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Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a challenging clinical complication of liver dysfunction with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities that range from mild disturbances in cognitive function and consciousness to coma and death. The pathogenesis of HE in cirrhosis is complex and multifactorial, but a key role is thought to be played by circulating gut-derived toxins of the nitrogenous compounds, most notably ammonia. Therapeutic treatment options for HE are currently limited and have appreciable risks and benefits associated with their use. Management of HE primarily involves avoidance of precipitating factors, limitation of dietary protein intake, and administration of various ammonia-lowering therapies such as non-absorbable disaccharides and select antimicrobial agents. Non-absorbable disaccharides, such as lactulose, have traditionally been regarded as first-line pharmacotherapy for patients with HE. However, multiple adverse events have been associated with their use. In addition, recent literature has questioned the true efficacy of the disaccharides for this indication. Neomycin, metronidazole and vancomycin may be used as alternative treatments for patients intolerant or unresponsive to non-absorbable disaccharides. Antimicrobials reduce bacterial production of ammonia and other bacteria-derived toxins through suppression of intestinal flora. Neomycin has been reported to be as effective as lactulose, and similar efficacy has been reported with vancomycin and metronidazole for the management of HE. However, the adverse effects frequently associated with these antimicrobials limit their use as first-line pharmacological agents. Neomycin is the most commonly used antimicrobial for HE and, although poorly absorbed, systemic exposure to the drug in sufficient amounts causes hearing loss and renal toxicity. Long-term neomycin therapy requires annual auditory testing and continuous monitoring of renal function. Long-term use of metronidazole has been associated with neurotoxicity in patients with cirrhosis, including dose-dependent peripheral neuropathy. Vancomycin may be a safer option for HE in patients with chronic liver disease; however, limited experience, possible bacterial overgrowth and risk for enteric bacteria resistance preclude the routine use of vancomycin for HE. Rifaximin is a novel antimicrobial agent with a wide spectrum of activity that has shown promise as an alternative antimicrobial treatment option for HE. Several clinical trials have compared rifaximin to the disaccharides, lactulose and lactitol, and the antimicrobial neomycin. Rifaximin appears to be at least as effective as conventional drug therapy and has been associated with fewer adverse effects due to its limited systemic absorption. The available clinical data appear to support a favourable benefit-risk ratio for rifaximin, which has shown efficacy with an improved tolerability profile. Future studies are needed in order to truly characterize its cost effectiveness in today's healthcare environment. Other less frequently utilized alternative treatment options include administration of benzodiazepine receptor antagonists, branched-chain amino acids, ornithine aspartate, zinc supplementation, sodium benzoate, dopamine receptor agonists, acarbose and probiotics. Presently, there is relatively limited clinical data supporting their routine use in HE.
Our data were consistent with a growing body of literature demonstrating a reduced risk of infections with statin use. Statins' pleiotropic properties may provide protection against C difficile infection.
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The best predictor of ulcer recurrence is failure of H. pylori eradication, which, in turn, depends on metronidazole resistance. Hence, treatments containing metronidazole should be avoided in populations with high rates of metronidazole resistance. A family history of ulcer disease and unemployment were also predictors of ulcer recurrence, which suggests a potential role for treatment of contacts.
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Our results suggest that an action of good practice should be targeted at the antibioprophylaxis and should concern especially molecules in which prescription was frequently unjustified.
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Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. After 30 years of experience in H. pylori treatment, however, the ideal regimen to treat this infection has still to be found. Nowadays, apart from having to know well first-line eradication regimens, we must also be prepared to face treatment failures. In designing a treatment strategy, we should not only focus on the results of primary therapy alone but also on the final-overall-eradication rate. The choice of a "rescue" treatment depends on which treatment is used initially. If a first-line clarithromycin-based regimen was used, a second-line metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy) may be used afterwards, and then a levofloxacin-based combination would be a third-line "rescue" option. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based "rescue" therapy constitutes an encouraging 2nd-line strategy, representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure, with the advantage of efficacy, simplicity and safety. In this case, quadruple regimen may be reserved as a 3rd-line "rescue" option. Even after two consecutive failures, several studies have demonstrated that H. pylori eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several "rescue" therapies are consecutively given.
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To study the dissolution rate of solid pharmaceutical preparation on-line, a multiple channel fiber-optic chemical sensor based on fluorescence multiple quenching (FOCSMQ) without filtering and sampling was made.
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A miscellaneous therapy, based on the combination of multiple medications in high doses for 2 weeks, and with gastric pH elevation, is a highly effective treatment as a first-line therapy for the eradication of H. pylori.
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There was a trend toward a lower rate of abscess formation among patients at high risk who received more aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The rate of infection remained significantly higher than among patients without previous biliary intervention.
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We conducted a retrospective study of 202 patients who presented with pyogenic liver abscesses caused by either E coli or K pneumoniae from July 2000 to June 2005. Outcome of the patients was analyzed by exact logistic regression with adjustment for baseline and clinical covariates. Significant predictors of mortality in the E coli and the K pneumoniae groups were investigated by multivariate analysis of demographic and clinical variables in each group.
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Microbiological type find in pregnant women and good prophylactic and the therapeutic results make Klion D as appropriate therapeutic agent before cerclage, delivery, in imminent abortions and premature labors.
