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A Pubmed search was carried out differentiating randomised, clinical trials; longitudinal, retrospective studies; and metanalysis on the use of tolterodine for overactive bladder treatment. In the comparison with other antimuscarinic agents, only randomised, clinical trials were considered.
In the 7 studies reviewed, TCl was effective and well tolerated in patients with urge incontinence caused by idiopathic detrusor muscle overactivity or neurogenic detrusor overactivity resulting from spinal cord injury. However, this agent was associated with anticholinergic adverse effects similar to those of other anticholinergic agents; careful monitoring of tolerability is required.
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The article presents the results of the examination and treatment of 30 patients with overactive bladder receiving M-anticholinergic drug tolterodine at a dose of 2 mg twice a day for 1 month. Evaluating the effectiveness of the drug was performed on the basis of the data on voiding diary, urodynamic changes, and results of ultrasound examination. The analysis showed that treatment with tolterodine within 15 days has a positive trend: normalization of urination was observed in 96.6% of patients, 76.6% of patients have reported decrease of the frequency of urgency urination, and episodes of imperative urinary incontinence decreased in 83.3% of patients. The therapy promoted the increase the duration and volume of urination, reduction of maximum uroflow rate, indicating that the effectiveness of treatment. On the 30th day of treatment, the vast majority (80%) of the patients reported improvement of their wellbeing.
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Men aged over 70 years with BPH/bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and clinical storage symptoms were randomly treated with or without tolterodine ER in combination with alpha-blockers and/or 5ARI for 12 months. Among them, 50 patients (group 1) received additive tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg q.d., another 87 patients (group 2) did not. All patients had a baseline and 12th month post-treatment evaluation, which comprised of uroflowmetry, post-void residual (PVR) volume, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life index (QoL-I), transrectal ultrasound of the prostate and serum prostate specific antigen.
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Daytime wetting is a common problem with various causes that can usually be identified through a careful history, thorough physical examination, and urinalysis. Conservative approaches to therapy have a successful outcome in most children. Invasive diagnostic imaging studies and pharmacologic or surgical intervention are necessary only for carefully selected children.
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This was a prospective, randomized, open-label study. A total of 75 patients (25 men and 50 women) with OAB symptoms were randomized to treatment with solifenacin (n = 39) or tolterodine (n = 36). Efficacy and safety variables were assessed and compared with the baseline and between the two groups.
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Due to the esterase-mediated cytochrome P450-independent formation of 5-HMT and involvement of multiple metabolic and renal excretion pathways in the elimination of 5-HMT, the effects of patient-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors on the pharmacokinetics of fesoterodine are only modest, with some 2-fold higher 5-HMT exposure. Therefore, in contrast to tolterodine, no reduction of fesoterodine dosage is required under conditions of reduced elimination. In most cases of drug interaction or renal/hepatic impairment, the fesoterodine dose may be increased to 8 mg/day based on individual patients' response, or patients may be required to remain at the initial recommended dose of 4 mg/day.
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This was a single-site, single-dose, randomized, double-blind, 4-treatment, 4-period crossover study. Subjects were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment sequences that included extended-release oxybutynin 10 mg, tolterodine 2 mg, immediate-release oxybutynin 5 mg, and placebo. Saliva output was measured objectively before dosing with each treatment and at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after dosing.
At week 12, solifenacin and tolterodine demonstrated equal efficacy in reducing the number of micturition (-2.56 ±3.31 vs. -2.44 ± 4.56, p = 0.58), urgency (-1.70 ± 3.07 vs. -1.15 ± 2.68, p =0.37) and incontinence (-2.79 ± 2.82 vs. -4.67 ± 9.29, p =0.28) episodes per 24 hours. There was no difference in improvement of the quality of life. The patient and physician assessments of treatment benefit were not statistically different for solifenacin and tolterodine (p = 0.23 and p = 0.52, respectively), with the majority showing benefits in both groups. The incidence of major adverse events, including dry mouth (18.0%vs. 8.3%, p = 0.31) and constipation (12.8%vs. 2.8%, p = 0.20) was not significantly different. Compared with baseline, the severity of dry mouth did not increase in either group.
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Children with a history of diurnal urinary incontinence were arbitrarily assigned to extended release oxybutynin, immediate release tolterodine or long acting tolterodine. The dose was titrated until effective (onset of complete diurnal urinary continence), maximal recommended dosage was achieved or bothersome anticholinergic side effects developed. An independent observer recorded the dose used, anticholinergic side effects and efficacy of therapy (incidence of urinary frequency, urgency, posturing and urinary incontinence).
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To determine clinical and demographic characteristics associated with antimuscarinic treatment response using a regression model.
The mean urinary symptom index was 22.1 in group 1, 22.1 in group 2, and 28.1 in the placebo group (p = 0.032). The mean pain scores were 8.2, 11.7, and 16.2, respectively (p = 0.020). There were no significant differences in urinary symptoms and pain between the alfuzosin and tolterodine ER groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in the general health, work performance, and sexual performance scores among the groups.
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Results from two randomized controlled trials were used as input data in the cost-effectiveness analysis.
