Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Bicalutamide.
Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.
Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.
Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.
Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.
Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.
Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.
Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.
Do not crush or chew it.
This medicine is only for men.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.
Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.
Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.
Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.
Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.
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OH-FLU is 3.1- to 7.8-fold more potent than Casodex, as measured on two in vitro androgen-sensitive parameters, in agreement with our recent in vivo data obtained in the model of castrated rats supplemented with 4-androstenedione implants, in which threefold greater potency of flutamide was observed. The present data, as well as other data from the literature, strongly indicate the need to choose a more appropriate dose of Casodex for the treatment of prostate cancer.
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The definition of advanced prostate cancer has changed. Multimodal therapy improves cancer-specific outcomes especially in men with high-risk disease. The potential opportunities for novel therapeutic agents with low associated morbidity are great.
Men with multiple determinants of intermediate-risk to high-risk prostate cancer have significantly increased estimates of PCSM despite aggressive therapy compared with men with only 1 or 2 determinants. These men are appropriate candidates for enrollment onto randomized controlled trials evaluating the benefit of adding systemic therapies such as docetaxel to RT+AST or RP.
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A total of 1218 patients were randomized on a 1:1 basis to either bicalutamide 150 mg/day (n=607) or placebo (n=611) following standard care; 81.4% were followed conservatively (watchful waiting). The primary endpoints were objective progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Androgen deprivation or treatment with the anti-androgen bicalutamide promoted autophagy in HRPCa-derived LNCaP cells. This effect was dramatically reduced after depletion of Atg5 and Beclin-1, two canonical autophagy genes, and was associated with an inhibition of the androgen-induced mTOR pathway. The depletion of Atg5 and Beclin-1 significantly increased the level of cell death induced by androgen deprivation or bicalutamide. Finally, the safe anti-malarial drug chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy, dramatically increased cell death after androgen deprivation or bicalutamide treatment.
The present study aimed to investigate the significance of anti-androgen withdrawal and/or subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) who relapsed after initial maximum androgen blockade (MAB). The present study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 272 consecutive advanced PC patients undergoing anti-androgen withdrawal and/or subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy with flutamide following the failure of initial MAB using bicalutamide. With the exception of 41 patients (15.1%) who did not undergo anti-androgen withdrawal due to the characteristics of PC suggesting aggressive diseases, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declined from the baseline value in 83 patients (35.9%), including 18 (7.8%) with PSA decline >50%, but not in the remaining 148 (64.1%). No significant difference in the overall survival (OS) or cancer-specific survival (CSS) among the three groups was observed based on the response to anti-androgen withdrawal. Following the introduction of alternative anti-androgen therapy with flutamide, PSA decline was observed in 185 patients (68.0%), including 103 (37.9%) who achieved a PSA reduction of >50%; however, the PSA level continued to elevate in the remaining 87 (32.0%). Furthermore, of the numerous factors examined, only the duration of the initial MAB therapy was shown to be significantly correlated with the PSA decline following alternative anti-androgen therapy. Multivariate analysis of several factors identified revealed that only PSA decline following alternative anti-androgen therapy was an independent predictor of CSS and OS. If initial MAB is effective, the introduction of alternative anti-androgen therapy may be considered; however, anti-androgen withdrawal should be omitted, irrespective of the characteristics of advanced PC.
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At 1 year, the mean (standard deviation) change from baseline in growth rate was -1.6 (+/- 5.1) cm/year and -0.1 (+/- 1.8) SD units, and in bone maturation was -2.3 (+/- 0.5) years. The bone age/chronological age ratio was reduced from 2.1 (+/- 0.6) at baseline to 1.0 (+/- 0.4) (p = 0.00013). Steady-state trough R-bicalutamide and anastrozole concentrations were attained by Day 21 and 8, respectively. Gynecomastia (42.9%) and breast tenderness (12.5%) were the most common treatment-related adverse events.
