Tityus serrulatus venom (Tsv) was intraperitoneally (ip) injected at doses of 75, 150 and 300mug/kg and IL-1beta (2.0 microg/kg) was given intravenously (iv) to male Wistar rats. Rectal temperature was measured by radiotelemetry. Vagotomy was performed according to Bluthe et al. [1994. Lipopolysaccharide induces sickness behaviour in rats by a vagal mediated mechanism. C R Acad. Sci. 317(6), 499-503]. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peritoneal fluid (PF) levels of bradykinin (BK) were measured by ELISA. B(1) (des-Arg(9)-[Leu(8)]-BK; DALBK) and B(2) kinin receptor (icatibant) antagonists (1.0 mg/kg each), the induced nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine (50.0 mg/kg), the neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (30.0 mg/kg), the dual cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen (10.0 mg/kg), the selective interleukin-1 receptor antagonist IL-ra (2.0 mg/kg) and dipyrone (120 mg/kg) were given ip. Celecoxib (5 mg/kg) was given per os (po). Tsv at doses of 75 microg/kg evoked no change in rectal temperature while at doses of 150 and 300 microg/kg it promoted long-lasting fever (2 degrees C+/-0.1). Tsv (150 microg/kg) increased by nearly 3 and 5 times, respectively BK concentration in the CSF and in the PF. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy or 7-nitroindazole reduced, icatibant, DALBK, IL-1ra, aminoguanidine and dipyrone abolished, while ibuprofen and celecoxib failed to affect Tsv-induced fever. These results suggest that PGs do not play a relevant role, whereas, kinins via their B(1) and B(2) receptors, IL-1, nitric oxide and vagal neurotransmission are involved in Tsv-induced fever.
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Joint pain is the main complaint in patients affected by osteoarthritis (OA), and NSAIDs are commonly used to treat pain associated with OA. Over the past few years, cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2-selective inhibitors have been proved to have certain advantages over non-selective NSAIDs and have been increasingly used for pain management in patients with OA.
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Our comprehensive analysis revealed that COX-2 inhibitors may be beneficial for suppressing aggrecan degradation and for reducing inflammatory pain by inhibiting PGE2 release, although they may have limited efficacy in suppressing collagen degradation and nerve growth. This study suggests the feedback roles of PGE2 in the negative regulation of NGF and MMP-1 and MMP-13 and the positive regulation of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5.
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One of the most striking features of inflammatory arthritis is the hyperplasia of synovial fibroblasts. It is not known whether the massive synovial hyperplasia characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis is due to the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts or to defective apoptosis. It has been found that glutamate receptor antagonists inhibit proliferation of different human tumour cells and the anticancer potential of glutamate receptor antagonists was suggested. Here, we investigated the effect of glutamate receptor antagonists and selected antirheumatic drugs on proliferation of synoviocytes in vitro. Experiments were conducted on rabbit synoviocytes cell line HIG-82 obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Menassas, VA, USA). Cell proliferation was assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The IC50 value (the concentration of drug necessary to induce 50% inhibition) together with confidence limits was calculated. Glutamate receptor antagonists, 1-(4-aminophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-7,8-dimethoxy-4H-2,3-benzodiazepin-4-one (CFM-2), riluzole, memantine, 1-4-aminophenyl-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine (GYKI 52466), dizocilpine, ketamine and 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX), inhibited proliferation of synoviocytes with the following IC50 values (in mM): 0.014, 0.017, 0.065, 0.102, 0.15, 0.435 and 1.16, respectively. Antirheumatic drugs, celecoxib, diclofenac, nimesulide, sulfasalazine, naproxen and methotrexate, inhibited proliferation of synoviocytes with the following IC50 values (in mM): 0.0043, 0.034, 0.044, 0.096, 0.385 and 1.123, respectively. Thus, the antiproliferative potential of glutamate receptor antagonists is comparable to that of antirheumatic drugs.
Compared with recipients of nsNSAIDs, coxib recipients were less likely to switch medications and had approximately half the adjusted costs for switching-related wasted resources per prescription.
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The dynamic weight bearing (DWB) system was used for the evaluation of spontaneous behaviour changes in the zymosan-induced peritonitis mouse model. Inflammatory mediator levels were evaluated in peritoneal lavage and their correlation with the behavioural endpoints was assessed. We evaluated the effect on behavioural endpoints of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib and the Nav 1.8 blocker A-803467.
