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We performed a pilot study on 102 patients (68 men, mean age 65 +/- 10 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 0.53 +/- 0.12) undergoing cardiovascular surgery (94 coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG], 5 valvular surgery only, and 3 CABG + valvular surgery). The patients were randomized to receive amiodarone (1 g/d intravenously x 48 hours, then 400 mg/d orally until discharge) or propranolol (1 mg intravenously every 6 hours x 48 hours, then 20 mg orally four times a day until discharge). Atrial fibrillation was defined as lasting longer than 1 hour or resulting in hemodynamic compromise.
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The influence of 2 different routes of amiodarone (AMIO) administration, oral gavage (OG) and subcutaneous injection (SC), on the density of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors (Bmax), hepatic type I 5' iodothyronine deiodinase (5' DI) and thyroid hormone serum concentrations was studied. Compared with respective control values, AMIO treatment (50 mg/kg per day, 7 days) via both OG and SC routes significantly lowered Bmax (OG: 14.6 +/- 1.92 vs 18.2 +/- 1.03 fmol/mg and SC: 16.6 +/- 2.34 vs 19.1 +/- 2.05 fmol/mg) and 5' DI activity (from 409 to 85 and 340 to 47 fmol I-/mg per min, respectively). The SC route induced a fall in thyroid secretion and a generalized hypothyroidism (decreased serum FT4 and FT3, inhibition of body weight gain. The OG route did not modify thyroid secretion. These results demonstrated that the effects on cardiac beta-receptor density in the SC group might be due to the generalized hypothyroidism and that AMIO produced its specific cardiac effects only after oral route medication, suggesting that the oral route is the best choice for studying AMIO cardiac effects on beta-receptor density.
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In a matched-cohort design, 18 patients taking amiodarone before atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation (amiodarone group) were matched for age, sex and type of AF with 18 patients who had undergone AF ablation without taking amiodarone (no-amiodarone group). The amiodarone group had a slower heart rate than the no-amiodarone group at baseline and during isoproterenol infusion. Only the amiodarone group had sick sinus syndrome (n=4, 22%, P=0.03) and abnormal (>550ms) corrected SAN recovery time (n=5, 29%; P=0.02). The median distance from the junction of the superior vena cava (SVC) and RA to the most cranial earliest activation site (EAS) was longer in the amiodarone group than in the no-amiodarone group at baseline (20.5 vs. 10.6mm, P=0.04) and during isoproterenol infusion (12.8 vs. 6.3mm, P=0.03). The distance from the SVC-RA junction to the EAS negatively correlated with the P-wave amplitudes of leads II (r=-0.47), III (r=-0.60) and aVF (r=-0.56) (P<0.001 for all).
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Significantly prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) was noticed following only sotalol and amiodarone. The corrected precontraction time increased after sotalol (p = 0.005) and amiodarone (p = 0.017), not propafenone (p = 0.139). Analysis results between ΔEF and ΔQTc, ΔEF and ΔQTc(p), ΔE/e' and ΔQTc, ΔE/e' and ΔQTc(p) for amiodarone group were (p = 0.66, p = 0.20, p = 0.66, p = 0.33), for sotalol (p = 0.36, p = 0.51, p = 0.44, p = 0.33) and for propafenone (p = 0.38, p = 0.12, p = 0.89, p = 0.61), respectively.
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Amiodarone, 600 mg orally daily, was used in an attempt to control supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in a patient with the sick sinus syndrome. Twenty days from the onset of therapy the Q-T interval lengthened. Episodes of ventricular flutter, ventricular fibrillation and self-terminating ventricular tachyarrhythmia (torsade de pointes) developed on the 28th day of amiodarone therapy. Temporary cardiac pacing prevented further episodes of ventricular fibrillation. Despite the suggestion that this drug may be given in large doses for long periods of time since it has a wide safety margin, we feel that the risk of lethal arrhythmias is such that caution is required in its use.
