealy (i.p.) 15 min before the injection of Streptozotocin (i.p.). One week after induction of diabetes, oral treatment started with extract of Juglans regia and Metformin and continued for 4 weeks. Fasting blood sugar, body weight, serum lipids and insulin level were measured in different groups. A significant reduction of glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol and serum triglycerides were detected after 4 weeks in rats treated with Juglans regia leaves compared to the control groups. Thus, Juglans regia extract treatment showed potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in type 2 diabetic rats.
To determine the comparative efficacy, risk of weight gain, and hypoglycemia associated with noninsulin antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 DM not controlled by metformin alone.
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Mean employee adherence to metformin, statins, and ACE/ARBs at the employer level at one year post-DHP implementation, as measured by the proportion of days covered (PDC).
1. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the serine racemase (SRR) rs391300 G/A polymorphism with the risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and to assess the impacts of the polymorphism on the therapeutic efficacy of metformin in Chinese patients. 2. A case-control study of 402 patients with T2DM and 171 healthy controls was conducted. The SRR rs391300 polymorphism was genotyped in all participants using the ABI 3700 automated sequencer. Forty-four recent-onset T2DM patients with different rs391300 genotypes were selected to receive 500 mg metformin orally daily for 12 consecutive weeks as monotherapy. Serum fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting serum insulin (FINS), postprandial serum insulin (PINS), triglycerol (TG), cholesterol (CHO), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index (BMI) were determined before and after metformin treatment. 3. The distribution frequencies of rs391300 were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). After treatment with metformin, the values of BMI, FPG, PPG, PINS, HbA1c, CHO, and TG decreased significantly (P < 0.01), whereas FINS increased (P < 0.001), in patients with T2DM. Patients with the GA or AA genotype of rs391300 showed better improvements in the levels of FPG, PPG, and CHO (P < 0.05) than individuals with the GG genotype. 4. The SRR rs391300 polymorphism was associated with the therapeutic efficacy of metformin in Chinese patients with T2DM.
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Adherers (n = 5) and non-adherers (n = 3) had median weight loss of 7.5% and 0.5%, respectively, at 8 weeks. Overall, HbA1c (mean [SE] 8.1% [0.7%] to 6.6% [0.5%]; p = 0.004) and 2hG (15.6 [1.6] mmol/l to 11.3 [1.0] mmol/l; p = 0.009) were significantly reduced at 8 weeks compared with baseline. Liver fat was also significantly reduced from baseline (14.7% [2.2%]) to 8 weeks (5.8% [1.7%]; p = 0.001). Only three out of eight participants met non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) criteria (≥5.5%) at 8 weeks, compared with eight out of eight at baseline. The three participants on insulin therapy at baseline were able to cease therapy during the 8 week VLED. At 34 weeks, adherers (n = 5) achieved 12.3% weight loss, none met NAFLD criteria and four did not meet American Diabetes Association criteria for type 2 diabetes.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term cost-utility of liraglutide versus glimepiride as add-on therapy to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), based on the results of clinical trial conducted in Asian population.
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No significant differences in LRFS or OS were found. Metformin use was associated with an improved DMFS (74% versus 53% at 2 years; p=0.01) and PFS (58% versus 37% at 2 years and a median PFS of 41 months versus 15 months; p=0.01). In a multivariate cox-regression analysis, the use of metformin was a statistically significant independent variable for DMFS and PFS (p=0.02 and 0.03).
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In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of antihyperglycemic medications may provide complementary efficacy while reducing tablet burden and improving compliance. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence and tolerability of 2 FDCs of dapagliflozin and metformin extended-release (XR) versus their individual component (IC) tablets.
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We observed an impairment of glycemic control with the progression of the disease and the complexity of the process and treatment, which in part may be related to the inadequate treatment selection and intensification.
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To compare time to a composite endpoint of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had their treatment intensified with a dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitor or insulin following dual-therapy (metformin plus sulfonylurea) failure.
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Patients were randomized to treatment with DRP/20EE or with DRP/20EE plus metformin (1,500 mg/d) or with DRP/20EE plus CPA (12.5 mg/d, 10 days per cycle) for 6 months.
