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We report a case of perianesthetic refractory anaphylactic shock with cefuroxime in a patient with history of penicillin allergy on regular therapy with atenolol, losartan, prazosin and nicardipine. Severe anaphylactic shock was only transiently responsive to 10mL of (1:10000) epinephrine and needed norepinephrine and dopamine infusion. Supportive therapy with vasopressors and inotropes along with mechanical ventilation for the next 24hours resulted in complete recovery. She was successfully operated upon 2 weeks later with the same anesthetic drugs but intravenous ciprofloxacin as the alternative antibiotic for perioperative prophylaxis.
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The availability of drugs for neonates is limited as evaluation is said more difficult in neonates than in older patients and adults, resulting in off-label drug use. Indeed, diseases may be specific to the neonatal period, the impact of immaturity and rapid developmental changes in the first days/weeks of life is important, and drugs may have short and long-term effects including developmental toxicity. To improve such situation, both the US and the EU have introduce paediatric legislation and the EMA has issued guidelines to optimize drug evaluation in paediatric populations including neonates. In addition, the following collaborative projects were funded by the EU in the co-operative programme of FP7. As preterm and term neonates are prone to infections which result in increase morbidity and mortality, the TINN (Treat Infections in Neonates) and TINN2 projects aim to evaluate off-patent anti-infectious drugs included in the EMEA priority list, ciprofloxacin/fluconazole and azithromycin respectively in the two projects. The final aim is to obtain a Paediatric Use Marketing Authorization for these drugs in neonates. In addition, TINN will build up a network of units with experience in evaluating anti-infective agents in neonates. An additional important initiative called GRIP (Global Research in Paediatrics) will focus on paediatric clinical pharmacology training and will facilitate the development and safe use of medicine in children.
The remaining high prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB and the presence of XDR TB during a trend of decreasing drug resistance are alarming. Continuous surveillance of clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis is needed to identify XDR TB, especially in patients who have a history of TB and have received prior anti-TB treatment.
This is a descriptive case report with a brief review of literature. A 43-year-old male admitted to the hospital following an acute cerebellar hemorrhage was found to have a swollen and tender wrist. The patient was afebrile with leukocytosis. Visual acuity was hand motion in the right eye and 20/20 in the left. Right eye examination noted anterior chamber cells and flare, vitreous haze and multiple large, and fluffy retinal infiltrates. Diagnostic vitrectomy revealed a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate with numerous fungal elements. Blood cultures were negative, multiple transesophageal echocardiography studies revealed no vegetations, and synovial fluid aspiration of the wrist and biopsy of the radius were unremarkable. The patient was treated with intravitreal cefazolin, vancomycin, and amphotericin B, topical ciprofloxacin and natamycin, and intravenous amphotericin B and voriconazole. Visual acuity in the right eye declined to light perception, and examination revealed increasing anterior and posterior chamber inflammation. The patient died several weeks after presentation due to a massive intracranial hemorrhage. Fungal culture results from the vitrectomy were received post mortem and were positive for P. richardsiae.
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The following study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from fresh and frozen oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae sold in Fortaleza-Brazil. An antibiogram was performed on 87 isolates using nine antibiotics: gentamicin (Gen 10 µg), ampicillin (Amp 10 µg), penicillin G (Pen 10U), ciprofloxacin (Cip 5 µg), chloramphenicol (Chl 30 µg), nalidixic acid (Nal 30 µg), tetracycline (Tet 30 µg), vancomycin (Van 30 µg) and erythromycin (Ery 15 µg). All strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 85 (97.7%) were multi-resistant, with predominance of the Van+ Pen+Amp resistance profile (n = 46). Plasmid resistance to Pen, Amp and Ery was detected. Thus, the risk that raw oyster consumption poses to the health of consumers is highlighted, due to the fact that these bivalves may host antibacterial-resistant microorganisms.
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High prevalence of Shigella with multiple antibiotic resistance isolates was observed in this study. Public health workers should emphasize, on primary preventive measures and periodic surveillance for antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Shigella isolates. When culturing and antibiotic susceptibility testing facilities are not available, prescription of ciprofloxacin as a choice of treatment is recommended.
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Implants showing signs of peri-implantitis harbor a microbiota similar to that of periodontitis-affected teeth. This case report describes the subgingival microbiota of a 45-year-old female with advanced periodontitis before and after complete edentulation and reconstruction with dental implants. A 3-month healing period post extraction passed before implants were placed using a two-stage submerged implant protocol. At 4- to 6-month recall visits after definitive prosthetic reconstruction, some implant sites showed bleeding on probing and localized mucositis. Microbiological culture of three inflamed peri-implant sites showed an almost identical spectrum of pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and other major pathogenic bacteria characteristic of aggressive periodontitis. As natural teeth were absent for 8 months, this case report suggests that periodontal pathogens can be retained for a prolonged period of time in nondental sites, from where they can later colonize and compromise the health of dental implants. The therapeutic implications of this finding are discussed.
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A total of 2989 specimens of blood, pus and wound swab were collected from wards, casualty, intensive care units (ICU) and out-patient department (O.P.D), out of these, Staphylococci were isolated in 1017 specimens, of which 381 were identified as CoNS. Culture, gram stain, catalase, coagulase test and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were done on these specimens according to clinical manual of microbiology. A total of thirteen most commonly used antibiotics were used in this study. Susceptibility testing was done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique.
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Standardized combination antibiotic therapy was moderately effective in treating M. abscessus lung disease. However, frequent adverse reactions and the potential for long-duration hospitalization are important problems that remain to be solved.
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Retrospective, observational case series.
