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The Food and Drug Administration approved new safety labeling on March 2, 2006 for medication containing salmeterol, a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA), because of data suggesting an increased risk of fatal or potentially fatal asthma episodes. The "black box" warning, public health advisory, and label change for salmeterol, salmeterol-fluticasone combination, and formoterol has heightened public and physician concern over the risk-to-benefit ratio and the medicolegal implications of prescribing these agents for patients with asthma. A problem-based learning (PBL) case was presented to several breakout groups at the Eastern Allergy Conference, May 6, 2006, in Naples, FL, focusing on the LABA controversy in the context of an actual patient. The consensus of opinion during the interactive group sessions among approximately 100 allergists was that (1) the patient had poorly controlled asthma on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) monotherapy and that warranted a change of therapy; (2) each physician must choose which option presents the best benefit-to-risk ratio after a thorough and open discussion with the patient; (3) of the several choices for step-up therapy when a patient is not well controlled on an ICS alone, the best choice based on current evidence is combined ICS plus LABA. After the PBL case discussion, a didactic lecture was presented describing the evidence pertaining to the LABA controversy, which is detailed in this article.
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Freshly taken nasal inferior turbinate mucosa of 19 subjects with allergic rhinitis was cut into small cubes and preincubated for 30 min with prednisolone (n = 6), fluticasone (n = 5), and fluocortin butyl (n = 3) in different concentrations, followed by allergen exposure at a concentration of 1000 BU/ml for 1 and 2 h. Additionally, fluticasone-preincubated tissues were exposed to recombinant human rhIL-1beta (n = 5) at a concentration of 2 pg/ml. The expression of E-selectin was assessed by immunohistochemistry (APAAP technique) and computerized image evaluation.
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FP inhibits the dsRNA-stimulated expression of inflammatory chemokines in airway epithelial cells. FP may act by inhibiting chemokine transcription through an as yet unidentified mechanism.
A randomized, paralleled and controlled multi-center study was carried out in 11 provincial hospitals. After one week run-in period when only inhaled salbutamol as needed was given, the asthmatic patients (n = 86) were divided into two groups: patients in group G (n = 42) received inhaled ICS with the doses recommended by Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), ie, fluticasone propionate (FP) 250 microg bid for moderate asthma and 375 microg bid for severe asthma. Patients in group H (n = 44) received half of the above doses of FP (125 microg bid for moderate asthma and 125 microg in the morning, 250 microg in the evening for severe asthma).
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We have studied the effect of a topically administered glucocorticoid, fluticasone propionate (FP), on infiltration and activation of eosinophils in the nasal mucosa after provocation with allergen. Forty-four patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis entered a double-blind, crossover study in which they underwent treatment with either FP (200 micrograms once daily) or identical placebo for 2 weeks. Patients then underwent nasal-allergen provocation followed by nasal lavage and biopsy at one of several time points between 0 and 8 hours. Patients subsequently received the alternate treatment for 2 weeks before repeat allergen provocation, nasal lavage, and biopsy, as before. Biopsy specimens of nasal mucosa obtained during the immediate allergic response demonstrated an influx of eosinophils (stained by monoclonal antibody EG1) of similar magnitude during both FP and placebo treatment. Significantly, fewer eosinophils in these biopsy specimens were activated (stained by monoclonal antibody EG2) after treatment with FP compared with that after placebo treatment (median values, 8.8 and 36.6 cells per square millimeter, respectively; p less than 0.02). The concentration of eosinophil cationic protein in nasal lavage fluid was significantly elevated above baseline from 2 to 8 hours after allergen, and this increase was abolished by treatment with FP. These results suggest that topical glucocorticoids inhibit allergen-induced activation of eosinophils in allergic rhinitis.
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Patients (ages 18-55 years, with asthma [≥1 year], FEV1 of 60% to 90% of predicted value, airway reversibility [≥12%], and self-reported active smoking [≥0.5 to ≤2 packs per day]) were randomized (after a 3-week, single-blind, placebo, run-in period) to 1 of 3 parallel, 6-month, double-blind treatment arms. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of days with asthma control during treatment. Adverse experiences (AEs) were also evaluated.
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Although only a pilot "proof of concept" study, this trial provided strong suggestive support for an anti-EMT effect of ICS in COPD airways. A larger and fully powered prospective study is now indicated as this issue is likely to be extremely important. Such studies may clarify the links between ICS use and better clinical outcomes and protection against lung cancer in COPD.
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Paired data were obtained from 9 FP treated and 11 placebo patients. BAL cells were almost exclusively alveolar macrophages. In patients and controls both cellularity and levels of AA metabolites were equal Cell numbers did not change after treatment. Statistically significant decreases after FP therapy were noticed for PGE2 (30%), 6kPGF1alpha (41%) and PGF2alpha (54%).