The androgen receptor and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors affect growth regulation in normal and cancerous prostate cells. Effects of androgen-activated androgen receptor on AP-1 activity were determined in the LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cell model.
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Two patients (aged 74 and 69 years) with prostate cancer were treated for more than 4 years with bicalutamide 50 mg daily. Clinical characterization and follow-up included luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements and clinical response of the tumours. Due to progression of the disease, patients underwent surgical orchidectomy as a further androgen withdrawal therapy. Testis biopsies were studied by light and electron microscopy and analysed by morphometry. Control samples were obtained from the normal testis of two patients with testicular cancer who underwent orchidectomy. Clinical follow-up showed a good response in the control of tumour growth and serum PSA decreased to < 4 ng/mL; concentrations of serum LH, FSH and testosterone were within the normal range. Testicular morphology of treated patients was unexpectedly well preserved; the organization of seminiferous tubules was normal with all the germ line elements and mature spermatozoa present. In some areas, a net increase of peritubular connective tissue was evident which may be a consequence of the age of the patients.
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Metastatic prostate cancer to the orbit is diagnosed, and the treatment with IMRT and hormone ablation is explored.
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Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol which can be considered as a nutraceutical because of its benefits such as anticancer and antioxidant activity. In this paper, we designed polymer-RES conjugates as anticancer drug carrier for synergistic therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. Bicalutamide (BIC) was used as a model drug to investigate the drug release behaviors and in vitro anticancer performance. PEG-RES and PEG-Glycine-RES nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. The size of the prepared particles was around 50 nm with RES content of 17.2 and 16.3 wt% for PEG-RES and PEG-Glycine-RES, respectively, and BIC loading efficiency were of 81.6% and 84.5%, separately. Release rate of RES from conjugates depended on the stability of ester group against hydrolysis. BIC release was much faster than RES release. The anticancer activity of BIC loaded PEGylated RES nanoparticles was much better than that of free BIC, indicating the conjugates provided a synergetic cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and flow cytometry analyses indicated that PEGylated RES conjugates were more efficiently internalized into cells, released drug into cytoplasm. These results suggest that PEGylated RES conjugates show great potential for cancer therapy.
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A novel series of [2.2.1]-oxabicyclo imide-based compounds were identified as potent antagonists of the androgen receptor. Molecular modeling and iterative drug design were applied to optimize this series. The lead compound [3aS-(3aalpha,4beta,5beta,7beta,7aalpha)]-4-(octahydro-5-hydroxy-4,7-dimethyl-1,3-dioxo-4,7-epoxy-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-2-iodobenzonitrile was shown to have potent in vivo efficacy after oral dosing in the CWR22 human prostate tumor xenograph model.
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This report describes the use of bicalutamide and anastrozole in two subjects with familial male-limited precocious puberty. Clinical improvements include decreased facial acne and pubic hair. Most importantly, a marked decrease in growth velocity and skeletal advancement has been achieved.
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PSA testing, six-core biopsy, genetic counselling and mutation analysis for French Canadian founder mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, histopathological review of tumour tissue from family members, examination of loss of heterozygosity at the BRCA2 gene locus, immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of the ERG nuclear oncoprotein in prostate tumours, genotyping with eight selected risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, Doppler ultrasonography of the leg, CT of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous and oral contrast, chest CT with intravenous contrast for the assessment of metastatic prostate cancer, genetic testing for the G84E variant in the HOXB13 gene.
Sixty-four patients were accrued; 61 patients received trial treatment and constituted the intention-to-treat (ITT) cohort. 70% were M0. Among 59 evaluable ITT patients, 13 (22%) patients had a >50% PSA decline, 5 (8%) had a decline between 10 and 50%, 4 (7%) had stabilization and 37 (63%) had PSA progression. The median duration was 3.7 months (95% confidence interval of 0.92-6.21 months).
