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Cytoxan (Cyclophosphamide)

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Cytoxan is used for treating certain types of the following cancers: lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, mycosis fungoides, neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, eye cancer, and breast cancer. It is usually used in combination with other medicines. It may also be used to treat certain kidney problems (nephrotic syndrome) in children or for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Xeloda, Paclitaxel


Also known as:  Cyclophosphamide.


Cytoxan is an antineoplastic. It works by stopping or slowing the growth or spread of certain cancer cells.

Generic name of Cytoxan is Cyclophosphamide.

Cytoxan is also known as Cyclophosphamide, Cycloxan.

Brand name of Cytoxan is Cytoxan.


Take Cytoxan tablets by mouth.

Swallow Cytoxan with water.

Take your doses at regular intervals.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.


If you overdose Cytoxan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature at or below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. This medicine can be stored at room temperatures of up to 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) for a short time. Protect from temperatures above 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Cytoxan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Cytoxan if you are allergic to Cytoxan components or to other similar medicines.

Do not take Cytoxan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Cytoxan if you are taking tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking medicines (etanercept).

Cytoxan may reduce the number of clot-forming cells (platelets) in your blood. To prevent bleeding, avoid situations in which bruising or injury may occur.

Cytoxan may lower your body's ability to fight infection. Prevent infection by avoiding contact with people with colds or other infections.

Use Cytoxan with great care in case you want to undergo an operation (dental or any other).

Cytoxan may decrease your body's ability to heal wounds.

Cytoxan may increase your chance of developing a second cancer, sometimes even years after stopping treatment with Cytoxan.

Cytoxan may cause infertility that is sometimes permanent.

Be very careful receiving any vaccinations while you are using Cytoxan.

The use of birth control is recommended while using Cytoxan.

Lab tests, including complete blood cell counts, platelet counts, and urine tests, may be performed to monitor your progress or to check for side effects.

Elderly people hould be very careful with Cytoxan because they may be more sensitive to its effects.

Do not stop taking Cytoxan suddenly.

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Twenty-five patients with progressive mCRPC were enrolled. Treatment comprised of initial 7 days administration of metronomic cyclophosphamide 50 mg p.o. DCVAC/PCa treatment consisted of a median twelve doses of 1 × 107 dendritic cells per dose injected s.c. (Aldara creme was applied at the site of injection) during a one-year period. The initial 2 doses of DCVAC/PCa were administered at a 2-week interval, followed by the administration of docetaxel (75 mg/m2) and prednisone (5 mg twice daily) given every 3 weeks until toxicity or intolerance was observed. The DCVAC/PCa was then injected every 6 weeks up to the maximum number of doses manufactured from one leukapheresis.

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In the absence of a suitable matched related donor, most patients will be able to find an alternative donor to proceed to a potentially curative allogeneic transplantation. Emerging new technologies will further improve the safety and efficacy of alternative donor transplantation. Ongoing and future randomized studies will better define the relative efficacy of alternative donor types.

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Chronic use of cocaine by inhalation may induce midline destructive lesions (CIMDL), which can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from the ear, nose and throat lesions of Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG). We describe the case of a 43-year-old female patient admitted with a two-year history of nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. She had been diagnosed with WG for five months, being on prednisone and cyclophosphamide. On her physical examination, perforation of her nasal septum and palate was observed. Laboratory tests showed elevated acute phase proteins and a positive p-ANCA test. ELISA assays anti-proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase were negative. The paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) showed destruction of the nasal septum and palate, in addition to bilateral maxillary sinusitis. Chest CT was normal. Nasal mucosal biopsy revealed an inflammatory infiltrate, with neither granuloma nor vasculitis. When questioned, she admitted being a cocaine user for five years. Medical therapy and cocaine use were withdrawn. She has been followed up for six months and no other lesion or other organ symptoms occurred. Differential diagnosis in patients with midline destructive lesions can be very challenging. Evaluation should include enquiry about intranasal use of cocaine. Although ANCA testing does not clearly differentiate the ANCA found in some patients with CIMDL from those found in WG patients, the localized involvement and the biopsy findings non-characteristic of small vessel granulomatous vasculitis should be recognized as features for cocaine-induced lesions.