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Infants with incessant ventricular tachycardia (occurring greater than 10% of the day) have generally been described in pathologic studies. This report describes 21 patients with incessant ventricular tachycardia present greater than 90% of the day and night; the age at diagnosis ranged from birth to 30 months (mean 10.5 months). The most common clinical presentation was cardiac arrest (11 patients, in 5 after digitalis for presumed supraventricular tachycardia); another 6 patients had congestive heart failure and 4 were asymptomatic. Three patients had coexisting Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. The rate of incessant ventricular tachycardia ranged from 167 to 440 (mean 260 beats/min) and the QRS duration from 0.06 to 0.11 second. The most common electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern (10 of 21) was right bundle branch block with left axis deviation, but other right and left bundle branch block patterns were observed. Conventional and investigational antiarrhythmic agents (nine patients received amiodarone) failed to eliminate incessant ventricular tachycardia in all. Electrophysiologic studies localized incessant ventricular tachycardia to the left ventricle in 17 (to the apex in 2, the free wall in 9 and the septum in 6) and to the right ventricular septum in 4. No structural abnormalities were found on the echocardiogram or angiocardiogram. All 21 patients had surgery at an age of 3.5 to 31 months (mean 16). In 15 a tumor was found: 13 myocardial hamartomas (9 discrete, 4 diffuse throughout both ventricles) and 2 rhabdomyomas (1 multiple). Myocarditis was found in one patient (the oldest). In four, only myocardial fibrosis was found; results of one biopsy were normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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In chloralose-anesthetized, open-chest Yorkshire pigs (n = 15), the proximal segment of left circumflex (LCx) coronary artery was occluded to reduce flow by 75%. An electrode catheter was positioned on the left atrial appendage to measure AF threshold (AFT) before and during LCx coronary artery stenosis before and at 1 hour after dronedarone (0.5 mg/kg intravenous bolus over 5 minutes) and/or ranolazine administration (0.6 mg/kg intravenous bolus followed by 0.035 mg/kg/min).
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To compare the cost-effectiveness of intravenous plus oral amiodarone, atrial septal pacing, and both strategies combined to prevent atrial fibrillation after open heart surgery. Secondary objectives were to compare the cost-effectiveness of amiodarone versus no amiodarone and of pacing versus no pacing, and to compare hospitalization costs of the various strategies.
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Patients underwent amiodarone treatment for various reasons, most often atrial fibrillation, for more than 2 years, and those that received a cumulative dose > 100 g were enrolled. A total of 34 patients who underwent chest CT between December 2011 and June 2012 were enrolled, whether or not they had clinical symptoms. The APT CT score was defined as the number of involved regions in the lung, which was divided into 18 regions (right and left, upper, middle, and lower, and central, middle, and peripheral). The CT findings were evaluated according to the total dose and duration of amiodarone treatment and the results of a pulmonary function test. Clinical symptoms and outcomes were also evaluated according to APT CT scores.
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We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese database from 1995 to 2015. Studies that investigated amiodarone-related adverse reactions on the thyroid were included. A random-effect model was used for the meta-analysis to investigate the incidence rate of AIH and associated risk factors.
We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of circumferential pulmonary-vein ablation for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation.
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Hyperthyroidism is characterised by increased thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion from the thyroid gland, whereas thyrotoxicosis refers to the clinical syndrome of excess circulating thyroid hormones, irrespective of the source. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is Graves' disease, followed by toxic nodular goitre. Other important causes of thyrotoxicosis include thyroiditis, iodine-induced and drug-induced thyroid dysfunction, and factitious ingestion of excess thyroid hormones. Treatment options for Graves' disease include antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine therapy, and surgery, whereas antithyroid drugs are not generally used long term in toxic nodular goitre, because of the high relapse rate of thyrotoxicosis after discontinuation. β blockers are used in symptomatic thyrotoxicosis, and might be the only treatment needed for thyrotoxicosis not caused by excessive production and release of the thyroid hormones. Thyroid storm and hyperthyroidism in pregnancy and during the post-partum period are special circumstances that need careful assessment and treatment.
Compared with genetic factors, drug interactions are largely unexplored in pharmacogenetic studies. This study sought to systematically investigate the effects of VKORC1, STX4A, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, CYP3A4, and GGCX gene polymorphisms and interacting drugs on warfarin maintenance dose.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia that frequently recurs after restoration of sinus rhythm. In a consistent percentage of cases, AF recurrences are asymptomatic, thus making its clinical management difficult in relation to both therapeutic efficacy and thromboembolic risk.
The incidence of BOOP is probably underestimated in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome without cutaneous vasculitis. In case of pneumonia with antibiotic resistance, an immunological mechanism should be considered.
Cardioversion appears as a safe procedure with a reasonably acceptable cardiovascular event rate. However, to prevent the cardiovascular events, several risk factors should be considered before cardioversion.
