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A 48-year-old HIV-positive white man was treated with antiretroviral triple therapy, consisting of indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. His HIV-RNA (viral load) became undetectable (<400 copies/mL) less than two months after this therapy was started; this was confirmed one month later. Shortly after the start of antiretroviral therapy, the patient developed herpes zoster, which was treated with famciclovir. Tramadol was initially prescribed for postherpetic neuralgia; however, this was substituted with carbamazepine due to insufficient analgesic effect. Indinavir plasma concentrations decreased substantially during carbamazepine therapy. Carbamazepine was stopped after 2.5 months and, two weeks later, the HIV-RNA was detectable (6 x 103 copies/mL). Resistance for lamivudine was observed in that blood sample; resistance for zidovudine might have been present, and resistance to indinavir was not detected. A few months later, a further increase of the HIV-RNA occurred (300 x 103 copies/mL), after which the therapy was switched to a new antiretroviral regimen containing nevirapine, didanosine, and stavudine.
Despite the implementation of cardiac monitoring guidelines, clozapine-induced myocarditis continues to cause deaths in Australia, and the risk is a barrier to prescription of this effective drug for the treatment of schizophrenia. This study was designed to identify clinical and phenotypic risk factors for clozapine-induced myocarditis.
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298 adult outpatients with bipolar I disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were randomized to receive ziprasidone, 20-80 mg twice a day, or placebo twice a day for 6 weeks plus their preexisting mood stabilizer. The primary efficacy variable was change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total scores from baseline to 6 weeks. The key secondary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline to week 6 in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scores. Computer-administered assessments for diagnostic confidence were included for quality control and to evaluate study performance. The study was conducted between October 2007 and December 2008.
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The aim of this study was to investigate by a prospective, self-controlled method, whether treatment with carbamazepine (CBZ) and sodium valproate (VPA) monotherapy may alter serum lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] concentrations in epileptic children.
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PLS may show histopathological findings similar to MF and take a prolonged course even after the cessation of causative agents. Thus, a clear understanding and diagnosis of this disease is considered to have an important effect on treatment and prognosis.
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Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) represents an effective agent for the treatment of many cancers, though the majority of thyroid cancers are found to be resistant. Therefore it would be necessary to identify agents capable of increasing the sensitivity of these cancers to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Here, we examined the therapeutic effect and its underlying mechanism of combination treatment of TRAIL and histone deacetylase inhibitor, Valproic acid (VPA) in vitro using human papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) cells and in vivo using an orthotopic mouse model of PTC. TRAIL-VPA combination therapy synergistically induced apoptotic cell death in TRAIL-resistant PTC through caspase activation. In addition, downregulation of antioxidant transcription factor, Nrf2 by co-treatment of TRAIL-VPA induces cell death via suppression of Bcl-xL in vitro and in vivo; these effects were further enhanced following siRNA inhibition of these proteins in combination with TRAIL or TRAIL-VPA. Taken together, VPA sensitized TRAIL-resistant PTC cells to apoptotic cell death through involvement of Nrf2 and Bcl-xL. Thus, the combination of VPA and TRAIL may be a promising therapy for TRAIL-resistant PTC.
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Serum Lp(a) concentrations have been determined in 18 epileptic children before and at 6, 12 and 24 months of treatment with CBZ monotherapy and in 30 epileptic children before and at 6, 12 and 24 months of treatment with VPA monotherapy. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I and B concentrations and serum concentrations of biochemical markers of liver and renal function were also measured in the study participants.
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Vestibular migraine is considered to be the second most common cause of vertigo and the most common cause of spontaneous episodic vertigo. The duration of attacks varies from seconds to days, usually lasting minutes to hours, and they mostly occur independently of headaches. Long-lasting individual attacks are treated with generic antivertiginous and antiemetic drugs. Specific antimigraine drugs are unlikely to be very effective for rescue. The mainstay of the management of vestibular migraine is prophylactic medication. To date, there are no controlled trials available; the body of knowledge builds on case series and retrospective or observational studies. Most drugs are also used for the prevention of migraine headaches. The choice of medication should be guided by its side effect profile and the comorbidities of patients. Betablockers such as propanolol or metoprolol are preferred in patients with hypertension but in the absence of asthma. Anticonvulsants include topiramate when patients are obese, valproic acid and lamotrigine. Lamotrigine is preferred if vertigo is more frequent than headaches. Calcium antagonists include verapamil and flunarizine. If patients have anxiety, tricyclic antidepressants such as amitryptiline or nortryptiline or SSRIs and benzodiazepines such as clonazepam are recommended. Acetazolamide is effective in rare genetic disorders related to migraine-like episodic ataxia; however, its place in vestibular migraine is still to be established. Nonpharmacological measures such as diet, sleep, hygiene and avoidance of triggers are recommended as they are for migraine. Vestibular rehabilitation might be useful when there are complications such as loss of confidence in balance or visual dependence.