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The risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is mainly due to the type of chemotherapy regimen and the presence of specific risk factors in patients. The recent trend of using a dose-dense treatment schedule has enhanced the risk of FN. In the present prospective study, we evaluated the feasibility of a reduction of duration of therapy with colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a dose-dense regimen.

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Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting(CINV)is one of the side effects causing significant psychological and physical suffering in patients receiving chemotherapy. Because CINV often impairs patients' quality of life and leads to discontinuation of treatments, antiemetic therapy has been considered important. The MASCC Antiemesis Tool(MAT)was proposed for the assessment of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting after, we evaluated the actual situation of nausea and vomiting for Japanese patients. In a previous investigation, even conventional antiemesis therapy was a highly effective treatment during the acute phase, but the control of nausea and vomiting during the delayed phase proved difficult. Recently, a new5 -HT3 receptor blocker(palonosetron)and an NK1 receptor blocker(aprepitant) were introduced, and an effective treatment of nausea and vomiting for the delayed phase is non expected. In this examination, we evaluated the usefulness of the new antiemetic drugs(palonosetron and aprepitant)in 12 prospective patients with breast cancer(40-69 years old, median age 53 years old)for whom FEC therapy was given as an ambulant treatment using MAT. No vomiting occurred in the acute and delayed phase. Nausea during the acute phase was controlled, and was mild during the delayed phase, also. It was confirmed that the onset of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting were relieved by the newantiemetic agents compared with the previous MAT evaluation.

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The Betula alba and Sutherlandia frutescens decoctions have interesting immunostimulatory and antimicrobial properties and hence could be useful in the management of HIV/AIDS and associated opportunistic infections.

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Reovirus is a naturally occurring human virus that is cytopathic to malignant cells possessing an activated Ras signaling pathway. We conducted a phase I trial of Reolysin, a manufactured, proprietary isolate of purified reovirus, in children with relapsed/refractory extracranial solid tumors to define the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), toxicities, and pharmacokinetic properties when administered as a single agent or in combination with cyclophosphamide.

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We report a case of chylothorax in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma. A 28-year old man was admitted to the hospital with exertional dyspnea and dry cough. A chest X-ray showed the large opacity on the left side suggesting to the presence of pleural effusion.

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Cure is rarely achieved in patients with advanced metastatic solid tumors, and quality of life including times without burdening therapies is an important endpoint. Metronomic oral cyclophosphamide (Cy) has been studied before and is a reasonable option.

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This retrospective review included 167 patients (66 with Cy, 74 with mCVAD, and 27 with mCBAD) with multiple myeloma undergoing mobilization for auto-HCT between January 1, 2006 and September 30, 2013. The primary objective was to evaluate and compare the successful mobilization of CD34+ cells among high-dose Cy, mCVAD or mCBAD.

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The median age was 63 years (range 46-77). All patients were relapsed with histologically confirmed CD20-positive (grade 1 or 2) FL, at relapse they received FCR every 28 days: F (25 mg/m(2)x 3 days), C (1 gr/m(2) day 1) and R (375 mg/m(2) day 4) for 4 cycles. Those who achieved at least a PR with <25 % bone marrow involvement were treated with (90)Y-RIT 11.1 or 14.8 MBq/Kg, at 3 months after completing FCR. Patients underwent a further restaging at 12 weeks after (90)Y-RIT with a total body CT scan, FDG-PET/CT and bilateral bone marrow biopsy.

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We used network meta-analysis to test the most effective adjuvant therapy regimen in terms of overall survival (OS) by comparing regimens listed in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines and platinum-containing regimens.

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Trastuzumab is an essential medicine per the World Health Organization Model List, but its cardiac safety information in Asian women is limited.

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MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 14 (6%), 36 (15%), and 69 (29%) of 239 DLBCL patients. Double or triple rearrangements were detected in 7 (3%) of 239 DLBCL cases. Of these, 4 had BCL2 and MYC, 2 had BCL6 and MYC, and 1 had BCL2, BCL6, and MYC rearrangements. The prognosis of these cases was extremely poor, with a median survival of 9 months. MYC rearrangement was associated with significantly worse overall survival (P = .01), especially for the cases with GC phenotype (P = .009). BCL6 rearrangement also predicted significantly shorter overall survival (P = .04), especially for the non-GC phenotype (P = .03). BCL2 rearrangement had no prognostic impact on outcome. International Prognostic Index (P = .004) and MYC rearrangement (P = .009) were independent poor prognostic factors.

