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Casodex (Bicalutamide)
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Casodex

Generic Casodex is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of prostate cancer. Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cenestin, Eligard, Enjuvia, Premarin, Lupron, Xeloda

 

Also known as:  Bicalutamide.

Description

Generic Casodex is a perfect remedy in struggle against prostate cancer.

Generic Casodex acts by killing the cancer cells growth.

Casodex is also known as Bicalutamide, Cosudex, Calutide, Kalumid, Bicalox.

Generic name of Generic Casodex is Bicalutamide.

Brand name of Generic Casodex is Casodex.

Dosage

Take Generic Casodex tablets orally with or without food.

Take Generic Casodex at the same time every day with water.

Do not crush or chew it.

This medicine is only for men.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Casodex and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Casodex are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Casodex if you are allergic to Generic Casodex components.

Use contraception and avoid vaccinations.

Try to be careful using Generic Casodex if you take warfarin (Coumadin), aspirin-substitute products, aspirin.

Be very careful with Generic Casodex if you suffer from or have a history of liver disease.

Do not stop taking Generic Casodex suddenly.

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OH-FLU is 3.1- to 7.8-fold more potent than Casodex, as measured on two in vitro androgen-sensitive parameters, in agreement with our recent in vivo data obtained in the model of castrated rats supplemented with 4-androstenedione implants, in which threefold greater potency of flutamide was observed. The present data, as well as other data from the literature, strongly indicate the need to choose a more appropriate dose of Casodex for the treatment of prostate cancer.

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The definition of advanced prostate cancer has changed. Multimodal therapy improves cancer-specific outcomes especially in men with high-risk disease. The potential opportunities for novel therapeutic agents with low associated morbidity are great.

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Men with multiple determinants of intermediate-risk to high-risk prostate cancer have significantly increased estimates of PCSM despite aggressive therapy compared with men with only 1 or 2 determinants. These men are appropriate candidates for enrollment onto randomized controlled trials evaluating the benefit of adding systemic therapies such as docetaxel to RT+AST or RP.

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A total of 1218 patients were randomized on a 1:1 basis to either bicalutamide 150 mg/day (n=607) or placebo (n=611) following standard care; 81.4% were followed conservatively (watchful waiting). The primary endpoints were objective progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

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Androgen deprivation or treatment with the anti-androgen bicalutamide promoted autophagy in HRPCa-derived LNCaP cells. This effect was dramatically reduced after depletion of Atg5 and Beclin-1, two canonical autophagy genes, and was associated with an inhibition of the androgen-induced mTOR pathway. The depletion of Atg5 and Beclin-1 significantly increased the level of cell death induced by androgen deprivation or bicalutamide. Finally, the safe anti-malarial drug chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy, dramatically increased cell death after androgen deprivation or bicalutamide treatment.

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The present study aimed to investigate the significance of anti-androgen withdrawal and/or subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) who relapsed after initial maximum androgen blockade (MAB). The present study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 272 consecutive advanced PC patients undergoing anti-androgen withdrawal and/or subsequent alternative anti-androgen therapy with flutamide following the failure of initial MAB using bicalutamide. With the exception of 41 patients (15.1%) who did not undergo anti-androgen withdrawal due to the characteristics of PC suggesting aggressive diseases, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declined from the baseline value in 83 patients (35.9%), including 18 (7.8%) with PSA decline >50%, but not in the remaining 148 (64.1%). No significant difference in the overall survival (OS) or cancer-specific survival (CSS) among the three groups was observed based on the response to anti-androgen withdrawal. Following the introduction of alternative anti-androgen therapy with flutamide, PSA decline was observed in 185 patients (68.0%), including 103 (37.9%) who achieved a PSA reduction of >50%; however, the PSA level continued to elevate in the remaining 87 (32.0%). Furthermore, of the numerous factors examined, only the duration of the initial MAB therapy was shown to be significantly correlated with the PSA decline following alternative anti-androgen therapy. Multivariate analysis of several factors identified revealed that only PSA decline following alternative anti-androgen therapy was an independent predictor of CSS and OS. If initial MAB is effective, the introduction of alternative anti-androgen therapy may be considered; however, anti-androgen withdrawal should be omitted, irrespective of the characteristics of advanced PC.

