Mean caregiver age was 59.8±14.4 years and 70.9% were women. They spent 10.0±7.1hours per day providing care and 79.8% lived with the patient. Patch instructions were described as easy to follow by 97.1% of the caregivers and 92.1% of them rated patch application as easy or very easy. The most commonly cited disadvantage was adhesion problems (26.8%). Discontinuation of treatment was due to cutaneous reactions in most cases. Overall, 76.5% of the caregivers were satisfied or very satisfied with transdermal treatment and 77.4% considered that its interference with daily activities was minimal or null. The patch was preferred to oral treatment by 94.3% of caregivers. Clinical Global Impression of Change ratings improved according to 61.3% of the caregivers and 53% of the investigators. Few caregivers reported medication forgetfulness.
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Cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors represent the standard therapeutic approach to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, a proportion of patients experience lack or loss of therapeutic benefit with an initial agent, or discontinue due to safety/tolerability issues. In many instances, no alternative treatment is offered once the initial agent has been stopped. Thus, for many patients, the total duration of treatment is relatively short in comparison with the chronic nature of AD. Switching medications is a common therapeutic strategy within many drug classes across many clinical areas following a lack/loss of efficacy or safety/tolerability problems, and is also an increasingly important concept in the management of AD with ChE inhibitors. A number of open-label studies, where patients were switched from donepezil to rivastigmine, have indicated that approximately 50% of patients experiencing a lack/loss of efficacy with donepezil (a selective acetylcholinesterase [AChE] inhibitor) respond to subsequent treatment with rivastigmine (a dual AChE and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor). In these studies, rivastigmine was well tolerated, and the occurrence of safety/tolerability problems with donepezil was not predictive of similar problems with rivastigmine. In the summer of 2002, leading neurologists and psychiatrists attended a medical experts meeting to discuss the clinical importance of switching ChE inhibitors in AD. The expert panel examined available clinical data, shared clinical experiences, and discussed current clinical guidelines for switching. The panel also aimed to reach consensus on 'whom to switch', 'when to switch' and 'how to switch'. The key findings from that meeting are reported in this review.
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Rivastigmine is a very important drug prescribed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptoms. It is a dual inhibitor, in that it inhibits both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). For our screening program on the discovery of new rivastigmine analogue hits for human butyrylcholinesterase (hBuChE) inhibition, we investigated the interaction of this inhibitor with BuChE using the complimentary approach of the biophysical method, saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR and molecular docking. This allowed us to obtain essential information on the key binding interactions between the inhibitor and the enzyme to be used for screening of hit compounds. The main conclusions obtained from this integrated study was that the most dominant interactions were (a) H-bonding between the carbamate carbonyl of the inhibitor and the NH group of the imidazole unit of H434, (b) stacking of the aromatic unit of the inhibitor and the W82 aromatic unit in the choline binding pocket via π-π interactions and (c) possible CH/π interactions between the benzylic methyl group and the N-methyl groups of the inhibitor and W82 of the enzyme.
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Studies suggest that some acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) increase rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and nightmares in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) but few have studied their effect on other sleep parameters. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sleep architecture in AD patients taking different AChEIs.
With ageing of populations, the worldwide population of persons with dementia will reach over 81 million by 2040, of which the most common cause is Alzheimer's disease. In recent years, there have been major advances in the understanding of its pathogenesis, methods to diagnose it, and treatment. Magnetic resonance brain imaging, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and Pittsburgh compound B and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the brain can facilitate an accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in its early stage, and diagnose the mild cognitive impairment stage of Alzheimer's disease. At present, only symptomatic but not disease-modifying drug treatments are available. Donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine are the currently approved cholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease. Overall, cholinesterase inhibitors show beneficial effects on cognition, activity of daily living, behaviour, and overall clinical rating. Memantine is another symptomatic treatment for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease patients. It has a small beneficial effect on cognition, activity of daily living, behaviour, and overall clinical rating. Vitamin E has antioxidant properties, and may be used in some Alzheimer's disease patients without vascular risk factors. Concurrent non-pharmacological and psychosocial management of patients and their caregivers have a very important role. Disease-modifying therapies are still under development, whilst immunotherapy may be a viable option in the near future.