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This experiment examined and compared the effects of pre-test administration of a selective COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), at the doses in the range of mg/kg and ng/kg on morphine state-dependent learning in step-down passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training administration of 5mg/kg of morphine-impaired memory retrieval tested 24h later, which was restored by pre-test administration of the same dose of the drug. Pre-test administration of celecoxib (12.5, 25 and 50mg/kg), alone or in combination with morphine (1mg/kg) prevents morphine-induced memory impairment. Ultra-low doses (ULDs) of celecoxib (2, 10 and 50 ng/kg) produced no change in morphine-induced memory impairment. However, co-administration of nanogram doses of celecoxib with 5mg/kg of morphine in the test day prevented morphine-induced memory improvement, an action different from mg/kg doses. These findings implicate the involvement of COX-2 in memory retrieval and demonstrate that the effect of celecoxib ULD is different from that of mg/kg doses.
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Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a chronic inflammatory disease that increase the risk of life-threatening aortic rupture. In humans, AAAs have been characterized by increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the inactivation of COX-2 prior to disease initiation reduces AAA incidence in a mouse model of the disease. The current study examined the effectiveness of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition on reducing AAA progression when administered after the initiation of AAA formation. AAAs were induced in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by chronic angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and the effect of treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib was examined when initiated at different stages of the disease. Celecoxib treatment that was started 1 week after initiating AngII infusion reduced AAA incidence by 61% and significantly decreased AAA severity. Mice treated with celecoxib also showed significantly reduced aortic rupture and mortality. Treatment with celecoxib that was started at a late stage of AAA development also significantly reduced AAA incidence and severity. Celecoxib treatment significantly increased smooth muscle alpha-actin expression in the abdominal aorta and did not reduce expression of markers of macrophage-dependent inflammation. These findings indicate that COX-2 inhibitor treatment initiated after formation of AngII-induced AAAs effectively reduces progression of the disease in hyperlipidemic mice.
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To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of a single oral dose of celecoxib for moderate to severe postoperative pain.
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This cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor did not improve the strength of ligament healing but did significantly improve the strength of the contralateral uninjured ligament.
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We conclude that maternal administration of therapeutic doses of celecoxib does not adversely affect fetal renal growth. MMP-9 is increased in various nephropathies, but may also have protective effects therefore its suppression by COX-2 inhibitors needs further study.
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The rats on regular or 60% fructose-enriched diets for 6 weeks were further divided into rats combined with or without piroxicam (a selective COX1 inhibitor) or celecoxib (a selective COX2 inhibitor) treatment for an additional 2 weeks. Euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) with a tracer dilution method was performed at the end of the study.
The prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptor as well as the inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 have been suggested as targets for disease modulation, improvement of therapeutic response, and restoration of pharmacosensitivity in epilepsies. Translational development of respective add-on approaches requires careful analysis of putative effects on ictogenesis. Therefore we evaluated the impact of the EP1 receptor antagonist SC-51089, the EP1 receptor agonist misoprostol and the COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and NS-398 in the mouse amygdala kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Neither celecoxib nor NS-398 affected the generation, spread and termination of seizure activity. Whereas SC-51089 did not affect the seizure threshold, the highest dose (30mg/kg) significantly decreased the seizure severity when administered 60min before stimulation. Moreover, SC-51089 significantly prolonged seizure duration at the highest dose. The EP1 receptor agonist misoprostol exerted contrasting effects on seizure duration with a significant decrease in the duration of motor seizure activity. The data suggest that doses of COX-2 inhibitors and EP1 receptor antagonists which exert disease modulating or antiepileptic drug potentiating effects do not negatively affect seizure control in temporal lobe epilepsy. The contrasting impact of the EP1 receptor antagonist and agonist suggests that EP1 receptors can influence endogenous mechanisms involved in termination of seizure activity.
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In this analysis, relative to the most frequently prescribed strength, celecoxib-treated patients with OA and RA had higher DACONs than rofecoxib-treated OA and RA patients across all subgroups. These observations may have economic implications in terms of direct effects on cost and the need for formularies to consider overall use patterns in addition to pill costs. However, these conclusions are limited by lack of clinical information (other than an OA or RA diagnosis), inability to ascertain actual use, and potential for selection bias.