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We report the case of a 34-year-old gravida 4, para 1 with unilateral ductal invasive breast cancer, treated by surgery and subsequent chemotherapy during pregnancy. At 36 + 2 weeks of gestation a growth restricted male infant (1,680 g, <5th percentile) was born by urgent caesarean section because of acute pre-eclampsia, pathologic CTG and umbilical end-diastolic reverse flow. This case is reported in detail, and literature and databases reviewed.

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LTL decreased significantly but comparably in both groups, whereas IL-6 was unchanged at T2. However, IL-10, TNF-α, IGF-1 and MCP-1 suggested a minor biological aging effect of chemotherapy. Clinical frailty and QoL decreased at T1 in the CTG, but recovered at T2, while remaining stable in the CG.

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Malignant lymphomas may originate from any area of the body and cause a variety of symptoms. However, a malignant lymphoma causing urinary symptoms is uncommon. We report a unique case of a 77-year-old woman who presented with a persistent pollakiuria. Radiographic imaging showed a large pelvic mass (13 × 13 × 11 cm) remarkably compressing and invading the bladder wall and accompanied with bilateral hydronephrosis. Urinary cytology revealed malignant lymphoma, and a final diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was made on the basis of transvaginal needle biopsy. Urinary cytology facilitated the definite diagnosis, following which we initiated a rapid and successful treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone with rituximab.

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27 patients, 12 to 26 years, were enrolled; 20 completed the study. Nine had mild/moderate lupus flares. Mean SLEDAI scores decreased from 6.14 pre-vaccination to 4.49 post-vaccination (p = 0.01). Of 12 patients with lupus nephritis, two experienced worsening renal function during/after the study and progressed to renal failure within 18 months of the study. Both had Class IV lupus nephritis with high chronicity scores (≥ 8) on renal biopsies performed within one year prior to study entry. Seropositivity post-vaccine was >94% for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18.

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Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a systemic vasculitis affecting small and medium size arteries resulting in microaneurysms formation. Bilateral renal aneurysm rupture is a rare and life threatening complication. Although uncommon, PAN has been associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML).

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Patients in the RTX group were older, had a longer duration of SLE and LN, had more renal flares, had higher activity and had higher chronicity indexes at renal biopsy than the other two groups. Four patients in each group had acute renal dysfunction and ∼50% had nephrotic syndrome. At 3 months, proteinuria was reduced by 50% in 58.8% of patients on RTX, in 64.7% on MMF and in 63.1% on CYC. At 12 months, complete remission was present in 70.6% of patients on RTX, in 52.9% on MMF, and in 65% on CYC. Partial remission was reached in 29.4% on RTX, 41.2% on MMF, and 25% on CYC.

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Median follow-up was 46.5 months. Thirty-nine patients had negative FDG-PET results by the end of chemotherapy, including 12 patients who had a negative interim FDG-PET scan and no postchemotherapy PET. Twenty patients were FDG-PET-positive, including 7 patients with positive interim FDG-PET and no postchemotherapy FDG-PET scans. The 3-year actuarial PFS rates for patients with negative versus positive FDG-PET scans were 97% and 90%, respectively. The 3-year actuarial LC rates for patients with negative versus positive FDG-PET scans were 100% and 90%, respectively.

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cytoxan generic name 2016-06-10

Immunosuppressive treatment failed in nearly a half of AH patients. Mortality was with 25% still high. The majority of patients required buy cytoxan an intense long-term IT and developed severe treatment related side effect. Immediate start of IT did not control bleeding. In consequence, less severe AH also should be treated with a more rigorous regime because the occurrence of minors bleedings at initial presentation is not a predictive of clinical outcome. An Immunoadsorption-based protocol should be considered first line or even as a salvage strategy.

cytoxan and alcohol 2017-06-04

A substantial proportion of breast cancer survivors report significant, long-lasting impairments in buy cytoxan cognitive function, often referred to as "chemobrain." Advances in detection and treatment mean that many more patients are surviving long-term following diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. Thus, it is important to define the types, extent, and persistence of cognitive impairments following treatment with cytotoxic cancer drugs.