casodex normal dosage

At 1 year, the mean (standard deviation) change from baseline in growth rate was -1.6 (+/- 5.1) cm/year and -0.1 (+/- 1.8) SD units, and in bone maturation was -2.3 (+/- 0.5) years. The bone age/chronological age ratio was reduced from 2.1 (+/- 0.6) at baseline to 1.0 (+/- 0.4) (p = 0.00013). Steady-state trough R-bicalutamide and anastrozole concentrations were attained by Day 21 and 8, respectively. Gynecomastia (42.9%) and breast tenderness (12.5%) were the most common treatment-related adverse events.

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The androgen receptor and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors affect growth regulation in normal and cancerous prostate cells. Effects of androgen-activated androgen receptor on AP-1 activity were determined in the LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cell model.

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Two patients (aged 74 and 69 years) with prostate cancer were treated for more than 4 years with bicalutamide 50 mg daily. Clinical characterization and follow-up included luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements and clinical response of the tumours. Due to progression of the disease, patients underwent surgical orchidectomy as a further androgen withdrawal therapy. Testis biopsies were studied by light and electron microscopy and analysed by morphometry. Control samples were obtained from the normal testis of two patients with testicular cancer who underwent orchidectomy. Clinical follow-up showed a good response in the control of tumour growth and serum PSA decreased to < 4 ng/mL; concentrations of serum LH, FSH and testosterone were within the normal range. Testicular morphology of treated patients was unexpectedly well preserved; the organization of seminiferous tubules was normal with all the germ line elements and mature spermatozoa present. In some areas, a net increase of peritubular connective tissue was evident which may be a consequence of the age of the patients.

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Metastatic prostate cancer to the orbit is diagnosed, and the treatment with IMRT and hormone ablation is explored.

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Resveratrol (RES) is a natural polyphenol which can be considered as a nutraceutical because of its benefits such as anticancer and antioxidant activity. In this paper, we designed polymer-RES conjugates as anticancer drug carrier for synergistic therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. Bicalutamide (BIC) was used as a model drug to investigate the drug release behaviors and in vitro anticancer performance. PEG-RES and PEG-Glycine-RES nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. The size of the prepared particles was around 50 nm with RES content of 17.2 and 16.3 wt% for PEG-RES and PEG-Glycine-RES, respectively, and BIC loading efficiency were of 81.6% and 84.5%, separately. Release rate of RES from conjugates depended on the stability of ester group against hydrolysis. BIC release was much faster than RES release. The anticancer activity of BIC loaded PEGylated RES nanoparticles was much better than that of free BIC, indicating the conjugates provided a synergetic cytotoxicity to cancer cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and flow cytometry analyses indicated that PEGylated RES conjugates were more efficiently internalized into cells, released drug into cytoplasm. These results suggest that PEGylated RES conjugates show great potential for cancer therapy.

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A novel series of [2.2.1]-oxabicyclo imide-based compounds were identified as potent antagonists of the androgen receptor. Molecular modeling and iterative drug design were applied to optimize this series. The lead compound [3aS-(3aalpha,4beta,5beta,7beta,7aalpha)]-4-(octahydro-5-hydroxy-4,7-dimethyl-1,3-dioxo-4,7-epoxy-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-2-iodobenzonitrile was shown to have potent in vivo efficacy after oral dosing in the CWR22 human prostate tumor xenograph model.

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This report describes the use of bicalutamide and anastrozole in two subjects with familial male-limited precocious puberty. Clinical improvements include decreased facial acne and pubic hair. Most importantly, a marked decrease in growth velocity and skeletal advancement has been achieved.

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PSA testing, six-core biopsy, genetic counselling and mutation analysis for French Canadian founder mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, histopathological review of tumour tissue from family members, examination of loss of heterozygosity at the BRCA2 gene locus, immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of the ERG nuclear oncoprotein in prostate tumours, genotyping with eight selected risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, Doppler ultrasonography of the leg, CT of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous and oral contrast, chest CT with intravenous contrast for the assessment of metastatic prostate cancer, genetic testing for the G84E variant in the HOXB13 gene.