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An open-label multicentre study was conducted in primary care centres in Spain to investigate the effect of a switch from celecoxib to rofecoxib among patients with osteoarthritis and to identify factors associated with a good response to rofecoxib treatment. Patients were eligible to participate in this study if their physicians considered that they might benefit from such a change of therapy. A total of 2,228 patients (1481 women) were enrolled in the study: participants' mean age was 66.37 years (SD 9.04). Mean duration of OA was 7.44 (6.38) years. Predominant sites of OA included the knee (1,132 patients, 50.8%), lumbar spine (977 patients, 43.9%) and cervical spine (739 patients, 33.2%). At baseline, most patients (77%) were being prescribed celecoxib 200 mg/day; during the study most (92.5%) received rofecoxib 25 mg/day. The mean interval between switch to rofecoxib and follow-up interview was 33 days.
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Both loxoprofen sodium and celecoxib were well tolerated for the relief of acute postoperative pain after spinal surgery. A single administration of loxoprofen showed superior and rapid effectiveness compared with celecoxib for both slight and severe postoperative pain.
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Combination treatment with ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation at zusanli (ST 36), oral sanhuangwuji powder, and ARDs had a better clinical effect for RA with complicated peptic ulcer, compared with ARD treatmentalone or in combination with ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation.
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We searched the following databases up to August 2004: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, National Research Register, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Technology Assessment Database. The bibliographies of retrieved papers and content experts were consulted for additional references.
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Controversy persists regarding the cardiovascular risks of treatment with selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors (coxibs) and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study was undertaken to examine, in a large group of new users of coxibs and NSAIDs, the rate of cardiovascular events, their time course, and whether baseline cardiovascular risk modified the rate ratios (RRs) for future events.
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Appropriate pain management affects outcome after hip fracture surgery. Although multimodal pain management is commonly used for pain control for patients undergoing elective surgery, few studies have evaluated its use in those undergoing hip fracture surgery. This prospective randomized study was designed to determine the clinical value of multimodal pain management with preemptive pain medication and intraoperative periarticular multimodal drug injections in patients undergoing bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty.
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Apocynin, Mito-TEMPO, and Celecoxib treatments prevented Ang II-induced hypertension, the increased vasoconstrictor responses to phenylephrine, and the reduced acetylcholine relaxation. The NOX-2 inhibitor gp91ds-tat, the NOX-1 inhibitor ML171, catalase, and the COX-2 inhibitor NS398 abolished the ex vivo effect of Ang II-enhancing phenylephrine responses. Antioxidant treatments diminished the increased vascular COX-2 expression, prostanoid production, and/or participation of COX-derived contractile prostanoids and thromboxane A(2) receptor (TP) in phenylephrine responses, observed in arteries from hypertensive models. The treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor normalized the increased ROS production (O(2)·(-) and H(2)O(2)), NAD(P)H Oxidase expression (NOX-1, NOX-4, and p22phox) and activity, MnSOD expression, and the participation of ROS in vascular responses in both hypertensive models. Apocynin and Mito-TEMPO also normalized these parameters of oxidative stress. Apocynin, Mito-TEMPO, and Celecoxib improved the diminished nitric oxide (NO) production and the modulation by NO of phenylephrine responses in the Ang II model.
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The overview included 39 separate Cochrane Reviews with 41 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 50,000 participants in approximately 460 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design, methods, and efficacy outcome reporting. No statistical comparison was undertaken.Reliable results (high quality information) were obtained for 53 pairs of drug and dose in painful postsurgical conditions; these included various fixed dose combinations, and fast acting formulations of some analgesics. NNTs varied from about 1.5 to 20 for at least 50% maximum pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. The proportion of participants achieving this level of benefit varied from about 30% to over 70%, and the time to remedication varied from two hours (placebo) to over 20 hours. Good (low) NNTs were obtained with ibuprofen 200 mg plus paracetamol (acetaminophen) 500 mg (NNT compared with placebo 1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 1.8), ibuprofen fast acting 200 mg (2.1; 1.9 to 2.3); ibuprofen 200 mg plus caffeine 100 mg (2.1; 1.9 to 3.1), diclofenac potassium 50 mg (2.1; 1.9 to 2.5), and etoricoxib 120 mg (1.8; 1.7 to 2.0). For comparison, ibuprofen acid 400 mg had an NNT of 2.5 (2.4 to 2.6). Not all participants had good pain relief and, for many pairs of drug and dose, 50% or more did not achieve at least 50% maximum pain relief over four to six hours.Long duration of action (eight hours or greater) was found for etoricoxib 120 mg, diflunisal 500 mg, paracetamol 650 mg plus oxycodone 10 mg, naproxen 500/550 mg, celecoxib 400 mg, and ibuprofen 400 mg plus paracetamol 1000 mg.There was no evidence of analgesic effect for aceclofenac 150 mg, aspirin 500 mg, and oxycodone 5 mg (low quality evidence). No trial data were available in reviews of acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for nine drugs and doses, and data potentially susceptible to publication bias for 13 drugs and doses (very low quality evidence).