cytoxan drug 2015-06-21

A 58-year- buy cytoxan old Chinese man presented with limb numbness, progressive limb proximal weakness, lymph node and thyroid enlargement, edema, pigmentation in the lower limb, and obvious gynecomastia, which was initially diagnosed as POEMS syndrome and was treated with dexamethasone and small doses of cyclophosphamide without any improvement after 6 months. Finally, the patient diagnosis was confirmed as Kennedy disease (KD) by gene analysis.

cytoxan user reviews 2015-08-05

EPOCH-containing regimens can be safely administered in the outpatient setting, which may result buy cytoxan in cost savings for healthcare institutions.

cytoxan oral dose 2016-02-12

We identified 14 cases and 54 controls. Of the 14 cases, we detected clonal haemopoiesis in the peripheral blood samples of ten (71%) patients. We detected clonal haemopoiesis in 17 (31%) of the 54 controls. The cumulative incidence of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms in both cases and controls at 5 years was significantly higher in patients with clonal haemopoiesis (30%, 95% CI 16-51) than in those without (7%, 2-21; p=0·016). In the external cohort, five (7%) of 74 patients developed therapy-related buy cytoxan myeloid neoplasms, of whom four (80%) had clonal haemopoiesis; 11 (16%) of 69 patients who did not develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasms had clonal haemopoiesis. In the external cohort, the cumulative incidence of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms at 10 years was significantly higher in patients with clonal haemopoiesis (29%, 95% CI 8-53) than in those without (0%, 0-0; p=0·0009). In a multivariate Fine and Gray model based on the external cohort, the presence of clonal haemopoiesis significantly increased the risk of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm development (hazard ratio 13·7, 95% CI 1·7-108·7; p=0·013).

cytoxan iv cost 2016-08-29

NDRG1 could increase the resistance of neuroblastoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, with its positive regulation buy cytoxan on drug resistant proteins. This study provided new insights for exploring the mechanism of the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and also novel approach for biotherapy in neuroblastoma.

cytoxan in pills 2017-06-20

This is a phase II trial evaluating efficacy and safety of aprepitant (AP) in combination with 5-HT3 antagonist and adjusted dose dexamethasone in patients receiving high-dose cyclophosphamide (CY) and filgrastim for stem cell mobilization. We used Simon's optimal two-stage design constrained to fewer than 40 patients with 10% type I error and 85% statistical power. The first stage of the study required accrual of 18 response-evaluable patients. The primary endpoint was the control of vomiting without the use of any rescue anti-emetics at 24 h after the administration of high dose CY (4 g/m(2)). If emesis was controlled in ≥9 patients, an additional cohort of buy cytoxan 17 patients would be enrolled. The null hypothesis would be rejected if there were ≥20 responses among 35 patients. Forty patients were enrolled, five of whom were not evaluable for response. Eighteen evaluable patients were enrolled in the first stage. Acute emesis was controlled in 10 patients; therefore, enrollment proceeded to stage 2. An additional 17 patients were enrolled; 20/35 response-evaluable patients (57%) did not develop acute vomiting or require rescue anti-emetics, thus achieving the goal of the study. A total of 22/35 response-evaluable patients (63%) met the secondary endpoint of delayed emesis control (days 2-5). Thirty-three out of 35 patients underwent successful stem cell mobilization. No ≥ grade 3 AP-related adverse events were noted. The AP regimen can effectively control acute and delayed emesis in the majority patients receiving high-dose CY.

cytoxan capsules 2016-07-25

Single-dose rituximab is effective buy cytoxan in relapsed/refractory lupus nephritis. Longevity of B-cell depletion with single-dose rituximab is similar to that of four doses with potentially fewer side-effects.

cytoxan 150 mg 2017-06-08

Among the 75 patients, 2 were lost for follow-up. In the 73 available patients, the overall response was 64.4%, including 2 patients (2.7%) with complete remission (CR), 4 cases (5.5%) very good partial remission (VGPR), and 24 patients (32.9%) partial remission (PR). The median survival was 12 months (1-70 months) with a median onset time of 90 days (16-120) and a median progressive freedom survival of 12 months (1-60). The level of B-type natriuretic peptide in responders declined buy cytoxan significantly, as compared to no responders [(336.6 ± 30.3) ng/L vs (906.4 ± 104.8) ng/L, P<0.01]. Common adverse events were as follows: 32 (43.8%) cases of bone marrow suppression, 26 (35.6%) cases of infection, 8 cases of dizzy as well as sleepiness (11.0%), 7(9.6%) cases of Cushing syndrome, 4 (5.5%) cases of secondary diabetes mellitus, and 3 (4.1%) cases of edema respectively.