Patients received bicalutamide at a dose of 50 mg orally daily and goserelin at a dose of 3.6 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks. CA 125 was obtained monthly, with computed tomography performed every 3 months. Correlative studies included serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, vascular endothelial growth factor, free testosterone, and androstenedione and the germline polymorphisms CYP19A1 and androgen receptor.
Following promising results in animal studies, Casodex (ICI 176,334) has been studied in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer. At doses of 10, 30 and 50 mg, the drug was found to be well tolerated, with a moderate effect on sex hormone levels. The 50 mg dose of Casodex (daily) reduced previously elevated acid phosphatase levels by 50% or more in 71% of patients.
A cure for prostate cancer (CaP) will be possible only after a complete understanding of the mechanisms causing this disease to progress from androgen dependence to androgen independence. To carry on a careful characterization of the phenotypes of CaP cell lines before and after acquisition of androgen independence, we used two human CaP LNCaP sublines: LNCaP(nan), which is androgen dependent (AD), and LNCaP-HP, which is androgen independent (AI). In AD LNCaP(nan) cells, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulated in an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent way a phosphorylation signaling pathway involving steroid receptor coactivator (Src)-mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-1/2-ERK-1/2-cAMP-response element binding-protein (CREB). Activation of this pathway was associated with increased [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and resistance to apoptosis. Use of dominant-negative forms of MEK-1/2 and CREB demonstrated in LNCaP(nan) cells that DHT induced [(3)H]thymidiine incorporation through a thus far unidentified molecule activated downstream of MEK-1/2, and antiapoptosis through phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB. In contrast, in AI LNCaP-HP cells, the Src-MEK-1/2-ERK-1/2-CREB pathway was constitutively active. Because it was not further stimulated by addition of DHT, no increase of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation or apoptosis resistance was demonstrated in LNCaP-HP cells. Additional experiments showed that Src and the scaffold protein MNAR coimmunoprecipitated with AR, indicating a role for Src as an apical molecule in the Src-MEK-1/2-ERK-1/2-CREB pathway. Interestingly, differences between the two cell lines were that in LNCaP-HP cells presence of an AI phenotype and lack of response to DHT were associated with constitutive activation of the protein kinase Src and interaction among Src, AR, and MNAR. In contrast, in LNCaP(nan) cells, presence of an AD phenotype and ability to respond to DHT were associated with DHT-dependent activation of Src kinase activity and interaction among Src, AR, and MNAR. Intriguingly, in LNCaP(nan) cells, we found that transcription through the prototypical CREB-responsive promoter c-fos could be induced in a DHT-dependent way, and this action was inhibited by the AR antagonist Casodex and MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059. In contrast, transcription through the PSA P/E promoter, a prototypical AR-dependent promoter directly activated by agonist, was obliterated only by Casodex. Additional experiments with genital skin fibroblasts derived from patients with a variety of AR abnormalities indicated that nongenotropic AR signaling does not depend on an intact DNA-binding domain or on the ability of AR to translocate to the nucleus. The results suggest the following: (1) Constitutive activation of the Src-MEK-1/2-ERK-1/2-CREB pathway is associated with the AI phenotype observed in LNCaP-HP cells. (2) Activation of the Src-MEK-1/2-ERK-1/2-CREB pathway is DHT dependent in AD LNCaP(nan) cells. (3) DHT activation of this pathway is associated with induction of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation by a molecule activated downstream of MEK-1/2 and of antiapoptosis through activation of the transcription factor CREB in AD LNCaP(nan) cells. (4) AR regulates transcription either directly upon ligand binding and nuclear translocation or indirectly through kinase pathways leading to activation of downstream transcription factors. (5) Nuclear translocation and ability of the DNA-binding domain of AR to interact with DNA are not prerequisites for nongenotropic AR activity.
