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The purposes of this study were to investigate the enzymatic activity of different Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility patterns. The study involved a total of 83 isolates of Candida from the genital tract of the female Camelus dromedarius. After species identification, the isolates were analysed for the production/activity of phospholipase, proteinase and haemolysin. In addition, the agar disc diffusion method was performed on the basis of CLSI guidelines M44-A2 protocol for antifungal susceptibility testing. All the isolates were able to produce phospholipase, proteinase and haemolysin. A total of 35.48%, 87.09% and 64.51% of C. albicans isolates exhibited very high phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities, respectively, whereas very high phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities were determined in 5.76%, 23.07% and 45.16% of non-C. albicans isolates respectively. Overall, 61 (73.5%) of Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, 70 (84.3%) susceptible to clotrimazole, 82 (98.8%) susceptible to voriconazole, 76 (91.6%) susceptible to itraconazole, 75 (90.4%) susceptible to ketoconazole, 83 (100%) susceptible to amphotericin B, 81 (97.6%) susceptible to nystatin and 36 (43.4%) susceptible to flucytosine. Candida isolates showed higher haemolytic activity than that of other secreted hydrolases among vaginal Candida species. In addition, amphotericin B was the most in vitro effective antifungal drug and flucytosine had the poorest activity under such conditions.
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Long-term antibiotic therapy is one of the main risk factors for mycosis. The urinary D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol (D-/L-ARA) ratio (a biomarker of several Candida species) was determined by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector in samples from 51 infants undergoing long-term antibiotic therapy. Although 47 of these children had higher D-/L-ARA ratios than healthy controls (P<0.0003), their values nonetheless remained within upper-normal limits (D-/L-ARA ratio of <3.6). Four children with suspected invasive candidiasis had above-normal ratios that normalized with fluconazole treatment.
Expression of fungal virulence factors can be influenced by exposure to antifungal agents. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of three antifungal agents on expression of three secreted proteinase genes associated with virulence in filamentous forms of Candida albicans.
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Careful consideration of the benefit to the mother and the risk to the fetus is required when prescribing antifungal therapy in pregnancy. Imidazoles are considered safe as topical therapy for fungal skin infections during pregnancy. Nystatin is minimally absorbed and is effective for vaginal therapy. Although vaginal use of the imidazoles is probably safe during the later stages of pregnancy, their systemic absorption is higher than when applied to the skin. The systemic antifungal drug with which there has been the most experience in pregnancy is amphotericin B. There have been no reports of teratogenesis attributed to this agent. There is evidence to suggest that fluconazole exhibits dose-dependent teratogenic effects; however, it appears to be safe at lower doses (150 mg/day). Ketoconazole, flucytosine, and griseofulvin have been shown to be teratogenic and/or embryotoxic in animals. Iodides have been associated with congenital goiter and should not be used during pregnancy.
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Azole antifungal agents (eg, fluconazole and itraconazole) have been widely used to treat superficial fungal infections caused by dermatophytes and, unlike the allylamines (such as terbinafine and naftifine), have been associated with resistance development. Although many published manuscripts describe resistance to azoles among yeast and molds, reports describing resistance of dermatophytes are starting to appear. In this review, I discuss the mode of action of azole antifungals and mechanisms underlying their resistance compared with the allylamine class of compounds. Data from published and original studies were compared and summarized, and their clinical implications are discussed. In contrast to the cidal allylamines, static drugs such as azoles permit the occurrence of mutations in enzymes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, and the ergosterol precursors accumulating as a consequence of azole action are not toxic. Azole antifungals, unlike allylamines, potentiate resistance development in dermatophytes.
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Fusarium spp. are nondermatophyte filamentous fungi, frequently reported as an etiologic agent of opportunistic infections in humans; however, their involvement in the etiology of cutaneous lesions is still debatable, especially in immunocompetent patients, where they are often considered as contaminant fungi.
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We performed a retrospective analysis of the time to initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy for candidemia and in-hospital mortality. The definition of appropriate antifungal therapy was based on in vitro susceptibility results, and in the case of fluconazole, pharmacodynamic parameters. Of 123 patients, the mortality rate in the <24 h, 24-48 h, and >48 h groups was 50%, 28%, and 32%, respectively. Patients who never received antifungal treatment had a 61% mortality rate (difference between groups, P =0.06). Multivariate analysis found APACHE II score (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17 for each point increase) to be the only independent predictor of mortality. The time to initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy did not correlate with in-hospital mortality.