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Sixty-four patients were accrued; 61 patients received trial treatment and constituted the intention-to-treat (ITT) cohort. 70% were M0. Among 59 evaluable ITT patients, 13 (22%) patients had a >50% PSA decline, 5 (8%) had a decline between 10 and 50%, 4 (7%) had stabilization and 37 (63%) had PSA progression. The median duration was 3.7 months (95% confidence interval of 0.92-6.21 months).

casodex dosage

Patients received bicalutamide at a dose of 50 mg orally daily and goserelin at a dose of 3.6 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks. CA 125 was obtained monthly, with computed tomography performed every 3 months. Correlative studies included serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, vascular endothelial growth factor, free testosterone, and androstenedione and the germline polymorphisms CYP19A1 and androgen receptor.

casodex dose

Following promising results in animal studies, Casodex (ICI 176,334) has been studied in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer. At doses of 10, 30 and 50 mg, the drug was found to be well tolerated, with a moderate effect on sex hormone levels. The 50 mg dose of Casodex (daily) reduced previously elevated acid phosphatase levels by 50% or more in 71% of patients.

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A cure for prostate cancer (CaP) will be possible only after a complete understanding of the mechanisms causing this disease to progress from androgen dependence to androgen independence. To carry on a careful characterization of the phenotypes of CaP cell lines before and after acquisition of androgen independence, we used two human CaP LNCaP sublines: LNCaP(nan), which is androgen dependent (AD), and LNCaP-HP, which is androgen independent (AI). In AD LNCaP(nan) cells, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulated in an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent way a phosphorylation signaling pathway involving steroid receptor coactivator (Src)-mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)-1/2-ERK-1/2-cAMP-response element binding-protein (CREB). Activation of this pathway was associated with increased [(3)H]thymidine incorporation and resistance to apoptosis. Use of dominant-negative forms of MEK-1/2 and CREB demonstrated in LNCaP(nan) cells that DHT induced [(3)H]thymidiine incorporation through a thus far unidentified molecule activated downstream of MEK-1/2, and antiapoptosis through phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB. In contrast, in AI LNCaP-HP cells, the Src-MEK-1/2-ERK-1/2-CREB pathway was constitutively active. Because it was not further stimulated by addition of DHT, no increase of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation or apoptosis resistance was demonstrated in LNCaP-HP cells. Additional experiments showed that Src and the scaffold protein MNAR coimmunoprecipitated with AR, indicating a role for Src as an apical molecule in the Src-MEK-1/2-ERK-1/2-CREB pathway. Interestingly, differences between the two cell lines were that in LNCaP-HP cells presence of an AI phenotype and lack of response to DHT were associated with constitutive activation of the protein kinase Src and interaction among Src, AR, and MNAR. In contrast, in LNCaP(nan) cells, presence of an AD phenotype and ability to respond to DHT were associated with DHT-dependent activation of Src kinase activity and interaction among Src, AR, and MNAR. Intriguingly, in LNCaP(nan) cells, we found that transcription through the prototypical CREB-responsive promoter c-fos could be induced in a DHT-dependent way, and this action was inhibited by the AR antagonist Casodex and MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059. In contrast, transcription through the PSA P/E promoter, a prototypical AR-dependent promoter directly activated by agonist, was obliterated only by Casodex. Additional experiments with genital skin fibroblasts derived from patients with a variety of AR abnormalities indicated that nongenotropic AR signaling does not depend on an intact DNA-binding domain or on the ability of AR to translocate to the nucleus. The results suggest the following: (1) Constitutive activation of the Src-MEK-1/2-ERK-1/2-CREB pathway is associated with the AI phenotype observed in LNCaP-HP cells. (2) Activation of the Src-MEK-1/2-ERK-1/2-CREB pathway is DHT dependent in AD LNCaP(nan) cells. (3) DHT activation of this pathway is associated with induction of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation by a molecule activated downstream of MEK-1/2 and of antiapoptosis through activation of the transcription factor CREB in AD LNCaP(nan) cells. (4) AR regulates transcription either directly upon ligand binding and nuclear translocation or indirectly through kinase pathways leading to activation of downstream transcription factors. (5) Nuclear translocation and ability of the DNA-binding domain of AR to interact with DNA are not prerequisites for nongenotropic AR activity.