Using the current method of the memory evaluation, none of the tested doses of the plant extract or essential oil changed the memory status of the animals, indicating either a lack of effective ingredient or unsuitable method for evaluation.
The cholinergic system plays important roles in both learning and addiction. Medications that modify cholinergic tone can have pronounced effects on behaviors reinforced by natural and drug reinforcers. Importantly, enhancing the action of acetylcholine (ACh) in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system can either augment or diminish these behaviors. A threshold model is presented that can explain these seemingly contradictory results. Relatively low levels of ACh rise above a lower threshold, facilitating behaviors supported by drugs or natural reinforcers. Further increases in cholinergic tone that rise above a second upper threshold oppose the same behaviors. Accordingly, cholinesterase inhibitors, or agonists for nicotinic or muscarinic receptors, each have the potential to produce biphasic effects on reward behaviors. Pretreatment with either nicotinic or muscarinic antagonists can block drug- or food- reinforced behavior by maintaining cholinergic tone below its lower threshold. Potential threshold mediators include desensitization of nicotinic receptors and biphasic effects of ACh on the firing of medium spiny neurons. Nicotinic receptors with high- and low- affinity appear to play greater roles in reward enhancement and inhibition, respectively. Cholinergic inhibition of natural and drug rewards may serve as mediators of previously described opponent processes. Future studies should evaluate cholinergic agents across a broader range of doses, and include a variety of reinforced behaviors.
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Greater participation of ethnically diverse participants in clinical trials for AD would generate additional information on possible differences in metabolism, treatment response, adverse events to therapeutic agents, and could foster the investigation of genetic variability among ethnic groups.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the most prevalent cause of dementia with ageing. Pharmacological treatment of AD is based on the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, which have beneficial effects on cognitive, functional, and behavioural symptoms of the disease, but their role in AD pathogenesis is unknown. Other pharmacological therapies are becoming available--including the recently approved drug memantine, an NMDA channel blocker indicated for advanced AD. Here, we review clinical features of the available cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine) including their pharmacological properties, the evidence for switching from one agent to another, "head to head" studies, and the emerging evidence for the use of memantine in AD. New therapeutic approaches--including those more closely targeted to the pathogenesis of the disease--will also be reviewed. These potentially disease modifying treatments include amyloid-beta-peptide vaccination, secretase inhibitors, cholesterol-lowering drugs, metal chelators, and anti-inflammatory agents.
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Post-marketing comparative trials describe medication use patterns in diverse, real-world populations. Our objective was to determine if differences in rates of adherence and tolerability exist among new users to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI's).
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To make evidence-based treatment recommendations for patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with dementia, depression, and psychosis based on these questions: 1) What tools are effective to screen for depression, psychosis, and dementia in PD? 2) What are effective treatments for depression and psychosis in PD? 3) What are effective treatments for PD dementia or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)?
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Two hundred seventy patients with a mean age of 78.5 (SD = 7.56) years and a mean duration of dementia of 3.5 (SD = 2.06) years were included in the study. Sixty-nine percent of patients completed the study with 17.8% discontinuing due to adverse events. Eighty-three percent of patients reported at least 1 adverse event, with the most frequently occurring adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal system (54%). The majority of patients were reported to have either improvement or no decline on the CGIC. A limitation of the study is that the interpretation of the results is based on an overall completion rate of 69%.
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Four drugs are licensed in the UK for the management of Alzheimer's disease. These are the cholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine, and memantine, which decreases the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Cholinesterase inhibitors increase the availability of acetylcholine at the synaptic cleft between neurones by preventing its breakdown by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The four drugs are only licensed for Alzheimer's disease, with rivastigmine also licensed for Parkinson's disease. For vascular dementia they have been shown to give modest improvements in cognitive function but not for activities of living and so are not recommended.
