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Ziprasidone seems to be at least as effective as clozapine in the treatment to ameliorate psychotic symptoms in PD.
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Differences in efficacy and tolerability between existing atypical antipsychotic drugs allow individualization of drug therapy for patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Ziprasidone differs from other atypical antipsychotic drugs in several clinically important ways, although further experience is necessary to clarify the significance of these differences.
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To compare the annual costs of treating schizophrenia with four atypical antipsychotics-olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and ziprasidone and one typical antipsychotic: haloperidol in Thailand
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Lack of insight is predominant in schizophrenia though the causes are still unclear. The present study was carried on to investigate the effect of three Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAs) and Haloperidol on insight and the associations among different clusters of symptoms and insight. Fifty-five patients have been recruited at the moment of pharmacological switch needed for psychotic exacerbation, from other antipsychotic drugs to Olanzapine, Aripiprazole, Ziprasidone and Haloperidol. Patients have been followed for 6 months and evaluated at baseline, after 3 months and after 6 months. Regarding the insight improvement, all SGAs resulted more effective than Haloperidol, while no difference was detected among different SGAs. Concerning psychopathology, all SGAs showed a better efficacy than Haloperidol, positive symptoms apart. All SGAs showed a similar efficacy on all domains, except for negative symptoms which resulted less responsive to ziprasidone and haloperidol. An association between improvement of insight and psychopathology was detected. Furthermore, insight appears to be related to psychopathology severity, particularly to negative symptoms. However, the observed different effectiveness of Ziprasidone on negative symptoms and insight suggests that these psychopathological features may be not strictly related and, thus, they may be sustained by different psychopathological processes.
Ziprasidone, a benzisothiazolyl piperazine-type atypical antipsychotic agent, has a unique receptor-binding profile. A potent antagonist of serotonin 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D(2) receptors, ziprasidone has an affinity for 5-HT(2A) receptors >10-fold higher than its affinity for D(2) receptors. Ziprasidone has been shown to be effective in the treatment of bipolar disorder in patients experiencing manic or mixed episodes. It was significantly more effective than placebo in improving manic symptoms as early as day 2 of treatment in two 3-week placebo-controlled trials as monotherapy. In a 12-week, placebo-controlled trial of patients with acute mania, ziprasidone as monotherapy showed comparable efficacy with, and fewer movement-related adverse events than, haloperidol. It has demonstrated efficacy in two 1-year open-label extension trials, both as monotherapy and in combination with lithium. Ziprasidone has a generally favourable adverse effect profile. In short-term placebo-controlled trials, there were similar discontinuation rates in active treatment and placebo recipients. While twice as many patients treated with ziprasidone compared with placebo discontinued therapy because of adverse events, the number of events was small and adverse effects were generally mild or moderate. The favourable tolerability of ziprasidone has been confirmed in long-term extension studies and its use was not associated with weight gain or dyslipidaemia. Ziprasidone-related movement disorders occurred infrequently.
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Our primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of intramuscular ziprasidone for impulsivity and agitation in psychiatrically hospitalized children and adolescents. Our secondary objective was to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with treatment response.
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Ziprasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent with a unique combination of pharmacological activities at human receptors. Ziprasidone has high affinity for human 5-HT receptors and for human dopamine D(2) receptors. Ziprasidone is a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and an antagonist at 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors. Additionally, ziprasidone inhibits neuronal uptake of 5-HT and norepinephrine comparable to the antidepressant imipramine. This unique pharmacological profile of ziprasidone may be related to its clinical effectiveness as a treatment for the positive, negative and affective symptoms of schizophrenia with a low propensity for extrapyramidal side effects, cognitive deficits and weight gain.
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Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug, which is claimed to have superior efficacy and to cause fewer movement disorders. However, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders. Newer atypical antipsychotics are safer alternatives that might share the benefits of clozapine. It is thus of interest to compare the effectiveness of newer atypical antipsychotics with the effectiveness of clozapine.
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To characterize the mg/kg dosing differences between pediatric ED patients who respond to an initial dose of ziprasidone versus patients who do not.
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Ziprasidone is a promising new antipsychotic that has shown significant efficacy in the oral treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The drug is well tolerated with a low propensity to induce extrapyramidal effects and a negligible effect on bodyweight. In addition, intramuscular ziprasidone shows efficacy and good tolerability in the treatment of acute agitation associated with psychotic disorders.
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We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data, we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MDs), again based on a random-effects model.
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This review of ziprasidone is based on data from premarketing clinical efficacy and safety trials, a briefing document from the US Food and Drug Administration Psychopharmacological Drugs Advisory Committee, published studies, and abstracts presented at national and international meetings. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and MEDLINE were searched for relevant citations, with no limitation on year.
Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with weight gain, metabolic abnormalities, sedation/sleep disturbance, and prolactin abnormalities, especially in youths. Although stimulants have opposing dopamine receptor and adverse effects, it is unclear whether stimulant co-treatment counteracts the therapeutic or side effects of antipsychotics.
Adult patients acutely admitted to an emergency ward for psychosis were randomized to risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine or ziprasidone and followed for up to 2 years. Participants were assessed repeatedly using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and a repeatable neurocognitive test battery.
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After controlling for differences in baseline characteristics and pre-index cost, psychiatric costs and subtotal psychiatric and general medical costs were higher for all adjunctive atypicals than adjunctive aripiprazole (p<0.001). Based on gamma regressions cost ratios, there was no significant difference in general medical costs between aripiprazole and ziprasidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine; risperidone general medical costs were 18% higher versus aripiprazole (p=0.041). Aripiprazole pharmacy costs were higher than quetiapine and risperidone (p<0.001) but not olanzapine or ziprasidone. Total healthcare costs were higher for ziprasidone, olanzapine, or risperidone (p<0.001) but not quetiapine.
All trials were industry supported, with some variability in dosage of haloperidol. Switch to depression was not the primary outcome of the trials. Heterogeneity could be explained as a lack of class-effect for atypicals.
1,826 veterans with schizophrenia-related disorders.
Over 5 years, total discounted costs for lurasidone and aripiprazole patients were $86,480 and $90,500, respectively. During this period, the number of relapses per patient, hospitalizations per patient, diabetes rates, and CV events per 1000 patients, respectively, were estimated to be lower for lurasidone (0.442, 0.245, 7.29%, and 37.3) than aripiprazole (0.478, 0.369, 7.36%, and 37.8). Results were sensitive to lurasidone and aripiprazole hospitalization rates. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per hospitalization avoided, lurasidone had a 100% probability of being more cost-effective than aripiprazole.
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All the second-generation antipsychotics included in this study showed fairly similar efficacy but widely different tolerability. In terms of efficacy, amisulpride, clozapine and olanzapine were ranked higher than aripiprazole, quetiapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine and olanzapine were superior in terms of akathisia and extrapyramidal symptom risk, but, far more prone to induce clinically important weight gain.
This study examined the relative effects of the second-generation antipsychotic drugs and an older representative agent on psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic schizophrenia.
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Dose-occupancy functions estimated the median level of dopamine D₂ receptor occupancy for 8 frequently prescribed antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. These dose equivalents can be used to compare antipsychotic effects in epidemiological studies and clinical practice.