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The effects of apixaban versus warfarin were consistent in patients with AF with and without previous stroke or TIA. Owing to the higher risk of these outcomes in patients with previous stroke or TIA, the absolute benefits of apixaban might be greater in this population.
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The mean age of patients was 73.1 years (standard deviation 10.8), and 47% were female. The mean follow-up time was 3.2 ± 1.6 years (median 3.4). In the TTR groups of ≤40%, 60-70%, 70-80%, and >80%, the annual risk of stroke was 9.3%, 4.7%, 4.6%, and 3.1%; bleeding events 7.5%, 4.5%, 4.3%, and 2.6%; and overall mortality 20.9%, 8.5%, 6.4%, and 3.1%, respectively. All differences among the TTR groups were highly significant (p < 0.001).
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One hundred and fifty-two patients aged 43-93 years were recruited. Demographic data on age, height, weight, gender, daily warfarin dose, indication for anticoagulation therapy, medical diagnosis, surgical operation planned and concomitant medication were recorded. A blood sample was taken for later CYP2C9 genotyping.
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The majority of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) is transfused in the United States in the management of acquired bleeding disorders. The prothrombin time (PT), and its derivative the international normalized ratio (INR), is the most common test used to detect the presence and gauge the severity of these disorders. Observation studies have shown that the PT correlates poorly with clinical bleeding and that transfusion of plasma often achieves no measurable change in the INR nor is of any known clinical benefit.
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In total, 10 and 15 postoperative cerebral ischemic events occurred between 24 h and three months after surgery in patients treated with aspirin and warfarin, respectively. After three months the incidence of cerebral ischemic events did not differ greatly between the two groups. The rate of major bleeding events and rates of stroke-free survival and overall survival were not statistically significant between the warfarin and aspirin groups.
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Patients who experienced major bleeding on dabigatran required more red cell transfusions but received less plasma, required a shorter stay in intensive care, and had a trend to lower mortality compared with those who had major bleeding on warfarin.
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This study evaluated the influence of rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily on international normalized ratio (INR) during the co-administration period when switching from rivaroxaban to warfarin.
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes at least 20% of all ischemic strokes. In large randomized trials of primary and secondary stroke prevention, anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) protected much more efficiently than antiplatelet agents against stroke. Because of the problematic pharmacological properties of VKA only part of the AF patients are currently being treated with oral anticoagulants (OAK). The targeted development of specific oral inhibitors of the central coagulation factors thrombin and factor Xa allows reliable anticoagulation without regular coagulation monitoring. In the present review, pharmacological properties of the different agents are compared. Of the four large randomized phase 3 studies in AF (RELY, ROCKET-AF, ARISTOTLE, ENGAGE-AF) with the primary efficacy endpoint stroke and systemic embolism, the published data from the RELY trial indicate a superior efficacy of dabigatran etexilate (2 × 150 mg/day) and a lower risk of intracranial hemorrhage compared to warfarin. Favorable preliminary results have been demonstrated for the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Apixaban was more efficacious than ASA and had a similar risk of hemorrhage in the AVERROES study. Thus, the available data suggest a favorable benefit-risk ratio for the new substances in addition to improved patient comfort. Currently unresolved issues relate to the verification of patient adherence by suitable coagulation tests and to the emergency coagulation diagnostics and therapy in acute ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes under the new OAC.
Pharmacogenomics offers the hope of greater individualization of treatment. Therapies that exemplify the promise of pharmacogenomics include anticoagulation with warfarin and the use of antiplatelet medications (eg, clopidogrel) for secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome. Good evidence of clinical utility must be obtained before pharmacogenomic testing is widely implemented.
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The primary outcomes were percentage of genotype-guided dose recommendations available prior to the second warfarin dose and adherence of the medical staff to doses recommended by the pharmacogenetics service. Of 436 genotype orders placed during the first 6 months of the service, 190 (44%) were deemed appropriate. For the 80 patients on the service who consented to data collection, 76% of the genotypes were available prior to the second warfarin dose. The median (range) time from genotype order to genotype result was 26 hours (7-80 hrs), and the time to genotype-guided dose recommendation was 30 hours (7-80 hrs). A total of 73% of warfarin doses ordered by the medical staff were within 0.5 mg of the daily dose recommended by the pharmacogenetics consult service.
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D-dimer levels, measured 4months after DVT in patients not on warfarin, are associated with subsequent development of PTS. Venous valvular reflux is associated with moderate-to-severe PTS.
All patients presented with unilateral painful proptosis. Two patients had intact light perception, whereas one patient presented with absent light perception. All patients had identifiable risk factors for thrombosis, which included sickle cell trait, hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia and colon cancer with recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Anticoagulation was initiated in two patients. Resolution of proptosis was seen in all patients, with no recovery of vision in one patient.
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The median time followed by the AMS was 151 days. Fifty three percent (n = 1651) of total lab draws (n = 3129) were within the target therapeutic INR range 2-3. Recurrent thrombosis occurred in 4.1% of patients. Minor bleeding occurred in 18.6% of patients and major bleeding occurred in three patients (2.1%, gastrointestinal, intra-abdominal, and subdural hematoma).