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Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) may occur in a variety of diseases, including malignancies, and can be induced by drugs. We report a case of SIADH associated with prostatic carcinoma. A 50-year-old man was admitted to hospital with severe flank pain and weight loss. The diagnosis of SIADH syndrome and prostatic carcinoma was established, and hormonal therapy was instituted. However, the patient died in a month without any response to therapy. We conclude that prostatic carcinoma may cause SIADH and should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis.
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To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life benefits of bicalutamide (Casodex) 150-mg/day monotherapy and castration in previously untreated nonmetastatic (M0) advanced prostate cancer.
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Autophagy associated with bicalutamide treatment in LNCaP cells may have a pro-survival effect and strategy to modulate autophagy may have a potential therapeutic value.
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A Markov state transition model was developed, using disease progression rates from a large (N = 8113) clinical trial program comparing bicalutamide in addition to standard care with standard care alone. Utility scores for different disease stages were obtained from published reports. Costs of disease progression were obtained from a retrospective patient chart analysis in six Belgian centers (n = 60). The time horizon was 15 years and the analysis was conducted from the public payer perspective.
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The involvement of mutated androgen receptors (mut-AR) in the actions of estrogens in prostate cancer cells is controversial. This work was designed to determine the role of such receptors in the growth inhibition by estradiol (E2) and androgens of the MOP cell line, a derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used as a "tool". E2 like DHT and R1881 inhibits MOP cell proliferation while DES does not. E2 and R1881 down regulate mut-AR mRNA, DES does not. E2 enhances mut-AR transcriptional activity less efficiently than R1881 while DES does not. E2 and R1881 up regulate PSA secretion in a dose-dependent manner, DES does it marginally at 10(-6)M. MOP cells express low amounts of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA but neither DES nor E2 and R1881 do enhance ER transcriptional activity. DES and E2 bind to mut-AR with relative binding affinities which are respectively 1/175 and 1/10 that of DHT. The E2 and androgen-repressed proliferation is prevented by DES and by the anti-androgen bicalutamide. In LNCaP cells, DES prevents the androgen-enhanced proliferation. These results strongly suggest that: (a) the putative endogenous ERs are biologically inactive in MOP cells, (b) the E2-repressed proliferation results from hormone binding to mut-AR and, (c) DES is an anti-androgen in mut-AR expressing cell line.
Combining bicalutamide and metformin significantly reduces prostate cancer cell growth further than either monotherapy. In AR-positive cells, this effect appeared to be mediated by reducing proliferation rates, whereas in AR-negative cells the combination treatment appeared to promote apoptosis. This combination drug regimen may improve prostate-cancer-specific survival by the direct antineoplastic properties outlined.
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Castration resistance occurs in most patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who are receiving androgen-deprivation therapy. Replacing androgens before progression of the disease is hypothesized to prolong androgen dependence.
These findings suggest that inhibition of the PI3K pathway activates AR signaling. Despite the increase in AR signaling which has proliferative effects, the result of PI3K pathway inhibition is antiproliferative. These findings suggest that the PI3K pathway is dominant over AR signaling in prostate cancer cells which should be considered in developing novel therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer.
Patients with progressive prostate cancer were treated with bicalutamide 200 mg daily. Before treatment, patients' tumors were classified on the basis of prior hormone exposure and by serum testosterone levels into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent groups. Prior exposure to flutamide and response to flutamide withdrawal was also considered. Outcomes were reported independently on the basis of posttherapy changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), measurable disease, and radionuclide bone scans.
We retrospectively studied 14 recurrent PC patients (mean age 67 years, range 55-82) during follow-up after radical prostatectomy (RP) with rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. All patients had undergone at least two consecutive (11)C-choline PET/CT scans: the first (11)C-choline PET/CT before commencing ADT and the second (11)C-choline PET/CT after 6 months of ADT administration.
The use of goserelin and bicalutamide did not appear to prolong PFS in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer in second or greater complete disease remission. The number of patients in disease remission at given time points may serve as a clinical trial endpoint for future studies of consolidation therapy.
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