cytoxan high dose 2017-09-06

To investigate the effect of Biyan Qingdu Granula drug buy cytoxan -containing serum (BQG-DS) on cell growth and apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines CNE1, CNE2, TWO3, C666-1, and explore the antineoplastic mechanism of Biyan Qingdu Granula.

cytoxan tablets dose 2016-03-30

In primary systemic therapy in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2(+)) breast cancer, improvements in pathologic complete buy cytoxan response (pCR) rate have been achieved by administering trastuzumab.

cytoxan oral tablets 2016-02-03

This study examined the degradation behavior of polycyclic musks (PMs) and antineoplastic drugs (ADs) and the absorbance buy cytoxan spectra of effluent organic matter (EfOM) in municipal wastewater by ozone. Specific ozone doses used in the experiments ranged from 0 to 1mg O3/mg dissolved organic matter (DOC). The examined PMs included galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, traseolide and phantolide. ADs included busulfan, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, flutamide, ifosfamide, tamoxifen and methotrexate. Strong monotonic albeit nonlinear correlations were found to exist between relative changes of EfOM absorbance at 254 nm (i.e. ΔA254/A(0)254) and the degradation of the selected PMs and ADs. This result was interpreted based on the concept of the simultaneous oxidation of EfOM and, on the other hand, PMs and ADs. This interpretation showed that PMs were degraded primarily via OH radical attack, with tonalide and phantolide being less reactive compared with the other PMs. ADs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and busulfan were also determined to undergo oxidation by OH radicals. Comparison of the behavior of the radical probe para-chlorobenzoic acid and the examined ADs and PMs allowed evaluating corresponding reaction rate constants for reactions between these species and OH radicals.

cancer drug cytoxan 2015-12-23

Thirty-six patients suffered from BOS; the mean age at the time of presentation was (32.7 ± 12.4) years, and the mean time to presentation was (474 ± 350) days post-HSCT. A pre-HSCT cyclophosphamide dose of ≥ 3.2 g/ Motilium Dosage Adults m(2)(OR = 8.74, P = 0.025), chronic graft-versus-host disease (moderate to severe) (OR = 12.02, P = 0.000), and conditioning regimens without antithymocyte globulin (OR = 2.79, P = 0.031) were independently associated with BOS.

cytoxan oral medication 2016-01-31

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affects predominantly women at reproductive age but may present at any age. Age at disease onset has a modulating effect on presentation and course of disease, but controversies persist regarding its impact on long-term outcome. Our aims were to characterize clinical features, co-morbidities and cumulative damage in childhood-onset, adult-onset and late-onset SLE. Patients with childhood-onset SLE fulfilling ACR 1997 criteria were identified in a nationwide (N = 89) and compared with adult-onset and late-onset counterparts matched 1:1:1 for disease duration. 267 SLE patients with mean disease duration of 11.9 ± 9.3 years were analyzed. Skin (62 %), kidney (58 %), neurological (11 %) and hematologic involvement (76 %) were significantly more common in childhood-onset SLE and disease activity was higher in this subset than in adult- and late-onset disease (SLEDAI-2K 3.4 ± 3.8 vs. 2.2 ± 2.7 vs. 1.6 ± 2.8, respectively; p = 0.004). Also, more childhood-onset patients received cyclophosphamide (10 %) and mycophenolate mofetil (34 %). A greater proportion of women (96 %), prevalence of arthritis (89 %) and anti-SSA antibodies (34 %) were noted in Atarax Dose Frequency the adult-onset group. There was a significant delay in the diagnosis of SLE in older ages. Co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and thyroid disease were significantly more frequent in late-onset SLE, as well as the presence of irreversible damage evaluated by the SLICC/ACR damage index (20 vs. 26 vs. 40 %; p < 0.001). Greater organ involvement as well as the frequent need for immunosuppressants supports the concept of childhood-onset being a more severe disease. In contrast, disease onset is more indolent but co-morbidity burden and irreversible damage are greater in late-onset SLE, which may have implications for patients' management.