Heme endows human serum albumin (HSA) with globin-like reactivity and spectroscopic properties. Here, the effect of chlorpropamide, digitoxin, furosemide, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, sulfisoxazole, tolbutamide, and warfarin on peroxynitrite isomerization to NO(3) (-) by ferric HSA-heme (HSA-heme-Fe(III)) is reported. Drugs binding to Sudlow's site I impair dose-dependently peroxynitrite isomerization by HSA-heme-Fe(III). The allosteric modulation of HSA-heme-Fe(III)-mediated peroxynitrite isomerization by drugs has been ascribed to the pivotal role of Tyr150, a residue that either provides a polar environment in Sudlow's site I or protrudes into the heme cleft (i.e., the fatty acid site 1, FA1), depending on ligand occupancy of either sites.
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Several distinct analytical issues have been addressed by performing capillary electrophoresis-based separations of the warfarin, 7-hydroxywarfarin and 10-hydroxywarfarin in an achiral and cyclodextrin-containing media. The measurements were conducted across a range of pH in order to find optimum conditions for achiral and chiral separations. The values of acid dissociation constant (pKa) have been determined and compared. Subsequently, after performing a series of mobility shift assays at different pH and cyclodextrin concentration, the pKa values ascribed to diastereomeric complexes with methyl-β-cyclodextrin have been estimated. The significant pKa shifts upon complexation have been noticed for warfarin - up to 1.5 pH units, and only subtle for 10-hydroxywarfarin. A new approach that allows the estimation of association percentage based on the electrophoretic mobility curves has been also demonstrated. The complex mechanism of chiral separation has been found to be responsible for the observed migration profile, relying on a combined equilibrium between complexation/partition and protonation/deprotonation phenomena. The occurrence of the pKa-related migration order reversal has been demonstrated in achiral medium between warfarin and 7-hydroxywarfarin, and in chiral medium between enantiomers, causing a drop in enantioselectivity at specific pH. In parallel, the density functional theory-based calculations have been performed in order to obtain the structures of warfarin and its derivatives as well as to rationalize the shifts in pKa values.
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Dabigatran may provide less protection against myocardial infarction than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in patients with atrial fibrillation. This may be particularly evident among "switchers" to dabigatran from VKA, as a result of discontinuation effects.
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The patient was homozygous wild type (CYP2C19*1/*1), and on the first test, the metabolic ratio was concordant with the extensive metaboliser genotype. However, at day 14 and day 21, the metabolic capacity of this enzyme had decreased, and the subject had become a poor metaboliser (PG/CG > 30). The patient developed grade III hand and foot syndrome at day 10 of the study during the period of null CYP2C19 activity.
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Among the study population, greater than half (54%, n = 1595) had a low TTR, and 46% (n = 1356) had a high TTR. Total all-cause healthcare resource utilization was higher among patients in the low TTR cohort vs. the high TTR cohort (number of encounters: 70.2 vs. 56.1, p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient characteristics, total all-cause healthcare costs and stroke-related healthcare costs were $2398 (p < 0.001) and $687 (p = 0.02) higher, respectively, for patients in the low TTR cohort vs. the high TTR cohort.
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Combined with the use of non-invasive saliva samples, rapid DNA extraction, the lateral flow cell, automatic imaging and data analysis provides a simple and fast sample-to-answer microarray test for warfarin sensitivity genotyping.
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This is a retrospective, single-center, cohort study in a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation clinic of a university affiliated Veteran's Affairs (VA) Medical Center. Subjects were anticoagulation patients initiating metronidazole between 1 January 2002 and 30 March 2009. At the time of metronidazole initiation, patients were managed with PDR of warfarin or no dose reduction. The primary outcome was the average change in International Normalized Ratio (INR) between patients that received PDR vs. those that did not.
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Two cases of transient elevation of international normalized ratio (INR) during irinotecan (60 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15) plus cisplatin (60 mg/m2 on day 1) chemotherapy with concomitant warfarin are presented. In both cases, warfarin dosages were stable at the therapeutic target range prior to initiation of chemotherapy. Granisetron hydrochloride (3 mg on days 1, 8, and 15) and dexamethasone (13.2 mg on day 1 and 6.6 mg on days 2, 3, 8, and 15) were used prior to irinotecan administration in both patients. In addition, aprepitant was administered to both patients for 3-5 days with cisplatin. One of these patients also received aprepitant with irinotecan on days 8 and 15. During chemotherapy, INR was transiently elevated almost 1.5-fold over baseline level on day 3. This variation did not occur in subsequent irinotecan cycles on days 8 and 15. The timing of these increases was similar in each of the cycles.
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We conducted a cohort study of 845 consecutive non-valvular AF patients ≥70 years of age who were taking warfarin (median age, 74 years; 30.5% women) with a median follow-up period of 27 months (4-69 months). Of these patients, 29.7% had a history of stoke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), and 73.1% of the patients had a CHADS(2) score ≥2. The occurrence of thromboembolic events, including ischemic stroke, TIA and other systemic embolisms, and major bleeding events were validated through a review of medical records.