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Rifabutin and fluconazole are often given concomitantly as therapy to prevent opportunistic infections in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Recent reports have shown increased levels of rifabutin and its 25-desacetyl metabolite, LM565, in plasma when rifabutin is administered with fluconazole. Since fluconazole is known to inhibit microsomal enzymes, this study was undertaken to determine if this rifabutin-fluconazole interaction was due to an inhibition of human hepatic enzymes. The metabolism of both rifabutin and LM565 was evaluated in human liver microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 in the presence of fluconazole and other probe drugs known to inhibit CYP groups 1A2, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A. The concentrations of rifabutin (1 microg/ml), LM565 (1 microg/ml), and fluconazole (10 and 100 microg/ml) used were equal to those observed in plasma after the administration of rifabutin and fluconazole at clinically relevant doses. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to assess the metabolism of rifabutin and LM565. Rifabutin was readily metabolized to LM565 by human microsomes, but the reaction was independent of NADPH and was not affected by the P-450 inhibitors. No rifabutin metabolism by recombinant CYP 3A4 was found to occur. LM565 was also metabolized by human microsomes to two products, but metabolism was dependent on NADPH and was affected by certain P-450 inhibitors. In addition, LM565 was readily metabolized by the recombinant CYP 3A4 to the same two products found with its metabolism by human microsomes. Therefore, rifabutin is metabolized by human microsomes but not via cytochrome P-450 enzymes, whereas LM565 is metabolized by CYP 3A4.
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Information and data collection sheets were posted on the Internet for download by members interested in participating. All centers were required to obtain approval from their local human subjects research office or equivalent. A one-week time was set during which the center could collect information on any one day, at the center's convenience. Data collection sheets were then sent to the lead author for analysis. Seventeen centers reported data for 371 patients in 22 intensive care units.
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English-language literature was accessed using MEDLINE (January 1988- December 2010). The following Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) search terms were used: "amphotericin B," "fluconazole," "nystatin," "itraconazole," "caspofungin," "voriconazole," "Candida," "prevention and control," and "critically ill." Literature was further limited to studies focusing on patient birth to 6 months of age. Abstracts and original research articles were included. Preference was given to published controlled trials. Articles providing descriptions of the safety and effectiveness of antifungal prophylaxis in neonatal intensive care patients were also used in this review.
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Thirty-six of 49 patients (74%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 59% to 85%) with mild to moderately severe clinical manifestations who entered into the revised study responded to 800 mg of fluconazole daily for 12 weeks as induction therapy. Of the seven patients who failed induction therapy because of progression of histoplasmosis, one died of the infection. Of 36 patients who entered into the maintenance phase of the study receiving 400 mg of fluconazole daily for 1 year, 11 (30.5%) relapsed, including one who died (2.8%). Two of the 49 patients (4.1%) were removed because of grade 4 adverse events, alkaline phosphatase elevation for one and aspartate aminotransferase elevation in the other. The relapse-free rate at 1 year was 53% (95% CI: 32% to 89%), prompting closure of the study.
To study effectiveness of antimycotic medication with flucostat in patients with visceral candidiasis.
The in vitro susceptibilities of 183 clinical yeast isolates to sertaconazole (STZ) were compared to their susceptibilities to clotrimazole (CTZ), econazole (ECZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), miconazole (MNZ), fluconazole (FLZ), itraconazole (ITZ), tioconazole (TCZ), amphotericin B (AMB) and flucytosine (5FC) by using a commercial agar diffusion method. Strains were isolated from vaginal and other superficial clinical samples (18 species of Candida and five strains belonging to other yeast genera). Only one strain (0.5%) was resistant to STZ out of 87.4% of susceptible strains (n=160). The percentage of susceptible strains was higher than those obtained with the other agents evaluated and the percentage of resistant strains was lower than for most of the other antifungals. The pattern of susceptibility of C. albicans to STZ, TCZ, ITZ and CLZ was similar and superior to the pattern of susceptibility of this species to MNZ, ECZ, FLZ, 5FC and KTZ. C. dubliniensis was more susceptible to STZ, MNZ, MNZ, FLZ, ITZ, CLZ than to TCZ, ECZ, 5FC, AMB or KTZ. Ten susceptible strains to STZ were resistant to FLZ and one strain was resistant to ITZ. The overall antifungal activity of STZ in vitro against a wide range of clinically important yeasts from vaginal and cutaneous samples indicates the therapeutic potential of this agent for the treatment of infections caused by these fungi. However, the activity of STZ and the clinical value of in vitro data need to be verified in human clinical trials.