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Subjects were nonobese adolescent girls with hyperinsulinemic androgen excess and without risk of pregnancy (mean age, 16 years; body mass index, 23 kg/m²; n = 34).
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The 2012 position statement from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) recommends a haemoglobin A1c level of <7% for most patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Initial therapy consists of lifestyle changes plus metformin, with an emphasis on a patient-centred approach to management. Addition of incretin-based therapy is recommended as an add-on after metformin failure, and later on in combination with basal insulin. Basal insulin is recommended from the onset in patients with A1c ≥10%. The possibility of incorporating incretin-based therapy in the patient-centred approach will be investigated both in the literature and clinical experience.
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A nested case-control analysis was conducted within a population-based cohort from the UK General Practice Research Database. The cohort included patients over the age of 40 who were prescribed a first oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) between 1988 and 2009. Cases of prostate cancer were matched up to ten controls on year of birth, date of cohort entry, and duration of follow-up. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) were estimated using conditional logistic regression.
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This cross-sectional clinical study involved all patients with acute MI in a coronary care unit, a total number of 44 patients (45% males and 55% females) with age ranged from 40 to 75 years. A full history for modifiable risk factors and current therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel and or metformin, all patients are nonsmokers. The anthropometric measurements; for estimations of body mass index (kg/m(2)), electrocardiography was obtained. Fasting blood samples were taken in the morning from all patients and the sera used for estimations of routine investigation and determination of ischemic cardiac biomarkers like cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and serum prolactin level.
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Spectra of MET, GLZ and PIO were recorded at concentrations within their linear ranges (5-25 µg/ml, 0.5-8 µg/ml and 0.5-3 µg/ml respectively) and were used to compute a total of 25 synthetic mixtures involving 15 calibration and 10 validation sets between wavelength range of 200 and 400 nm in 0.1N HCl. The suitability of the models was decided on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE) values of calibration and validation data.
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The place of the gliptins in the treatment algorithm of type 2 diabetes is discussed as well as unique features of the individual drugs. The gliptins may possess cardiovascular protective effects and their administration may promote β-cell survival; claims currently being evaluated in clinical and preclinical studies. The global market revenues and future prospects of the gliptins are discussed and the gliptins in Phases II and III of development are reviewed.
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The DHP includes free or low-cost medications and physician visits. Enrollment strategies and specific benefit designs are determined by the employer and vary in practice. DHP participants are notified up front that they must engage in their own health care (e.g., receiving diabetes-related screening) in order to remain enrolled.
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Head-to-head comparative studies and/or increased clinical experience with DPP-4 inhibitors will determine the clinical advantage, if any, of one agent over another.
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Design: Multicentre randomised, controlled trial.
At diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (between ages 0.5 and 16.3 yr, n = 470), autoantibodies [glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2), insulin autoantibodies (IAA), and/or islet cell antibody (ICA)] were positive (ab+) in 330 and negative in 37 (unknown in 103). Autoantibody-negative patients were retested at median diabetes duration of 3.2 yr (range 0.9-16.2) for autoantibodies (GAD, IA2, ZnT8), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, non-fasting C-peptide, and sequencing of HNF4A, HNF1A, KCNJ11, and INS.
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In 20 adolescents age < or = 17 (16 +/- 1 yr) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we assessed efficacy and safety of metformin-diet for 1 year in treatment of endocrinopathy and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors.
PCOS was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of testosterone (20 mg/kg) to 21-day-old female rats for 35 days. Rats were given metformin (500 mg/kg), melatonin (1 mg/kg) or melatonin (2 mg/kg) along with testosterone. One group served as vehicle control. On the 36th day, the animals were euthanised, and anthropometrical, biochemical (glucose, insulin, lipids, testosterone, C reactive protein (CRP)), oral glucose tolerance test, and histopathological evaluation of ovaries, uterus and intraabdominal fat (IAF), were carried out. Daily colpocytological examination was carried out from 14(th) day of study until termination.