evista 70 mg
The effect of raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator, on coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer is not established.
evista medication generic
Vitamin D deficient and vitamin D repleted subjects differed significantly for annualized spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) changes adjusted for all available confounding factors (type of treatment, age, global calcium intake, baseline BMD values). One hundred fifty one patients suffered from a new incident clinical fracture. The adjusted odds ratio for incident fractures in vitamin D deficient as compared to vitamin D repleted women was 1.77 (1.20 - 2.59, 95% CI; p = 0.004).
Considering the worth of developing non-steroidal estrogen analogs, the present study explores the pharmacophore features of arylbenzothiophene derivatives for inhibitory activity to MCF-7 cells using classical QSAR and 3D space modeling approaches. The analysis shows that presence of phenolic hydroxyl group and ketonic linkage in the basic side chain of 2-arylbenzothiophene core of raloxifene derivatives are crucial. Additionally piperidine ring connected through ether linkage is favorable for inhibition of breast cancer cell line. These features for inhibitory activity are also highlighted through 3D space modeling approach that explored importance of critical inter features distance among HB-acceptor lipid, hydrophobic and HB-donor features in the arylbenzothiophene scaffold for activity.
evista usual dosage
With 2-year BZA/CE treatment, women with larger increases in lumbar spine and total hip densities also have higher baseline bone markers. Early reductions in hot flush score (12 wk) are predictive of long-term increases in bone density (24 mo).
evista medication guide
We report a rapid and reliable HPLC-UV method for determination of raloxifene, a kind of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), in rat tissue. Proteins were precipitated by adding 200 microL of acetonitrile and 50 microL of methanol to 100 microL of the tissue homogenates, following vortex mixing and centrifugation. Separation was carried out on a reversed-phase C(18) column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile:0.05 m ammonium acetate (pH 4.0 +/- 0.1; 33:67, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The UV detection wavelength was set at 289 nm and the temperature of column was kept at 23 degrees C, without interference from endogenous tissue compounds. The calibration curve was linear from 0.0125 to 10.0 microg/mL with correlation coefficient of over 0.994, while the limit of quantification was 0.008 microg/mL. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10% (RSD). The recovery of assay was between 95.8 and 104.5%. Furthermore, the method was used to measure the concentration of raloxifene in rat tissue after a simple oral dose. The highest level was observed in liver, lung, spleen, then heart and kidney. The lowest level was found in brain. These results suggest that raloxifene distributes rapidly and moderately into tissues such as liver, lung and spleen.
evista 50 mg
Patients were classified into the alendronate, calcitonin, or raloxifene group, according to their exposure after follow-up.
low cost evista
The study group comprised 33 patients (16 assigned to receive raloxifene and 17 controls, mean +/- SD age 53.8 +/- 5.3 years). Age, body mass index, and baseline BMD values did not differ significantly between the 2 groups of patients. All patients were receiving low-dose prednisolone. After 12 months, femoral neck BMD (mean +/- SD -2.6 +/- 1.0%; P = 0.02) and lumbar spine BMD (-3.3 +/- 0.8%; P = 0.001) decreased significantly in the controls but not in the raloxifene group. No patient had a major flare of lupus, but mild/moderate flares occurred in 4 raloxifene-treated and 6 control patients (P = 0.79). The total area under the curve of SELENA-SLEDAI scores was not significantly different between the 2 groups. A significant increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and a reduction in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level were observed in the raloxifene group but not in controls. One patient in the raloxifene group (6%) withdrew from the study because of hot flushes. No thromboembolic events were reported.
120 mg evista
Both prevalent and incident radiographic vertebral fractures were associated with decreased HRQOL. At baseline, women with a prevalent vertebral fracture had significantly lower OPAQ scores on physical function, emotional status, clinical symptoms, and overall HRQOL compared with women without a prevalent fracture (all P < 0.01). HRQOL scores were lower with each subsequent fracture. The effect of prevalent vertebral fracture was dependent on the location within the spine and was strongest in the lumbar region (L1-L4). Incident vertebral fractures significantly decreased OPAQ scores on physical function, emotional status, clinical symptoms, and overall HRQOL (all P < 0.001).
A systematic review of test accuracy, clinical utility, reliability and reproducibility, and cost-effectiveness of two formation and two resorption bone turnover markers, in patients being treated for osteoporosis with any of bisphosphonate [alendronate (Fosamax, MSD), risedronate (Actonel, Warner Chilcott Company), zolendronate (Zometa, Novartis)], raloxifene (Evista, Eli Lilly and Company Ltd), strontium ranelate (Protelos, Servier Laboratories Ltd), denosumab (Prolia, Amgen Ltd) or teriparatide (Forsteo, Eli Lilly and Company Ltd), was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Given the breadth of the review question, a range of study designs and outcome measures were eligible. The development of a decision model was planned to determine the cost-effectiveness of bone turnover markers for informing changes in patient management if clinical effectiveness could be established.