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In vitro binding affinities of tolterodine and its metabolite 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite in the mouse cerebral cortex and bladder were considerably greater than those of oxybutynin and darifenacin. Also, muscarinic receptor binding affinity of oxybutynin and its metabolite N-desethyl-oxybutynin in the cerebral cortex compared with that in the bladder was 2 to 3 times higher, whereas that of tolterodine and 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite was approximately 2 times lower. Oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1 micromol/kg), tolterodine (6.31 micromol/kg) and darifenacin (59.1 micromol/kg) showed binding activity that was approximately equal to that of bladder muscarinic receptors. Oral administration of oxybutynin (76.1 micromol/kg) showed significant binding of cerebral cortical muscarinic receptors in mice, as indicated by about a 2-fold increase in K(d) values for specific [(3)H]N-methylscopolamine binding 0.5 and 2 hours later. On the other hand, tolterodine and darifenacin given at oral doses that would exert a similar extent of bladder receptor binding activity as oxybutynin showed only a low level of binding activity of central muscarinic receptors in mice.
A post-hoc analysis of data from a retrospective, cross-sectional and observational study was performed in a cohort of 748 OAB adults patients (OAB-V8 score ≥8), who switched to fesoterodine from their first tolterodine-ER-based therapy within the 3-4 months before study visit. Effect of fesoterodine doses (4 mg vs. 8 mg) and patient age (<65 yr vs. ≥65 yr) were assessed. Patient reported treatment benefit [Treatment Benefit Scale (TBS)] and physician assessment of improvement with change [Clinical Global Impression of Improvement subscale (CGI-I)] were recorded. Treatment satisfaction, degree of worry, bother and interference with daily living activities due to urinary symptoms were also assessed.
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Tolterodine ER 4 mg once daily (P = 0.0001) and tolterodine IR 2 mg twice daily (P = 0.0005) both significantly reduced the mean number of urge incontinence episodes per week compared with placebo. The median reduction in these episodes as a percentage of the baseline values was 71% for tolterodine ER, 60% for tolterodine IR, and 33% for placebo. The ER formulation was 18% more effective than the IR formulation (P <0.05). Treatment with both formulations of tolterodine was also associated with statistically significant improvements in all other micturition diary variables compared with placebo. For both formulations, the mean decreases in micturition frequency (P <0.0079) and pad usage (P <0.0145) were significant, and the mean volume voided per micturition increased (P = 0.0001). The rate of dry mouth (of any severity) was 23% for tolterodine ER, 30% for tolterodine IR, and 8% for placebo. The overall dry mouth rate for patients taking tolterodine ER was 23% lower than for tolterodine IR (P <0.02), and the rate of severe dry mouth in the ER group was only 1.8%. The rates of withdrawal were comparable for the two active groups and the placebo group. No safety concerns were noted.
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A capillary solid-phase extraction (SPE) system has been coupled directly to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for quantification of free tolterodine and metabolite concentrations in plasma. The unbound fraction of these compounds was obtained by ultrafiltration of plasma. The ultrafiltrate was directly injected onto the SPE capillary (4 mm x 200 microm, 5 microm C18). After desalting and clean-up of the sample, the analytes were eluted in backflush mode with methanol-1 mM triethylamine (70:30, v/v), providing considerable solute focusing. Elution from the SPE capillary was improved by inserting a short trapping capillary between the SPE capillary and the MS interface, by which analyte focusing was increased. The unresolved compounds eluted simultaneously with the remaining matrix compounds and were detected in a multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. No interference of the sample matrix on detection was observed, allowing aqueous standards to be used for calibration. Linear calibration curves were obtained between 0.05 and 1000 ng/ml (corresponding to 150 pM-3 microM) and the limit of detection was 50 pg/ml injecting 10 microl. Equilibration of the SPE capillary, sample loading, elution and detection took less then 6 min per sample.
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The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of tolterodine following single oral and intravenous doses in healthy volunteers. A secondary aim was to identify major urinary metabolites and determine mass balance. Single oral doses of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4, and 12.8 mg of tolterodine (as the tartrate salt) were given to 17 healthy male volunteers. Two intravenous doses (0.64 and 1.28 mg) were administered to 8 of the volunteers and mass balance was studied after a single oral dose of 5 mg (14C)-tolterodine in 6 subjects. Tolterodine was rapidly absorbed following oral administration (time to peak serum concentration 0.9 +/- 0.4 h). The absolute bioavailability was highly variable, ranging from 10 to 70%. The volume of distribution at steady-state ranged from 0.9 to 1.6 l/kg and systemic clearance ranged from 0.23 to 0.52 l/h/kg, which resulted in a terminal half-life of 2-3 h. Tolterodine exhibited high first-pass metabolism and 2 hepatic metabolic pathways were identified: oxidation and dealkylation. Independent of route of administration, < 1% of the parent compound was excreted unchanged in urine. Five metabolites were structurally identified in urine. Following oral administration of (14C)-tolterodine, the excretion of radioactivity into urine and feces was 77 +/- 4.0% and 17 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Tolterodine decreased stimulated salivation after 3.2 mg, increased heart rate after 6.4 mg, and nearpoint of vision after 12.8 mg. Six of 8 subjects reported micturition difficulties after a dose of 12.8 mg. The lack of a direct relationship between tolterodine serum concentrations and effects on stimulated salivation suggested the presence of pharmacologically active metabolite(s).
Our retrospective analysis reveals that a decrease of REM sleep under tolterodine is found only in individuals carrying one or two deficient CYP2D6 alleles.
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A 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.