cytoxan drug label 2017-12-24

A 16-year-old male with severe thrombocytopenia and progressive multiple organ infarctions was diagnosed as having catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and was successfully treated with combination of anticoagulants, corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous cyclophosphamide. Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (PS/PT) complex and cardiolipin (CL)/β(2)-glycoprotein I (β(2)GPI) were simultaneously detected, indicating that the different pathways of both PS/PT and CL/β(2)GPI might be associated with the radical manifestation of Online Kopen Trental CAPS.

cytoxan tablet strength 2016-07-10

Patients with operable breast cancer and immunophenotypically defined luminal disease (ER+/PR+/HER2-/cytokeratin 8/18+) were recruited. Patients were randomized to CT (epirubicin 90 mg/m(2) plus cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) 4 cycles followed by Amoxil Online docetaxel 100 mg/m(2 )4 cycles [EC-T]) or HT (exemestane 25 mg daily 24 weeks [combined with goserelin in premenopausal patients]). The primary end point was the clinical response measured by magnetic resonance imaging.

cytoxan reviews 2016-05-17

Effective, safe and well-tolerated therapeutic and/or preventive regimens for chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) still remain to be developed. Because α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) exerts Benicar Dose a number of cytoprotective effects and is well tolerated, we hypothesized that it may be a candidate CIA-protective agent.

cytoxan pill 2017-09-27

All drugs in common use in MM (melphalan, dexamethasone, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, bendamustine, thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide, bortezomib, carfilzomib, and doxorubicin) demonstrated a best reported response rate of ≥ 22%. Older agents, including teniposide, fotemustine, paclitaxel, and interferon, also appear active by this criterion; however, if mean response rates from all reported Cymbalta Generic Equivalent trials for an agent are considered, then only drugs with a mean response rate of 15% partial response are in clinical use.

cytoxan 50 mg 2016-07-23

We describe in this first series of lupus documented in Niger, the Suprax Medication Coupons epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects.

cytoxan 125 mg 2016-11-06

We report a case of a 39-year-old female with active systemic lupus erythematosus who complained of lethargy and weakness with a moderate renal impairment Pamelor User Reviews . Hypercalcemia was confirmed by laboratory examination. Her X-ray revealed significant ectopic calcinosis in subcutaneous tissue of bilateral hands, and Tc-99(m) methylene diphosphonate bone scan revealed a remarkably intense uptake of bilateral lungs. She had no evidence suggestive of other diseases related to hypercalcemia such as hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. She had abnormally high serum parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) which fell to normal after treatment. Glucocorticoid, cyclophosphamide plus calcitonin and etidronate were administered and the patient improved greatly. Literature review demonstrated that lupus-related hypercalcemia with ectopic calcinosis is a rare complication and increased PTHrP is probably one of the main mechanisms. Lung uptake in bone scan may be a special and reliable clue suggestive of hypercalcemia.

cytoxan drug action 2017-12-27

Twenty-six patients received RTX for disease relapse after remission had initially been achieved with their originally assigned treatment. Fifteen of these patients were initially randomized to receive RTX and 11 to receive CYC/AZA. Thirteen (87%) of the patients originally assigned to receive RTX and 10 (91%) originally assigned to receive CYC/AZA achieved remission again with open-label RTX (an overall percentage of 88%). In half of the patients treated with open-label RTX, prednisone could be discontinued entirely. Patients in this cohort experienced fewer adverse events compared to the overall study population (4.7 adverse events per patient-year versus 11.8 adverse events per patient-year).

cytoxan maximum dose 2016-12-24

This case presented conflicting serologic and histopathologic findings. The presence of anti-proteinase-3 antibody supported diagnosis of recurrence of GPA. However, linear staining of immunoglobulin G (IgG) on immunofluorescence (IF) staining of renal biopsy supported anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease. The treatment of anti-GBM disease and GPA both involve immunosuppression with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. However, patients with anti-GBM disease are also treated with plasmapheresis early in the disease presentation to prevent further damage. The patient with GPA, on the other hand, was shown to benefit from plasmapheresis only in the case of severe renal disease (serum creatinine level more than 5 mg/dL) or pulmonary hemorrhage. In this case, since the patient did not have detectable circulating anti-GBM antibody, the decision was made not to proceed with plasmapheresis. The patient was treated with a standard immunosuppressive regimen consisting of prednisone and cyclophosphamide with partial renal recovery at 2 months.