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In this multicenter trial, 330 patients (> or = 12 years old) previously receiving inhaled corticosteroids or beta(2)-agonists alone were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive fluticasone propionate at 100, 200, or 500 microg once daily or matching placebo for 12 weeks.
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Patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) show increased production of the Th2-related cytokines. Almost always, intranasal corticosteroid (INC) and antihistamine are used as routine therapy of AR. This study was performed to determine the in vitro secretion of cytokines profiles of PBMCs in patients with AR sensitive to Chenopodium album (Ch.a) pollens before and after treatment with INC (Fluticasone propionate) and oral antihistamine (Loratadine). PBMCs of 20 patients with AR, were tested in vitro for cytokine production. These cells were stimulated with natural or recombinant Ch.a. The levels of IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-, were measured in supernatants of cultured cell 96h after stimulation using ELISA. The PBMCs of 20 normal individuals were also similarly treared for comparison of results. The production of IL-4 by the patients' cells stimulated with either Ch.a or rCh.a was significantly higher than normal levels before therapy (p=0.04 and p=0.02, respectively). After therapy, a significant decrease in production of IL-4 and a significant increase in production of IL-10 were found in PBMCs stimulated with natural Ch.a, in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.03 for IL-4; p=0.04 for IL-10). Similarly, these results were seen in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 stimulated with rCh.a allergen after therapy in comparison to the results before stimulation (p=0.01 for IL-4; p=0.03 for IL-10). This study suggests INC (Fluticasone propionate) and oral antihistamine (Loratadine) have the capacity to inhibit the production of IL-4 and shift Th2/Th1 responses, probably due to increase the level of immunoregulatory IL-10. Therefore, it could be concluded that therapy with INC and antihistamine has pharmacologic and immunologic therapeutic effects on AR patients.
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine up-regulated by rhinovirus infection during acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The role of IL-6 during exacerbations is unclear; however, it is believed IL-6 could contribute to airway and systemic inflammation. In this study we investigate the effects of common asthma treatments fluticasone propionate and beta(2) agonists salmeterol and salbutamol on IL-6 production in BEAS-2B and primary bronchial epithelial cells. Salmeterol and salbutamol enhanced rhinovirus- and IL-1beta-induced IL-6 production; however, fluticasone treatment caused a reduction of IL-6 protein and mRNA. Combined activity of salmeterol and fluticasone at equimolar concentrations had no effect on rhinovirus or IL-1beta induction of IL-6. The induction of IL-6 by salmeterol was dependent upon the beta(2) receptor and could also be induced by cAMP or cAMP-elevating agents forskolin and rolipram. Using transfection of IL-6 promoter reporter constructs, dominant negative mutants, and electromobility shift assays, it was found that NF-kappaB was the only transcription factor required for rhinovirus induction of IL-6 gene expression. Salmeterol caused an augmentation of rhinovirus-induced promoter activation via a mechanism dependent upon the c/EBP and/or CRE (cyclic AMP response element) cis-acting sites. The suppressive effect of FP was dependent upon distinct glucocorticoid response element sequences proximal to the transcriptional start site within the IL-6 promoter. The data demonstrate that beta(2) agonists can augment IL-6 expression by other stimuli in an additive manner via cyclic AMP and that the negative effect of steroids is mediated by glucocorticoid response elements within the IL-6 promoter.
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This cross-sectional study examined 230 prepubertal children with asthma (aged 6–11) who had intermittently used inhaled fluticasone propionate for at least 5 years at a mean daily dose of 200 μg (range: 200-350 μg). Serum osteocalcin, cortisol, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine were obtained from each participant. The control group consisted of gender- and age-matched children (n = 170) who were newly diagnosed with asthma and who were not being treated with corticosteroid.
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Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy has improved the quality of life (QOL) for many asthmatics and reduced mortality rates associated with asthma. However, some patients do not obtain therapeutic benefit despite satisfactory adherence.
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Patients (n = 27) were randomized to FF (100 μg), VI (25 μg), FF/VI (100/25 μg), and placebo for 21 days (four periods). Allergen challenge was performed 1 h post-dose on day 21. AHR was assessed on day 22 using methacholine.
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By random allocation, fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray (FPANS), 200 microg twice a day; beclomethasone dipropionate aqueous nasal spray, 200 microg twice a day; or placebo nasal spray twice a day was administered. Patients received 2 actuations to each nostril in the morning and in the evening.