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The authors evaluated the fluorescence polarization (FP) assay on the COBAS INTEGRA 700 using COBAS INTEGRA reagent system cassettes for estimating the antiepileptic drugs valproic acid, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital in serum. The study comprised the determination of precision, method comparison performed against a conventional HPLC assay and linearity studies, according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) protocols. Precision results were well acceptable for all FP assays. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) were from 1.3% to 2.4% for valproic acid, from 0.8% to 2.8% for phenytoin, from 1.7% to 3.3% for carbamazepine, and from 1.3% to 2.3% for phenobarbital. Interassay CVs for these drugs ranged from 1.5% to 2.6%, from 2.9% to 6.5%, from 1.8% to 3.7% and from 1.5% to 3.2%, respectively. Results of the FP assays showed excellent correlation with those from HPLC: r = 0.99 for valproic acid, r = 0.98 for phenytoin, r = 0.98 for carbamazepine and r = 0.99 for phenobarbital. Linearity was satisfactory, with all CVs below the acceptable level. With the COBAS INTEGRA 700 analyzer FP assays are fully automated, which is less laborious and saves time compared with HPLC. Moreover, the fast measuring procedure is convenient in short turnaround time (STAT) analysis. It is an analytically reliable and rapid system, which can be used successfully for the therapeutic monitoring of antiepileptic drugs in serum.
Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used drug to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorders. Known properties of VPA are inhibitions of histone deacetylases and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK), which cannot fully explain VPA's clinical features. We found that VPA induces the proteasomal degradation of DICER, a key protein in the generation of micro RNAs. Unexpectedly, the concentration of several micro RNAs increases after VPA treatment, which is caused by the upregulation of their hosting genes prior to DICER degradation. The data suggest that a loss of DICER protein and changes in micro RNA concentration contributes to the clinical properties of VPA. VPA can be used experimentally to down regulate DICER protein levels, which likely reflects a natural regulation of DICER.
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A research in the main database sources has been conducted to obtain an overview of the new pharmacological approaches in GAD (anticonvulsants, atypical antipsychotics, agomelatine, memantine, ondansetron and riluzole).
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This paper aims to review research data available on the efficacy of the different medication classes and agents for CD and to specify the considerations that should be taken accordingly.
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The study demonstrates a slightly increased risk only for preeclampsia, vaginal hemorrhage after delivery, and respiratory distress in the newborn after the use of AEDs during pregnancy.
Changes in the pharmacological management of acute mania will have an impact on clinical outcomes and health resource utilization.
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To investigate the effect of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and glucuronidation (UGT2B7) on the pharmacokinetics of lersivirine (UK-453,061), a next generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with a unique resistance profile, and to investigate the safety and tolerability of co-administration of lersivirine with these inhibitors.
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To assess the efficacy of mood-stabilizing medications for depression and suicidality in pediatric bipolar disorder.
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After having satisfied eligibility criteria, a total of 3999 first-time users of ergotamine and triptans were included of whom 479 (12%) had initiated migraine-prophylactic therapy. This corresponded to an incidence density of 6.0 per 100 person-years and was highest for patients younger than 45 years and for multiple abortive migraine drug users. The incidence fell considerably from 12.0 person-years in 1994 to 5.1 person-years in 1998. More than half of the patients had been prescribed a beta-blocker as the migraine-prophylactic drug of first choice by both general practitioners and neurologists. The use of antidepressants and/or benzodiazepines and oral contraceptives was significantly higher in patients starting prophylaxis compared with those who did not. The consumption of abortive migraine drug use (4.0 defined daily doses per month vs 3.7 defined daily doses per month), and switch patterns (27.1% vs 30.9%) were similar for patients starting and not starting prophylaxis.
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The aqueous extract and the alkaloid fraction from Crassocephalum bauchiense caused dose-dependent inhibition of novelty-induced rearing behavior, decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypy and fighting, and had significant fall of the body temperature. The aqueous extract prolonged the sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. This prolongation was not reversed by bicuculline, a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABA(A) receptors complex. However, the effect of the aqueous extract on sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time was blocked by N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide, a partial inverse agonist of the benzodiazepine site in the GABA(A) receptor complex and flumazenil, a specific antagonist of the benzodiazepine site in the GABAA receptor complex. In biochemical experiments, the concentration of the inhibitory amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, was significantly increased in the brain of animals treated with the aqueous extract of Crassocephalum bauchiense and sodium valproate.
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We compared different serum total valproic acid (VPA) concentrations, and the effectiveness of this drug in maintaining alcohol abstinence was evaluated by percentage of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) values.
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SMN protein quantification by this SMN ELISA is a useful additional tool for evaluating the effects of experimental treatment in SMA.