Celecoxib (up to 25 microM) did not cause significant cytotoxicity in ARPE-19 or RF6A cells. Nanomolar concentrations of celecoxib reduced VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein secretion. Celecoxib-PLGA microparticles (diameter: 1140 +/- 15 nm), containing 14.93% +/- 0.21% of celecoxib sustained in vitro drug release and in vivo drug levels in the retina for 60 days. Diabetes elevated PGE2 secretion, VEGF protein, the vitreous-plasma protein ratio, and blood-retinal barrier leakage by 3-, 1.7-, 3.1-, and 2.7-fold, and celecoxib-PLGA microparticles significantly reduced these elevations by 40%, 50%, 40%, and 50%, respectively. Neither the placebo-treated eyes nor the contralateral eyes in celecoxib-PLGA microparticle-treated rats showed significant effects. Celecoxib-PLGA or placebo-PLGA particles had no effect on the body weight or blood sugar level of rats. The celecoxib-PLGA microparticles did not cause any changes in blood cell counts or chemistry and caused no histopathological damage to the retina or periocular tissues.
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Experiments were performed using bronchial carcinoma cells A549, transformed fibroblasts HH4dd, the FaDu head-and-neck tumor cells, the colon carcinoma cells HCT116, and normal fibroblasts HSF7. Effects of celecoxib treatment were assessed by clonogenic cell survival, Western analysis, and quantification of residual DNA damage by gammaH(2)AX foci assay.
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BxPC-3, MIAPaCa-2, PANC-1 and AsPC-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to sorafenib and celecoxib combined treatment in vitro. Cell viability and various growth promoting and survival signaling pathways were monitored by MTT, flow cytometry and Western blotting.
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Both nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclooxygenase (COX) 2-selective inhibitors such as celecoxib are being reported as having potent anticancer activity in laboratory models. Several reports have suggested that the mechanism of action of these agents in reducing tumor volume/burden is unrelated to their inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Many in vitro reports use supraphysiological concentrations of these drugs to demonstrate COX-independent activities on apoptosis or proliferation. In vivo, most murine tumor models express COX-2 only in the vasculature and stroma, unlike human tumors that also express COX-2 in the tumor cells. In general, these models have the limitation of having no measurable, COX-2-derived, prostaglandins, the inhibition of which correlates with antitumor efficacy. We report here that 1483 human head and neck xenograft tumors express COX-2 similar to the pattern observed in human solid tumors and that COX-2 activity produces high levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib resulted in loss of intratumor PGE2 levels and reduced tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, a selective COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560, did not measurably reduce tumor prostaglandin levels or tumor growth despite the presence of COX-1 in the host and tumor cells. Celecoxib-treated tumors showed reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of both tumor and stromal cells compared with vehicle controls. Specific inhibition of PGE2 activity by a neutralizing antibody mimicked the reduced tumor growth observed after celecoxib treatment, suggesting growth is PGE2 mediated. These data indicate that a major antitumor mechanism of action of celecoxib is inhibition of COX-2-derived prostaglandins, particularly PGE2, and suggest celecoxib as a novel therapeutic agent for human head and neck cancer.
In all, 21 studies met the selection criteria. Across the safety analysis populations of the included studies, 7797 patients received celecoxib total daily dose 200 mg/day, 6653 received celecoxib total daily dose 400 mg/day, 2953 received naproxen, 499 received ibuprofen, and 5643 received diclofenac. Tolerability-related GI AEs were reported by significantly fewer celecoxib-treated patients (16.0%) than by those treated with naproxen (24.3%), ibuprofen (24.2%), or diclofenac (19.9%) (p < 0.0001 vs. each comparator). Time to study discontinuation due to any GI AE was significantly longer for celecoxib than for naproxen (p < 0.0001), ibuprofen (p = 0.002), or diclofenac (p = 0.048). In the RA subpopulation (n = 2857), there was no significant difference between the celecoxib and naproxen or ibuprofen groups in incidence of tolerability-related GI AEs and GI AEs.
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Celecoxib inhibits meningioma growth in vivo at plasma levels achievable in humans. Celecoxib-treated tumors were less vascular with increased apoptosis. IOMM-Lee tumors treated with celecoxib showed decreased COX-2 and VEGF expression. COX-2 inhibitors may have a role in the treatment of recurrent meningiomas.