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A commercial insurance database was analyzed retrospectively to identify patients aged 12 to 62 years who had >or=1 pharmacy claim for FPS between October 1, 2004, and September 30, 2006. An index date corresponding to the date of the first FPS pharmacy claim was assigned to each patient. Medical and pharmacy claims data were analyzed for the 365-day period before the index date (preindex period). The severity of patients' asthma was inferred from their history of claims. Patients were identified as having more severe asthma if, during the preindex period, they either received >365 doses of short-acting beta(2)-agonists (SABAs), an oral corticosteroid (OCS), or an emergency department (ED) asthma visit with an OCS prescription, or were hospitalized for their asthma.
PCR studies have demonstrated evidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae in the lower airways of patients with asthma.
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Recent studies show that several Siglec receptors, such as Siglec-8 and Siglec-14, may be important therapeutic targets in asthma and COPD. Siglecs are a family of lectins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily and recognize sialic acid residues of glycoproteins. Most of Siglecs have intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM), implicating them in the suppression of immunoreceptor signaling. Siglec-5/14 may be involved in the negative regulation of innate immune responses. The aim of this study was to analyze Siglec-5/14 expression in induced sputum cells of COPD patients in the following treatment combinations: (1) a long-acting beta2-agonist, formoterol; (2) formoterol combined with a long-acting antimuscarinic agent, tiotropium; and (3) formoterol combined with an inhaled corticosteroid or formoterol combined with tiotropium and with an inhaled corticosteroid. Siglec expression was assessed in sputum cells by flow cytometry using a specific monoclonal antibody. Double staining of cells indicated that Siglec-5/14 is expressed in monocyte/macrophages and neutrophils, but not in lymphocytes. Siglec-5/14 expression was significantly higher in patients receiving combined therapy including inhaled corticosteroids compared with patients taking only formoterol or formoterol + tiotropium. Our results suggest that inhaled corticosteroids may exert beneficial or negative effects, depending on the patients' phenotype, through increased immunosuppressive Siglec-5 or immunoactivatory Siglec-14 receptors, respectively.
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Three active treatments significantly improved symptoms and health status. The use of rescue medication in the combination group [1 (0 - 7) time, 95% CI] was significantly decreased compared with those in the blank group [2 (0 - 29) times], salmeterol/fluticasone alone [2 (0 - 13) times], tiotropium alone [1 (0 - 11) time], F = 4.914, P < 0.01. The frequency of exacerbations in the combination group was (0.7 +/- 0.5) time, significantly lower than that in the blank group [(1.5 +/- 0.9) times], salmeterol/fluticasone alone [(1.2 +/- 0.6) times], and tiotropium alone [(1.1 +/- 0.5) times], F = 8.513, P < 0.01. The FEV(1) in the combination group after the trial was (1.19 +/- 0.03) L, significantly improved compared to that before treatment (1.09 +/- 0.04) L, a 9.5% increase, which was greater than the blank (0.9%), tiotropium alone (8.2%) and salmeterol/fluticasone alone (6.3%), t = -5.024 to -15.58, P < 0.01.
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In non-exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with mild lung function impairment, single bronchodilator therapy might be as effective as combined inhaled corticosteroid/bronchodilator therapy, whereas the risk of pneumonia associated with the latter would be practically absent.
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eight studies met the eligibility criteria of the review recruiting 6,163 adults and adolescents. There were seven studies (involving 5,935 adults and adolescents) comparing formoterol and budesonide to salmeterol and fluticasone. All but one study administered the products as a combined inhaler, and most used formoterol 50 mcg and budesonide 400 mcg twice daily versus salmeterol 50 mcg and fluticasone 250 mcg twice daily. There were two deaths overall (one on each combination) and neither were thought to be related to asthma. There was no significant difference between treatment groups for non-fatal serious adverse events, either all-cause (Peto OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.82 to 1.59, I2 = 26%) or asthma-related (Peto OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.37 to 1.26, I2 = 33%). Over 23 weeks the rates for all-cause serious adverse events were 2.6% on formoterol and budesonide and 2.3% on salmeterol and fluticasone, and for asthma-related serious adverse events, 0.6% and 0.8% respectively. There was one study (228 adults) comparing formoterol and beclomethasone to salmeterol and fluticasone, but there were no deaths or hospital admissions. No studies were found in children.
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Two single doses of 750 mg mepolizumab did not result in clinical success in patients with AD, despite a significant decrease in peripheral blood eosinophils.
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The study evaluated the efficacy of intranasal treatment with an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist/adenosine A(3) receptor antagonist (50 micro g), administered twice daily for 7 days, to reduce nasal symptoms and release of inflammatory mediators following intranasal allergen challenge in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). The compound was compared with twice-daily treatment with intranasal fluticasone proprionate nasal spray (FPANS) for 7 days.
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Treatment of COPD with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 500/50 microg appears to be cost-effective (