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The aim of this work was to better understand the importance of the type of experimental setup used to monitor antibiotic release from functionalized hydroxyapatite implants. Microporous hydroxyapatite discs were prepared by sintering and subsequently functionalized with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) polymer crosslinked with butanetetracarboxylic acid. On one hand, polymerization was performed within the implant after its impregnation with the monomers (CD-HA-M implant). On the other hand, a pre-synthesized HPβCD polymer was loaded and fixed onto the HA discs (CD-HA-P implant). Both types of implants were soaked with ciprofloxacin hydrochloride or vancomycin hydrochloride solution and dried at 37°C. The DSC study highlighted that the cyclodextrin polymer could interfere with both drugs, due to the carboxylic groups carried by the crosslinks. Drug release was measured into phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4 in agitated vials, or into agarose gels to more realistically mimic in vivo conditions. Importantly, in all cases, drug release into agarose gels was much slower than into well-agitated phosphate buffer. Non-functionalized discs displayed faster drug release because no complex could be formed and/or due to the absence of the HPβCD polymer network hindering drug diffusion within the implant pores. In the case of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, drug release from the CD-HA-M implants was faster than drug release from the CD-HA-P implants due to the different polymer structures resulting in different complexation strengths, whereas in the case of vancomycin hydrochloride the release patterns were similar because vancomycin hydrochloride was not included into the cyclodextrin. The agarose gel method seems more biorelevant and discriminatory than the vial method for drug release measurements from bone implants.
In the adult female, a cyst of the Skene's duct is a rare event that may be either the late consequence of a congenital abnormality or the result of a chronic acquired inflammation.
To determine whether antibiotic treatment of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children and adults with CF eradicates the organism, improves clinical and microbiological outcome and is superior to or more cost-effective than other strategies.
Most of the patients (76.1%) had acute watery diarrhoea in association with vomiting (77.7%) and some dehydration (92%). Vibrio cholerae O1, Rotavirus and Giardia lamblia were the important causes of diarrhoea. Among Shigella spp, S. flexneri 2a and 3a serotypes were most predominantly isolated. Enteric viruses, EPEC and EAEC were common in children <5 year age group. Atypical EPEC was comparatively higher than the typical EPEC. Multidrug resistance was common among V. cholerae O1 and Shigella spp including tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Polymicrobial infections were common in all age groups and 27.9% of the diarrhoea patients had no potential pathogen.
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We aimed to develop a new approach to the analysis of antimicrobial resistance data from the hospitals, which allows simultaneous analysis of both individual- and population-level determinants of bacterial resistance. This was a retrospective cohort study that included adult patients who stayed in the hospital >2 days. We analyzed data using shared frailty Cox models and tested our approach using a priori hypotheses based on biology and epidemiology of antibiotic resistance. For gram-negative bacteria, the use of the major selecting antibiotic by an individual was the main risk factor for acquiring resistant species. Hazard ratios (HRs) were strikingly high for ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter species (HR=11.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.67-22.02), ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (HR=4.41; 95% CI: 2.14-9.08), and imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (HR=7.92; 95% CI: 4.35-14.43). Ward-level use was significant for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) (HR=1.40; 95% CI: 1.07-1.83) and for imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (HR=1.40; 95% CI: 1.08-1.83). Previous incidence of infection in the same ward increased the risk of acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.15-1.30) and VRE (HR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.38-1.70). Our results were consistent with our hypotheses and showed that combining population- and individual-level data is crucial for the exploration of antimicrobial resistance development.
The wild-type MICs of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin were distributed from 0.125 to 1, 0.25 to 1, 0.032 to 0.5 and 0.125 to 0.5 mg/L, respectively. The MIC data correlated well with the BACTEC 960 MGIT and BACTEC 460 results. PD indices were the most favourable for levofloxacin, followed by moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.
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The isolates were subjected to multiplex PCR, mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA) PCR, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antibiotic sensitivity tests using disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) E-test following standard procedures.
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Rahnella aquatilis is an infrequently isolated Gram-negative rod within the Enterobacteriaceae family. The organism's natural habitat is water. The organism is rarely isolated from clinical specimens and it seldom causes infection in immunocompetent individuals. Here we present a one-month-old boy who was born prematurely at 27th week of gestation by cesarean section with a birth weight of 730 g. He developed sepsis caused by Rahnella aquatilis during the treatment for ventilator associated pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with a combination of amikacin plus meropenem. Although R. aquatilis is one of the saprophyticus organisms, it may cause life-threatening infection in newborn.
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The most effective antibiotics against gram-negative healthcare associated infections are imipenem followed by ciprofloxacin. The resistance rate is high against ampicillin and cephalothin. The high mortality rate (46.1%) associated with S. marcescens is alarming.
The susceptibility of B. lata strain 383 to CHG and BZC and a range of antibiotics was determined using standardized MIC, MBC and antibiotic susceptibility testing protocols before and after short-term exposure to a low microbicide concentration. Measurements were performed on four separate occasions over a 1-year period. Changes in gene expression were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Although the susceptibility profile to CHG and BZC was not altered, a change in antibiotic susceptibility profile was observed for ceftazidime, and for imipenem and ciprofloxacin in 2/4 repeats. An outer membrane protein and ABC transporter were found to be significantly upregulated following treatment with BZC and CHG, respectively.
Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) worldwide. In 2001 The National Health Service in the UK introduced a mandatory bacteraemia surveillance scheme for the reporting of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This surveillance initiative reports on the percentage of isolates that are methicillin resistant. However, resistance to other antibiotics is not currently reported and therefore the scale of emerging resistance is currently unclear in the UK. In this study, multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) profiles against fourteen antimicrobial drugs were investigated for 705 isolates of S. aureus collected from two European study sites in the UK (London) and Malta.