Cryptococcus gattii is an emergent human pathogen. Fluconazole is commonly used for treatment of cryptococcosis, but the emergence of less susceptible strains to this azole is a global problem and also the data regarding fluconazole-resistant cryptococcosis are scarce. We evaluate the influence of fluconazole on murine cryptococcosis and whether this azole alters the polysaccharide (PS) from cryptococcal cells. L27/01 strain of C. gattii was cultivated in high fluconazole concentrations and developed decreased drug susceptibility. This phenotype was named L27/01F, that was less virulent than L27/01 in mice. The physical, structural and electrophoretic properties of the PS capsule of L27/01F were altered by fluconazole. L27/01F presented lower antiphagocytic properties and reduced survival inside macrophages. The L27/01F did not affect the central nervous system, while the effect in brain caused by L27/01 strain began after only 12 hours. Mice infected with L27/01F presented lower production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, with increased cellular recruitment in the lungs and severe pulmonary disease. The behavioral alterations were affected by L27/01, but no effects were detected after infection with L27/01F. Our results suggest that stress to fluconazole alters the capsule of C. gattii and influences the clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis.
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Recently, the incidence of pulmonary cryptococcosis is gradually increasing in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Pulmonary rheumatoid nodules (PRN) are rare manifestations of RA. Eighteen months ago, a 65-year old woman was admitted to hospital due to multiple nodules (2.5×2.1×2 cm) with cavitations in the right lower lobe. She was diagnosed with RA three year ago. She had been taking methotrexate, leflunomide, and triamcinolone. A video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery biopsy was performed and PRN was diagnosed. However, a newly growing huge opacity with cavitation was detected in the same site. Pulmonary cryptococcal infection was diagnosed through a transthoracic computed tomograpy guided needle biopsy. Cryptococcus antigen was detected in serum but not in cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with oral fluconazole which resulted clinical improvement and regression of the nodule on a series of radiography. Herein, we report the case of pulmonary cryptococcosis occurring in the same location as that of the PRN.
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145 consecutive episodes of candidemia occurring in 140 patients with a median age of 81 years (interquartile range, 78-86 years) were analyzed. At the onset of candidemia, 98 (67.6 %) cases were hospitalized in medical wards. Candida albicans accounted for 55 % of all candidemia episodes. Overall, resistance to fluconazole was detected in 8.0 % of Candida isolates. Crude hospital mortality at 30 days was 46 %. Failure to receive adequate antifungal therapy was the significant risk factor for death on multivariable analysis (adjusted HR 1.87, 95 % CI 0.94-2.79).
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Methods for microbiological monitoring could analyze the microflora isolated in 372 patients with iatrogenic diseases of the trachea and esophagus, who were treated at the Department for Surgery of the Lung and Mediastinum, Acad. B. V. Petrovsky Russian Research Center of Surgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in 2003 to 2009. Major groups of microorganisms colonizing the tracheobronchial tree in patients who had undergone long-term resuscitation, injuries, surgery, etc. and in those who had admitted to the department from other clinics are identified. The main clinically significant microorganisms isolated during the pathological process in this area were Staphylococcus epidermadis (3.9-13.3%), St. aureus (12.4-21.1%), Pseudomonas eruginosa (9.2-17.5%), and Candida fungi (7.8-12.2%). This indicates the greater importance of the fungal microflora and its representatives' resistance to the most commonly used drugs. Rational antibacterial therapy regimens are proposed in relation to the type of microorganisms colonizing the tracheobronchial tree.
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We found a low activity of fluconazole (FCZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) against Candida glabrata, C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. haemulonii. Resistant strains to FCZ and ITZ were detected.