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A patient suffering from juvenile myoclonic epilepsy experienced myoclonic jerks, fairly regularly, while playing chess. The myoclonus appeared particularly when he had to plan his strategy, to choose between two solutions or while raising the arm to move a chess figure. Video-EEG-polygraphy was performed, with back averaging of the myoclonus registered during a chess match and during neuropsychological testing with Kohs cubes. The EEG spike wave complexes were localised in the fronto-central region. [Published with video sequences].
We compared the effect of valproate (VPA) on cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRGlc) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), measured with 18F-2-deoxyglucose (18FDG) and 15O water positron emission tomography (PET), in 10 normal volunteers. Mean VPA dose was 17.7 mg/kg, and mean VPA level was 82.1 mg/L (+/-16.5) for 4 weeks. VPA reduced global CMRGlc by 9.4% (9.60 +/- 0.76 vs. 8.59 +/- 1.02 mg Glc/min/100 g, p < 0.05) and regionally in all anatomic areas (p < 0.05 for 11 of 26 areas). VPA diminished global CBF by 14.9% (56.55 +/- 6.70 vs. 47.48 +/- 4.42 ml/min/100 g, p < 0.002) and regionally in all anatomic areas (p < 0.05 for 12 of 26 areas). No significant correlation was noted between VPA level and either global CMRGlc or CBF. The effect of VPA on global CMRGlc is similar to that of carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin but less than that of phenobarbital, valium, or combination therapy with VPA and CBZ. VPA reduced regional CBF (rCBF) but not CMRGlc in the thalamus, an effect that may be associated with VPA's mechanism of action against generalized seizures.
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We experienced a case of alachlor herbicide (Lasso) intoxication. A 57-year-old man was transported to our hospital by ambulance after ingesting 450 mL of Lasso. He was unconscious and had difficulty in breathing. Gastric lavage was performed after tracheal intubation and the patient was placed on mechanical ventilation. Activated charcoal and laxative were administrated. Even after admission, disturbance of consciousness persisted. He had liver and kidney disorders but these did not progress to multiple organ failure. He experienced convulsions from day 4 and was administered anticonvulsants. Convulsion was intractable and needed long-term treatment. His general condition improved until discharge. He was weaned from mechanical ventilation and recovered consciousness, but he still displayed tremors. The herbicide (Lasso) is a combination of alachlor and monochlorobenzene. Studies have shown that alachlor is neurotoxic and monochlorobenzene accumulates in the brain. In case of intoxication with the herbicide Lasso, treatment is required for ameliorating neurotoxic effects and intractable convulsion as well as liver and kidney disorders, gastrointestinal mucosal damage, hematopoietic disorder, and acute circulatory failure.
Efficacy was monitored with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and safety and tolerability were monitored with the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Events (SAFTEE). Frequently reported adverse effects before conversion were sedation, stomach upset, and tremor. At study conclusion, no differences were seen in total BPRS scores or individual BPRS items, although a trend pointed to decreased somatic complaints (p=0.057). The mean serum concentration of valproic acid among participants did not change significantly in the transition from the delayed-release formulation to an equivalent dose-adjusted extended-release formulation (90.5 mg/L vs 95.5 mg/L, p=0.493). At study conclusion, significant decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p=0.010) and potassium (p=0.043) levels were identified. Three categories of adverse effects decreased significantly after patients switched to the extended-release form of divalproex sodium: sedation (p=0.022), stomach or abdominal discomfort (p=0.045), and tremor (p=0.004).
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Oxcarbazepine (OXC) has been licensed as monotherapy and add-on treatment in epilepsy patients with partial seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures (PS) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures without partial onset (GTCS). Its use as monotherapy in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy was investigated in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group comparison with sodium valproate (VPA). Two-hundred and forty-nine patients with either PS or generalized seizures aged 15-65 years were randomized. After a retrospective baseline, patients were randomized to VPA or OXC in a 1:1 ratio. The double-blind treatment phase was divided into two periods, flexible titration and maintenance. The titration period was 8 weeks followed by 48 weeks of individualized, maintenance treatment given three times a day. Three primary analyses were used to assess efficacy, tolerability, and the association between the two. In the efficacy analyses comprising 212 patients who had at least one seizure assessment during the maintenance period, no statistically significant difference at the 5% level was found between the treatment groups. Sixty patients (56.6%) in the OXC group and 57 patients (53.8%) in the VPA group were seizure free during maintenance treatment. Fifty-two patients in the OXC group discontinued treatment prematurely (15 because of tolerability reasons) compared to 41 patients in the VPA group (ten due to tolerability reasons). There was no statistically significant difference between the treatment groups with respect to the total number of premature discontinuations or those due to adverse experiences. This trial provides support for the efficacy and safety of OXC as first-line treatment in adults with PS and GTCS.