evista 60 mg
Breast cancer is a devastating illness that affects tens of thousands of American women each year. Although no one can predict who will actually develop breast cancer, a number of risk factors have been found that allow clinicians to identify the women at highest risk. Recent research has focused on exploring options, such as chemoprevention, to prevent high-risk women from developing breast cancer. The selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulators (SERMs) were a logical choice for chemoprevention because of their well-known estrogen antagonist effects in the breast. Tamoxifen is the best studied of these agents and has been shown to reduce the incidence of all breast cancers by 38% and ER-positive tumors by 48%.(1) However, despite this large potential risk reduction, risk management with chemopreventive agents is still not routine. The primary deterrents are believed to be the significant adverse events associated with tamoxifen as well as a perceived decline in quality of life (QOL).(2-4) These concerns led researchers to consider other possible agents that would still be effective but would have fewer or more acceptable side effects than tamoxifen. Raloxifene was proposed as an alternative to tamoxifen based on its estrogen antagonist effects in the breast and its relative safety as an osteoporosis agent. In this article, we will review the trials that led to the emergence of both tamoxifen and raloxifene as chemopreventive agents and will then offer a management strategy for breast cancer prevention in the primary care setting.
evista generic medication
To assess the effect of active vitamin D3 on quality of life (QOL) and pain in raloxifene-treated Japanese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Covalent binding of reactive metabolites to cytochrome P450s (P450s) often causes their mechanism-based inactivation (MBI), resulting in drug-drug interactions or toxicity. The detection and identification of the P450 sites to which reactive metabolites bind would elucidate MBI mechanisms. We describe a proteomic approach using nano-LC/linear ion trap-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry to characterize the binding of a reactive metabolite of raloxifene, which is a known P450 3A4 inhibitor, to the P450 3A4 isozyme. LTQ-FT analyses revealed that the metabolic reaction of raloxifene in a reconstituted P450 3A4 system formed a reactive metabolite adduct to P450 3A4 apoprotein, accompanied by a mass shift of 471 Da relative to intact P450 3A4 apoprotein. The reaction mixtures were digested with trypsin, and then the tryptic digests were analyzed by nano-LC-MS/MS. This technique revealed that VWGFYDGQQPVLAITDPDMIK (position 71-91) was a tryptic peptide modified by the reactive metabolite derived from raloxifene. The site of adduction with the reactive metabolite was further postulated to be the nucleophilic OH group of Tyr-75 of P450 3A4. A proteomic approach using LTQ-FT can yield direct information on the P450 3A4 modification site without radiolabeled compounds. In addition, this information can elucidate mechanisms involved in the covalent binding of reactive metabolites and the inactivation of P450 3A4.
evista generic 2014
Osteoporosis is a disease that results in decreased bone mass and quality of bone, which may lead to fracture. Clinicians need to counsel individuals on appropriate intake of calcium and vitamin D, increasing weight-bearing exercise, limiting alcohol and caffeine, and avoiding smoking. A variety of nonhormonal pharmacological options are available for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, including bisphosphonates, calcitonin (Miacalcin®), raloxifene (Evista®), teriparatide (Forteo®), and denosumab (Prolia®). The National Osteoporosis Foundation and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists have recently published new guidelines, and it is important for clinicians to be familiar with the evidence behind each of these treatment modalities. It is paramount for nurses to make evidence-based, cost-effective decisions about pharmacological therapy based on individual patient-specific factors.
evista drug cost
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) bind to estrogen receptor (ER) and develop tissue-selective actions as estrogen agonists or antagonists. As such, SERMs have been developed to exert estrogen-like beneficial effects against some disorders including osteoporosis, while reducing estrogen-related risks, including breast cancer. Prevention of vertebral fractures by a SERM, raloxifene (RLX), in osteoporotic postmenopausal women has been well established. RLX does not increase or decrease cardiovascular events, overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality or the overall number of strokes, but there appears to be a small increase in stroke mortality. Both RLX and tamoxifen similarly reduce the risk of ER-positive invasive breast cancer. At the same time, RLX treatment is associated with 36% fewer uterine cancer incidence and 29% less thromboembolic events. Keeping these results in mind, it is our responsibility to critically evaluate and decide timing and length of treatment, as well as subjects with benefits or risks for the treatment of osteoporosis by SERMs.
evista tab 60mg
In the United States, an estimated 211,240 new cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in 2005 and approximately 40,410 deaths occurred. In recent years, a number of randomized prospective trials have investigated the use of antiestrogens as a means to reduce the incidence of breast cancer. We aim to describe the results of these trials as they pertain to postmenopausal women. In the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial and the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study-I, tamoxifen reduced the risk of invasive breast cancer by 55% and 30%, respectively, among older participants. However, tamoxifen is associated with adverse events including thromboembolic disease and endometrial cancer. The Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation, aimed primarily at evaluating the use of raloxifene for the prevention of osteoporosis, demonstrated a 72% decreased breast cancer risk. Side effects of raloxifene include thromboembolic events, but not endometrial cancer. Results from the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene trial comparing these two agents are expected in mid-2006. Ongoing chemoprevention trials are evaluating the use of the aromatase inhibitors. At present, tamoxifen is the only FDA-approved agent for breast cancer risk reduction. Decisions regarding its use must remain highly individualized, involving careful consideration of its risks versus benefits.