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The study included 60 HIV-positive patients (38 males and 22 females, mean age 27 +/- 2) with a first episode of esophageal candidiasis diagnosed by endoscopy (grades I-II of Kodsi's endoscopic classification, and grades I-IIa of Barbaro's clinical classification). No other opportunistic infection of the esophagus was detected. In a double-blind procedure, patients were randomized into three groups of 20 patients each, receiving either fluconazole (3 mg/kg/daily per os), flucytosine (100 mg/kg/daily per os) or placebo. After two weeks of treatment, the patients previously assigned to receive the placebo were double-blindly randomized to receive fluconazole (eight patients) or flucytosine (nine patients). In order to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological therapy, clinical examination was performed at weeks 2 and 5, and then every week up to the end of follow-up (three months); endoscopic examination was performed at weeks 2 and 5, and at the end of follow-up.
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The objective of this study was to investigate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of oral voriconazole in subjects at high risk of developingfungal infections. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, dose escalation study with a fluconazole active control. Twenty-four subjects with hematological malignancies, solid tumors, or autologous bone marrow transplants were randomized to receive voriconazole 200 mg q 12 h (n = 9), voriconazole 300 mg q 12 h (n = 9), or fluconazole 400 mg OD (n = 6)for a period of 14 days. Blood samples were taken for the assessment of voriconazole pharmacokinetics in plasma on Days 1 and 14. Using a 200 mg q 12 h dosing regimen, geometric mean voriconazole peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 904 ng/ml on Day 1 and 2996 ng/ml on Day 14. Geometric mean voriconazole exposure, as measured by the area under the curve within a dosing interval (AUCtau), was 4044 and 20308 ng x h/ml on Days 1 and 14, respectively. On Day 1, geometric mean Cmax and AUC were 1.80- and 1.94-fold higher in subjects receiving voriconazole 300 mg q 12 h than in those receiving 200 mg q 12 h. Similarly, on Day 14, geometric mean Cmax and AUC were 1.56- and 1.80-fold greater in the high-dose group. Although the confidence intervals are large, this trend suggests nonlinearity in pharmacokinetics with respect to dose as seen in healthy volunteers. The absorption of orally administered voriconazole was relatively rapid, with t(max) achieved in 1.7 to 3.0 hours. There was a mean 5.4- and 5.0-fold accumulation of voriconazole over the 14-day study period in the 200 mg and 300 mg q 12 h dose groups, respectively. Voriconazole was generally safe and well tolerated. Mild, reversible visual disturbances were the most commonly reported adverse event but were not associated with treatment discontinuation. No patient developed a breakthrough fungal infection. It was concluded that in this group of patients at risk of fungal infection, voriconazole pharmacokinetics was consistent with that reported in healthy volunteers.
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This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital.
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In vitro susceptibilities of 100 clinical dermatophyte isolates belonging to five species from Iran toward lanoconazole and luliconazole were compared with ten other antifungal agents including econazole, itraconazole, miconazole, fluconazole, griseofulvin, butenafine, terbinafine, caspofungin, anidulafungin and tolnaftate. MIC and MEC values were analyzed according to CLSI M38-A2 document. The isolates were previously identified to the species level using PCR-RFLP on ITS rDNA region. The range of luliconazole and lanoconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was 0.016-0.032 and 0.063-1 μg/ml, respectively for dermatophyte species. Luliconazole and lanoconazole revealed potent activity against all dermatophyte isolates. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and luliconazole showed the best activity with the lowest geometric mean 0.01, 0.016, and 0.018 μg/ml, respectively, followed by tolnaftate (0.06 μg/ml), terbinafine (0.07 μg/ml), itraconazole (0.183 μg/ml), butenafine (0.188 μg/ml), econazole (0.20 μg/ml), lanoconazole (0.24 μg/ml), griseofulvin (1.28 μg/ml), miconazole (2.34 μg/ml) and fluconazole (15.34 μg/ml). The current study demonstrated luliconazole and lanoconazole displayed excellent activity against all dermatophyte isolates, although the majority of dermatophyte isolates showed low susceptibility to griseofulvin and very low to miconazole, and fluconazole.
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The aim of this study was to determine and compare the efficacy of treatment with fluconazole and nystatin in Brazilian women with vaginal Candida. In a population of 932 women, vaginal cultures were performed for yeasts, whether or not the women showed signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Yeasts were isolated from 12.2% of the women (114/932): 53.2% of the yeasts were Candida albicans, 27.0% C. glabrata, 13.5% C. tropicalis and 6.3% C. parapsilosis. Treatment was carried out with both drugs. The overall mean cure rates with fluconazole (87.0%) and nystatin (74.0%) were similar; among women with non-albicans, the cure rate with fluconazole was 100%, whereas that with nystatin was 44.4%. The cure rate for women with C. albicans was high with both fluconazole and nystatin; however, for those with non-albicans species the cure rate was excellent with fluconazole and very low with nystatin, differing from the majority of in vitro studies.