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20 patients with WPW syndrome and recurrent tachyarrhythmias were studied clinically and electrophysiologically. The localization and electrophysiological properties of accessory pathways and other heart structures were estimated before the surgical treatment. 13 patients (pts) suffered syncope in the course of atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation with heart rate greater than 300/min, often proceeding into ventricular fibrillation or atrioventricular tachycardia greater than 260/min, which sometimes proceeds into atrial/ventricular fibrillation. 6 pts experienced dizziness or fainted during tachyarrhythmias or rhythm changes. In 15 pts antiarrhythmic drugs in monotherapy or various combinations did not prevent recurrence of tachyarrhythmias. In 4 of 5 other pts only amiodarone was effective but the drug was discontinued due to serious adverse effects. The lack of good effect of antiarrhythmic drug therapy can be based on mutually unfavorable electrophysiologic properties of the accessory pathways and other heart structures. Pts who experienced syncope had a particularly short effective refractory period (ERP) of the accessory pathways in ante- and retro-grade direction and short ERP of the ventricle muscle. Additionally, there were multiple accessory pathways, heart muscle impairement and frequent ventricular premature beats--factors triggering the tachyarrhythmias.
The authors have compared the anti-arrhythmic activity and tolerance of disopyramide and amiodarone in the treatment of ventricular extrasystoles (VES) by using two quantitative methods of assessment. The stability of the rhythmic disorder was confirmed by two control Holter recordings in 20 patients without treatment, 16 of whom were bearers of an organic cardiopathy. The ventricular extrasystole was greater than 90 VES/hour in 18 patients. After the first control, Holter recording, each patient was treated successively with 400 mg of disopyramide/day in 4 doses for average period of 31 days, then a second Holter control recording without treatment, then 600 mg/day of amiodarone for 8 days followed by a maintenance dose varying from 200 to 400 mg/day: this second period of treatment lasted for an average of 38 days. The reduction of the number of VES was greater than 65 percent (SAMI criterion) in 2 of the 20 patients treated with disopyramide and in 13 of the 20 patients treated with amiodarone. Using the method of variance analysis, disopyramide was found to be efficacious in 5 cases out of 20 and amiodarone in 15 cases out of 20. Both methods indicate that the greater efficacy of amiodarone is statistically significant (p less than 0.01). All of those who did not respond to amiodarone were also non-responders to disopyramide.
The acidic dissociation constants of several hydrophobic drugs, amiodarone and a series of antidepressants that show a secondary or tertiary amino group, were determined in a 50% methanol/water mixture by capillary zone electrophoresis. The electrophoretic behavior of buffers prepared from sodium acetate, tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane hydrochloride, sodium hydrogenphosphate, ammonium chloride, ethanolamine, butilammonium chloride, and sodium borate in the hydroalcoholic solution was tested. Thus, all of them follow the Ohm's law until about 25 kV and, therefore, they can be used without significant Joule heat dissipation at 20 kV. For the studied drugs, buffers prepared with phosphate or borate give effective mobility measurements lower than those from other buffers. The wide pKa range of the studied drugs provides a wide pH range where the protonated forms of the amino compounds coexist with hydrogenphosphate ions and where the neutral amines coexist with boric acid. The decrease of the experimental effective mobilities in these instances can be explained through the interactions between coexisting species. Therefore, phosphate and borate buffers should be avoided to determine the mobility of amines with aqueous pKa higher than 8, at least in solutions with high methanol content. Independent measurements of acidic dissociation constants of drugs validate this statement.
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Serum free T4, free T3, and TSH concentrations were measured at booking, during KClO4 treatment and after withdrawing the drug.
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To discuss the role of amiodarone for the maintenance of normal sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and review the clinical trial data evaluating the efficacy and safety of amiodarone in patients with AF.
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In this cohort of severe heart failure patients both clinical status and EF stably improve over time with a strikingly low incidence of hospitalizations for heart failure (0.13/patient-years) and the arrhythmic risk can be controlled by medical therapy and/or on-request ACD implantation.
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To assess prospectively whether preimplantation B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C reactive protein (CRP) concentrations predict future appropriate therapies from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD).
Under control conditions, monophasic action potentials from both the (potentially) ischaemic and non-ischaemic regions were comparable, dispersion of repolarisation was minimal, and repetitive ventricular firing could not be induced. Coronary ligation significantly decreased monophasic action potential duration and increased rise time in the ischaemic, but not in the non-ischaemic, regions. Dispersion of repolarisation increased markedly. Repetitive ventricular firing could be induced in all dogs. "Low dose" amiodarone caused a much greater prolongation of repolarisation duration at ischaemic than at non-ischaemic sites. Dispersion of repolarisation decreased virtually to control levels and repetitive firing could no longer be induced in six of seven dogs. "High dose" amiodarone increased ischaemic region repolarisation duration and rise time relative to the non-ischaemic region to an even greater extent than the "low" dose, with the result that dispersion of repolarisation increased rather than decreased and repetitive ventricular firing again became inducible.
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To determine the rate and severity of phlebitis in patients given peripherally infused amiodarone.
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The role that the new antiarrhythmic agents, such as verapamil and amiodarone, might play in the therapeutic strategy of tachycardia-induced fetal heart failure remains to be determined.