cytoxan medication 2015-03-25

Reverse phase protein arrays of 76 proteins were carried out. A boosting approach in conjunction with a Cox proportional hazard model defined relapse predictors. A risk score (RS) was calculated with the sum of the coefficients from the final model. Survival outcomes and associations of the RS with relapse were estimated. An independent test set was used to validate the results.

cytoxan drug class 2016-05-05

High levels of TH, PHOX2B, or DCX mRNA in PB or BM at diagnosis strongly predicted for worse event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in a cohort of 290 children. After induction therapy, high levels of these mRNAs predicted worse EFS and OS in BM but not in PB. Combinations of mRNAs in BM did not add to the predictive power of any single mRNA. However, in the original (n = 182) and validation (n = 137) PB cohorts, high TH (log10TH > 0.8) or high PHOX2B (log10PHOX2B > 0.28) identify 19% of children as ultrahigh risk, with 5-year EFS and OS rates of 0%; OS rate was 25% (95% CI, 16% to 36%) and EFS rate was 38% (95% CI, 28% to 49%) in the remaining children. The magnitude of reduction in mRNA level between diagnosis and postinduction therapy in BM or PB was not of additional predictive value.

cytoxan 750 mg 2017-02-25

Most patients had Ann Arbor stage I-II (94.7%), IPI score of 0 (89.5%), and complete remission after chemotherapy (89.5%). The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 74.6% and 80%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) regimen resulted in a better PFS than the cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) regimen (88.9% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.053). RT dose was related to the survival outcome (p = 0.010 for PFS, p = 0.044 for OS). Patients were classified into the CHOP + RT (>40 Gy) group and R-CHOP + RT (≤40 Gy) group. The 5-year PFS rates were 50% in the CHOP + RT group, and 100 % in the R-CHOP + RT group (p = 0.018). The 5-year OS rates were 66.7% and 100%, respectively (p = 0.087).

cytoxan mesna dosing 2016-08-18

Biological exposure to cyclophosphamide was compared between pharmacy personnel who did and did not handle this drug by determining whether participants had detectable amounts of cyclophosphamide in their urine. Environmental exposure to chemotherapy drugs was assessed by using surface wipes to determine the degree of surface contamination with various chemotherapy agents in the oncology pharmacy and the main (control) pharmacy.

cytoxan suspension 2015-01-15

117 women were enrolled, 112 randomised to 2 cycles of AC (60 mg/m(2), 600 mg/m(2)) given 3 weekly. Tumour responses were assessed by magnetic resonance mammography. Responders (n = 77) received 2 further cycles of AC and were randomised to 4 cycles of T (100 mg/m(2)) (Group A) or T (75 mg/m(2)) and X (2000 mg/m(2)/day), day one to 14 of each 3 weekly cycle (Group B). Non-responders (n = 35) were randomised to 6 cycles of T (Group C) or T + X (Group D). QoL questionnaires were completed at each chemotherapy visit. Pathological responses were evaluated using established criteria.

cytoxan iv dosing 2016-08-28

We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 12 Turkish Behcet patients who had been treated with IFN-α-2a between February 2009 and October 2011 because of severe uveitis refractory to traditional immunosuppressants. IFN-α-2a was initially administered at 4.5×10(6) IU/day subcutaneously; then, the dosage was tapered gradually depending on the clinical response. Previous immunosuppressive drugs such as systemic corticosteroids, azathioprine, and cyclosporine were stopped 1 day before the initiation of IFN-α-2a treatment.

buy cytoxan online 2017-09-26

Patients were randomly assigned either to receive three cycles of preoperative CT with epirubicin 120 mg/m(2) and ifosfamide 9 g/m(2) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (arm A) or to receive the same three cycles of preoperative CT followed by two further cycles of postoperative CT (arm B). Noninferiority of the primary end point, overall survival (OS), was assessed by the CI of the hazard ratio (HR; arm A/arm B) obtained from the Cox model.