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Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepubertal guinea pigs were treated intramuscularly with one of the test drugs and 30 min later challenged with 1.5 x LD(50) soman (42 microg/kg s.c.). All animals that were pretreated with galantamine (6-8 mg/kg), 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A survived the soman challenge, provided that they were also post-treated with atropine (10 mg/kg i.m.). However, only galantamine was well tolerated. In subsequent experiments, the effectiveness of specific treatment regimens using 8 mg/kg galantamine, 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A was compared in guinea pigs challenged with soman. In the absence of atropine, only galantamine worked as an effective and safe pretreatment in animals challenged with 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Galantamine was also the only drug to afford significant protection when given to guinea pigs after 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Finally, all test drugs except galantamine reduced the survival of the animals when administered 1 or 3 h after the challenge with 0.6 or 0.7 x LD(50) soman. Thus, galantamine emerges as a superior antidotal therapy against the toxicity of soman.
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To identify the predictive factors of rapid cognitive decline (RCD) in a cohort of patients with mild to moderate AD ; and to validate a self-questionnaire for caregivers as a diagnostic tool for rapid decline.
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The last decade was very fruitful in neuropharmacology and notably in the therapeutic strategies of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amount of data, information and breakthroughs is nevertheless difficult to apply in direct relationship with patients. The present review aims at classifying information according to their origins: epidemiology, clinical trials, neurosciences. A guide for drug prescription in Alzheimer's disease is thus warranted and becomes clearer, sure that, in the next future modifications and new strategies will appear. The main goal of the present review is to summarize the state-of-the-art for a non specialist in AD.
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Switching patients with Alzheimer's disease from one cholinesterase inhibitor to another represents a viable option for patients not responding to current therapy. The objective of this large U.S.-based study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to rivastigmine in patients not responding adequately to or declining on treatment with donepezil.
A 67-year-old woman developed complete atrioventricular block after receiving rivastigmine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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Ten studies (n = 338 patients) were included. Four trials addressed interventions for excessive daytime sleepiness. Meta-analysis of the three trials evaluating modafinil showed a significant reduction in sleepiness, as assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) (- 2.24 points, 95% CI - 3.90 to - 0.57, p < 0.05). In one study, treatment with caffeine was associated with a non-significant improvement of 1.71 points in ESS (95% CI, - 3.57 to 0.13). The six remaining trials assessed interventions for insomnia and REM sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD). Single study results suggest that doxepin and YXQN granules might be efficacious, while pergolide may be deleterious for insomnia and that rivastigmine may be used to treat RBD in PD patients. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the efficacy of any of these interventions. No relevant side effects were reported.
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Rivastigmine, a treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD), is the first cholinesterase inhibitor to be available in the transdermal format. We aim to describe user experience and satisfaction with the rivastigmine patch, as well as any clinical changes perceived in patients.
In contrast to the previous case series, findings of the current study did not support the efficacy of adjunctive rivastigmine in treatment of PTSD. This hypothetically could be due to the fact that all the study's subjects scored higher than 25 on Mini-Mental State Examination.
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized in the brain by the deposition of amyloid protein outside the neuron, resulting in the formation of plaques, and inside the neuron with neurofibrillary tangles. It is not yet known what causes these pathologic changes, although age and genetics are major risk factors. The cholinesterase inhibitors tacrine and donepezil block acetylcholinesterase and therefore preserve the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Three other investigational cholinesterase inhibitors are rivastigmine, metrifonate, and galanthamine. Existing therapies being studied for use in AD include vitamin E, estrogen preparations, and anti-inflammatory agents. The physician's role is to care for both the AD patient and the family, which are profoundly affected by this disease.
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In a multicenter, nonblinded, randomized controlled trial, 264 volunteers with AD were randomly divided into 4 groups of 66; groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 received donepezil, rivastigmine, MLC601 and galantamine, respectively. Subjects underwent a clinical diagnostic interview and a cognitive/functional battery including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Patients were visited every 4 months, and the score of cognition was recorded by the neurologists.