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With the evaluation and approval of newer oral anticoagulants such as the factor IIa inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate and the factor Xa inhibitors, rivaroxaban and apixaban, strategies for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation need a thorough re-evaluation of current options. Clinicians are naturally excited about the imminent introduction of these newer drugs that do not need international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring, besides having no drug-food and minimal drug-drug interactions. However, as with all new drugs, it is always prudent to use these judiciously so that they stay in our therapeutic armamentarium for a long time. More than 56 years after the introduction of warfarin we now have three drugs, viz., dabigatran 150 mg bid, rivaroxaban 20 mg od, and apixaban 5 mg bid which were effective in comparison with warfarin in reducing the risk of stroke and bleeding in the landmark trials, RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, and ARISTOTLE respectively. There is a thin dividing line between physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Routine INR monitoring may not be required but in special situations, such as prior to major surgery, overdose, non-compliance or stroke while on the anticoagulant, one may wish to know whether there are any laboratory measures of efficacy or means of reversal of over anticoagulation. Similar questions may be raised about other situations such as renal dysfunction, cardioversion, ablation procedures, post-stenting, or switch to and from warfarin, heparin or LMWH? This document is an attempt to address these concerns based on available evidence and give physicians a perspective and practice guidelines on how best to use these agents, both old and new, for optimal patient outcomes, maximizing efficacy and minimizing risk.
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This rare side effect is a reminder of the importance of biological monitoring in the first weeks following the introduction of fluindione and key diagnostic elements and therapeutic aspects of iatrogenic agranulocytosis.
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Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant. However, it remains a difficult drug to manage mostly because of its narrow therapeutic index and wide interpatient variability in anticoagulant effects. Over the past decade, there has been substantial progress in our understanding of genetic contributions to variable warfarin response, particularly with regard to warfarin dose requirements. The genes encoding for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) are the major genetic determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, respectively. Numerous studies have demonstrated significant contributions of these genes to warfarin dose requirements. The CYP2C9 gene has also been associated with bleeding risk with warfarin. The CYP4F2 gene influences vitamin K availability and makes minor contributions to warfarin dose requirements. Less is known about genes influencing warfarin response in African-American patients compared with other racial groups, but this is the focus of ongoing research. Several warfarin pharmacogenetic dosing algorithms and United States Food and Drug Administration-cleared genotyping tests are available for clinical use. Clinical trials are ongoing to determine the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of genotypeguided warfarin dosing. Results from these trials will likely influence clinical uptake and third party payer reimbursement for genotype-guided warfarin therapy. There is still a lack of pharmacogenetic data for the newly approved oral anticoagulants, dabigatran and rivaroxaban, and with other oral anticoagulants in the research and development pipeline. These data, once known, could be of great importance as routine monitoring parameters for these agents are not available.
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Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor recently approved for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) as an alternative to warfarin. The primary advantages of dabigatran are freedom from monitoring and less interaction with other drugs and food. It is ideal for patients who are unwilling to adhere to regular coagulation monitoring or whose therapeutic effect using warfarin is not optimal despite adequate monitoring and management. However, the impact of dabigatran on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and drug compliance has been less evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and humanistic outcomes of dabigatran use in Hong Kong.
Pharmacist-directed ambulatory AMS located in a tertiary medical care facility and PCP practices in Canada.
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An 84-year-old woman with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and atrial fibrillation, who presented with hematemesis, was initially treated with endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) for an esophageal varix hemorrhage. However, computed tomography (CT) upon admission had revealed portal vein thrombosis, despite having received warfarin for existing atrial fibrillation. We subsequently initiated a 2-week treatment with danaparoid;warfarin being discontinued in order to reduce the risk of re-hemorrhage. A follow-up CT after treatment revealed complete reduction of the portal vein thrombosis. This is the first successful report of danaparoid use in the treatment of portal vein thrombosis that developed in a patient who had received warfarin.
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Cholesterol crystal embolization (CCE) can result in end-organ ischemia. Retrospective review of clinicopathologic data. The first patient was anticoagulated with coumadin for chronic atrial fibrillation and presented subacutely with a solid mass. The second patient suffered from coronary artery disease post-angioplasty/stenting and presented with acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cystification. CCE should be considered in patients with significant vascular disease, arrhythmias or vascular manipulation who present with a pancreatic mass.
This retrospective cohort study identified patients with operative hip fractures on oral warfarin therapy who had an international normalized ratio (INR) >1.50 on admission (N = 93) approximately over a 13-year span. The control group consisted of patients whose warfarin was held upon admission without further intervention preoperatively (n = 23). The treatment group consisted of patients who underwent pharmacologic reversal of elevated INR with vitamin K and/or fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in addition to holding warfarin (n = 70). Primary outcomes included thromboembolic and other complications as well as mortality within 3 months of presentation. Time to surgery was a secondary outcome.