The potential therapeutic utility of estrogens in schizophrenia is increasingly being recognized. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, appears to act similarly to conjugated estrogens on dopamine and serotonin brain systems and may be a better option since it lacks the possible negative effects of estrogen on breast and uterine tissue. In this study, we assess the utility of raloxifene as an adjunctive treatment for negative symptoms and other psychotic symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia.
evista generic pricing
Nontranscriptional signaling through estrogen receptors (ERs) is important in the cardiovascular system. In particular, estrogen stimulates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. The selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene is effective for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, but its ability to activate eNOS via PI3K is unknown.
evista drug interactions
Sources of nitric oxide alternative to nitric oxide synthases are gaining significant traction as crucial mediators of vessel function under hypoxic inflammatory conditions. For example, capacity to catalyze the one electron reduction of nitrite (NO2-) to ·NO has been reported for hemoglobin, myoglobin and molybdopterin-containing enzymes including xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and aldehyde oxidase (AO). For XOR and AO, use of selective inhibition strategies is therefore crucial when attempting to assign relative contributions to nitrite-mediated ·NO formation in cells and tissue. To this end, XOR inhibition has been accomplished with application of classic pyrazolopyrimidine-based inhibitors allo/oxypurinol or the newly FDA-approved XOR-specific inhibitor, Uloric® (febuxostat). Likewise, raloxifene, an estrogen receptor antagonist, has been identified as a potent (Ki=1.0 nM) inhibitor of AO. Herein, we characterize the inhibition kinetics of raloxifene for XOR and describe the resultant effects on inhibiting XO-catalyzed ·NO formation. Exposure of purified XO to raloxifene (PBS, pH 7.4) resulted in a dose-dependent (12.5-100 μM) inhibition of xanthine oxidation to uric acid. Dixon plot analysis revealed a competitive inhibition process with a Ki=13 μM. This inhibitory process was more effective under acidic pH; similar to values encountered under hypoxic/inflammatory conditions. In addition, raloxifene also inhibited anoxic XO-catalyzed reduction of NO2- to NO (EC50=64 μM). In contrast to having no effect on XO-catalyzed uric acid production, the AO inhibitor menadione demonstrated potent inhibition of XO-catalyzed NO2- reduction (EC50=60 nM); somewhat similar to the XO-specific inhibitor, febuxostat (EC50=4 nM). Importantly, febuxostat was found to be a very poor inhibitor of human AO (EC50=613 μM) suggesting its usefulness for validating XO-dependent contributions to NO2- reduction in biological systems. Combined, these data indicate care should be taken when choosing inhibition strategies as well as inhibitor concentrations when assigning relative NO2- reductase activity of AO and XOR.
evista medication cost
Vaginal estrogen therapy at the lowest effective dose is generally recommended for the treatment of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), but not all women are candidates. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) aim to elicit specific positive effects on targeted tissues with neutral or minimal negative effects on other tissues. This review compares the vaginal effects of currently available and investigational SERMs.
evista 40 mg
This is a cohort study of older women in Pennsylvania who initiated osteoporosis drugs between 1995 and 2005. We included new users of bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and raloxifene. Adherence was categorized based on a measure of compliance as high [proportion of days covered (PDC) ≥ 80%], intermediate (50% < PDC < 80%), or low (PDC ≤ 50%) according to a 180-day ascertainment period. Non-vertebral fracture rates within 365 days after the ascertainment period were compared between adherence categories (reference = low) using Cox proportional hazard models and adjusting for fracture risk factors. Primary and secondary prevention cohorts were examined separately. Adherence to calcitonin and raloxifene were control analyses.
evista drug uses
We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, the Register of Chinese trials developed by the Chinese Cochrane Centre, and the Chinese Med Database, Chinese Biomedical Disc (CBMDisc 1978 to July 2004); VIP (1989 to October 2005)); China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI 1994 to 2003) in October 2005. We hand searched a number of journals, and searched reference lists, databases of ongoing trials and the Internet.
Not much is known about cross-geographic region differences in quality of life (QoL) in women with and without prevalent vertebral fractures (VFX). QoL differed between continents, countries, and ethnicities. The observed differences in QoL mostly appeared larger than the difference in QoL between women with or without mild to moderate VFX.
evista dosage osteoporosis
Immunohistochemical study revealed that GPR30 is expressed in human osteoblasts. Human fetal osteoblast cell lines, hFOB cells, which express GPR30 but lack estrogen receptor, were used for the in vitro experiments. Estradiol or raloxifene induced the proliferation of hFOB cells, which was accompanied by the activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Those proliferative effects were completely abrogated by the transfection of GPR30 small interfering RNA, while the transfection alone did not affect the cell viability.