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The primary aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose fluconazole and a 7-day regimen of itraconazole for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. In this open-label trial, 40 HIV-positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis were randomized to receive either one dose of fluconazole 150 mg or seven daily doses of itraconazole 100 mg. Clinical condition was assessed at baseline, day 8, and day 30 (follow-up). In the fluconazole group, 15 of 20 (75%) patients were clinically cured on day 8, three (15%) were clinically improved, and two (10%) were treatment failures. At follow-up, six (30%) patients experienced relapse. In the itraconazole group, four of 17 (24%) patients were clinically cured at 8 days, and two (12%) were clinically improved; two patients relapsed by day 30. Ten (50%) patients in the itraconazole group were taking concomitant medications that could potentially affect the bioavailability of itraconazole. After excluding the results from these patients, clinical response rates remained significantly higher in the fluconazole treatment arm. These results suggest that a single 150-mg dose of fluconazole may be a safe, effective, and convenient therapy for acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related oropharyngeal candidiasis. The lower response rate in the patients who received itraconazole 100 mg daily for 7 days could be explained by drug interactions and the unpredictable absorption of itraconazole.
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To describe published data of micafungin as treatment against invasive mold infections, specially analysing its role in the inmunodepressed host and critical care setting.
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The increasing resistance of Candida species to fluconazole is cause for concern. To determine the molecular mechanisms involved in resistance to fluconazole, I used a scheme of transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a genetically tractable yeast that is closely related to Candida albicans. This technique, which permits the generation and analysis of multiple random Tn3::LEU2::lacZ fusions, can be used as a disruption mutagen (N. B. Burns et al., Genes Dev. 8:1087-1105, 1994). By using the Tn3::LEU2::lacZ library as a disruption mutagen, I found recessive mutations in genes that were previously found to be involved in azole resistance, e.g., PDR5 and CPR1, and in genes previously found to be involved in azole sensitivity, e.g., ERG3. This approach also enabled me to identify recessive mutations in three genes not previously known to be involved in azole sensitivity. Two of the genes, ADA3 and SPT7, are general transcriptional regulators; the third, YMR034c, is a putative sterol transporter. Finally, by screening the Tn3::LEU2::lacZ library for lacZ fusions induced by a low concentration of fluconazole, I identified genes known to be induced by azoles as well as a variety of other genes not previously known to be induced by the drug. In conclusion, transposon mutagenesis is a promising screening tool for use in identifying novel drug targets and in uncovering the mechanisms involved in the response of S. cerevisiae to antifungal drugs.
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Candida parapsilosis, an emergent agent of nosocomial infections, was previously made up of a complex of three genetically distinct groups (groups I, II, and III). Recently, the C. parapsilosis groups have been renamed as distinct species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. In Portugal, no data pertaining to the distribution and antifungal susceptibility of these Candida species are yet available. In the present report, we describe the incidence and distribution of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis among 175 clinical and environmental isolates previously identified by conventional methods as C. parapsilosis. We also evaluated the in vitro susceptibilities of the isolates to fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and two echinocandins, caspofungin and anidulafungin. Of the 175 isolates tested, 160 (91.4%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 (2.3%) were identified as C. orthopsilosis, and 5 (2.9%) were identified as C. metapsilosis. Six isolates corresponded to species other than the C. parapsilosis group. Interestingly, all isolates from blood cultures corresponded to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility profile showed that only nine (5.6%) C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were susceptible-dose dependent or resistant to fluconazole, and a single strain displayed a multiazole-resistant phenotype; two (1.3%) C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains were amphotericin B resistant. All C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to azoles and amphotericin B. A high number of strains were nonsusceptible to the echinocandins (caspofungin and anidulafungin).
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Compared to the controls, exposure to nystatin, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and chlorhexidine gluconate suppressed the ability of C. dubliniensis isolates to adhere to acrylic denture surfaces with a reduction of 74.68, 74.27, 57.31, 44.57 and 56.53% (p < 0.001 for all drugs), respectively.