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In the present paper, we report the fabrication of a new sensing membrane for fluorescence detection of metronidazole (MNZ). Briefly, a pyrenebutyric acid derivative, 2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl-4-(1-pyrenyl) butanoate (MPB) with a double bond, was synthesized and copolymerized with 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) on the activated glass surface by thermal initiation in the presence of cross-linker. The sensor responds linearly to metronidazole in the concentration range of 1.23~35.48 mg.L(-1) in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 0.36 mg.L(-1). The lifetime is enhanced by covalently immobilizing the pyrenebutyric acid derivative on glass slide, which hinders leaching of the dye from the membrane. The sensor could be regenerated after use by washing in methanol (RSD = 2.42 %), and it shows sufficient stability, and selectivity. Interference of other pharmaceuticals on membrane performance is discussed. The developed membrane has been successfully applied for the direct determination of metronidazole in human serum sample without pretreatment.
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Between March/2005 and September/2009, we observed 14 patients with a mean age of 59.6 years undergoing treatment with cetuximab (7) or erlotinib (7), due to lung(10) or colorectal cancer (4). We evaluated the interval between introduction of the drug and onset of symptoms, treatment response, and the clinical pattern of evolution of the cutaneous reaction retrospectively.
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Metronidazole coadministration resulted in a double-peak imatinib disposition profile. The maximum concentration (C(max)) decreased by 38%, the area under the curve (AUC(0-∞)) decreased by 14% and the time to C(max) (T(max)) was earlier (50%) in plasma. Apparent volume of distribution (V(SS)/F) and oral clearance (Cl/F) increased by 21% and 17%, respectively. Imatinib tissue penetration was higher after metronidazole coadministration, with 1.7 and 2.1-fold AUC(0-∞) increases in liver and kidney, respectively. Metronidazole increased imatinib's tissue-to-plasma AUC(0-∞) ratio in liver from 2.29 to 4.53 and in kidney from 3.04 to 7.57, suggesting higher uptake efficiency. Brain C(max) was 3.9-fold higher than control and AUC(0-t last) was 2.3-fold greater than plasma (3.5% in control group). No tissue-plasma concentration correlation was found.
The results suggest that advanced atrophic corpus gastritis (and intestinal metaplasia) improves and may even heal after the eradication of H. pylori.
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RMAB therapy achieved the eradication rates of 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 81.9-92.5%, intention-to-treat analysis), 90.9% (85.7-95.5%, modified intention-to-treat analysis), and 92.6% (88.5-96.6%, per-protocol analysis) in first-line therapy in a setting with high antibiotic resistance rates (amoxicillin 3.4%, clarithromycin 39.7%, metronidazole 60.3%, levofloxacin 36.2%, tetracycline 3.4%, and minocycline 6.9%). As for second-line therapy, the eradication rates were 82.9% (74.3-91.4%, intention-to-treat analysis), 86.6% (77.6-94.0%, modified intention-to-treat analysis), and 89.1% (81.3-95.3%, per-protocol analysis). Totally, 24.0% patients had adverse effects, 2.2% discontinued medications, and good compliance was achieved in 94.7%. Poor compliance and minocycline resistance were identified as the risk factors for treatment failure. Significant differences in efficacy existed among the groups of both sensitive (48/51 and 18/20), isolated amoxicillin resistance (1/1 and 0/0), isolated minocycline resistance (2/3 and 1/1), and dual resistance (0/1 and 0/1) in both first-line (p = .004) and second-line (p = .035) therapies.
Bacterial vaginosis is an imbalance of the normal vaginal flora with an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and a lack of the normal lactobacillary flora. Women may have symptoms of a characteristic vaginal discharge but are often asymptomatic. Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has been associated with poor perinatal outcomes and, in particular, preterm birth (PTB). Identification and treatment may reduce the risk of PTB and its consequences.
Haemorrhoidectomy is commonly an inpatient procedure because patients and doctors worry about postoperative pain. Day-case haemorrhoidectomy (DCH) is possible if patient anxiety is addressed and postoperative pain and bowel function are managed. Pain sometimes increases a few days after haemorrhoidectomy, possibly because of secondary infection. We studied the effect of metronidazole on pain after DCH.
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Use of computerized databases, namely MEDLINE, the Cochrane Oral Health Group Specialty Trials Register and EMBASE; reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched; and a hand-search of selected journals until April 2001.
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A total of 300 impacted third molars were extracted in 150 patients enrolled in this trial. In each subject a socket was randomly selected and packed to the crest of alveolar ridge with the gel. The contralateral socket was packed with placebo dressing. The occurrence of dry socket was assessed during 3rd and 5th postoperative days .The data was analysed using a meta analytical program.
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Ranitidine bismuth citrate and levofloxacin-based regimen may be an alternative to quadruple therapy after Helicobacter pylori eradication failure. Our aim was to compare two 7-day triple second-line regimens containing ranitidine bismuth citrate or levofloxacin.
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We report a 25-year-old systemically healthy male who presented with periocular necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in the left eyelid. This was associated with the presence of immunologically mediated marginal kerato-conjunctivitis, in the same eye. This potentially dangerous lid infection and the associated ocular surface infection resolved successfully, with medical management. We report this case to highlight the successful conservative management of periocular NF and the hitherto unreported anterior segment involvement.
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The efficacy of HePC after 30 min, 1 h, 16 h and 24 h against four different T. vaginalis strains (with varying resistance to metronidazole) was evaluated.