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Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) may occur in a variety of diseases, including malignancies, and can be induced by drugs. We report a case of SIADH associated with prostatic carcinoma. A 50-year-old man was admitted to hospital with severe flank pain and weight loss. The diagnosis of SIADH syndrome and prostatic carcinoma was established, and hormonal therapy was instituted. However, the patient died in a month without any response to therapy. We conclude that prostatic carcinoma may cause SIADH and should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis.

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To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and quality of life benefits of bicalutamide (Casodex) 150-mg/day monotherapy and castration in previously untreated nonmetastatic (M0) advanced prostate cancer.

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Autophagy associated with bicalutamide treatment in LNCaP cells may have a pro-survival effect and strategy to modulate autophagy may have a potential therapeutic value.

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A Markov state transition model was developed, using disease progression rates from a large (N = 8113) clinical trial program comparing bicalutamide in addition to standard care with standard care alone. Utility scores for different disease stages were obtained from published reports. Costs of disease progression were obtained from a retrospective patient chart analysis in six Belgian centers (n = 60). The time horizon was 15 years and the analysis was conducted from the public payer perspective.

casodex drug interactions

The involvement of mutated androgen receptors (mut-AR) in the actions of estrogens in prostate cancer cells is controversial. This work was designed to determine the role of such receptors in the growth inhibition by estradiol (E2) and androgens of the MOP cell line, a derivative of the LNCaP cell line. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used as a "tool". E2 like DHT and R1881 inhibits MOP cell proliferation while DES does not. E2 and R1881 down regulate mut-AR mRNA, DES does not. E2 enhances mut-AR transcriptional activity less efficiently than R1881 while DES does not. E2 and R1881 up regulate PSA secretion in a dose-dependent manner, DES does it marginally at 10(-6)M. MOP cells express low amounts of ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA but neither DES nor E2 and R1881 do enhance ER transcriptional activity. DES and E2 bind to mut-AR with relative binding affinities which are respectively 1/175 and 1/10 that of DHT. The E2 and androgen-repressed proliferation is prevented by DES and by the anti-androgen bicalutamide. In LNCaP cells, DES prevents the androgen-enhanced proliferation. These results strongly suggest that: (a) the putative endogenous ERs are biologically inactive in MOP cells, (b) the E2-repressed proliferation results from hormone binding to mut-AR and, (c) DES is an anti-androgen in mut-AR expressing cell line.

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Combining bicalutamide and metformin significantly reduces prostate cancer cell growth further than either monotherapy. In AR-positive cells, this effect appeared to be mediated by reducing proliferation rates, whereas in AR-negative cells the combination treatment appeared to promote apoptosis. This combination drug regimen may improve prostate-cancer-specific survival by the direct antineoplastic properties outlined.

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Castration resistance occurs in most patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who are receiving androgen-deprivation therapy. Replacing androgens before progression of the disease is hypothesized to prolong androgen dependence.

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These findings suggest that inhibition of the PI3K pathway activates AR signaling. Despite the increase in AR signaling which has proliferative effects, the result of PI3K pathway inhibition is antiproliferative. These findings suggest that the PI3K pathway is dominant over AR signaling in prostate cancer cells which should be considered in developing novel therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer.

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Patients with progressive prostate cancer were treated with bicalutamide 200 mg daily. Before treatment, patients' tumors were classified on the basis of prior hormone exposure and by serum testosterone levels into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent groups. Prior exposure to flutamide and response to flutamide withdrawal was also considered. Outcomes were reported independently on the basis of posttherapy changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA), measurable disease, and radionuclide bone scans.

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We retrospectively studied 14 recurrent PC patients (mean age 67 years, range 55-82) during follow-up after radical prostatectomy (RP) with rising serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. All patients had undergone at least two consecutive (11)C-choline PET/CT scans: the first (11)C-choline PET/CT before commencing ADT and the second (11)C-choline PET/CT after 6 months of ADT administration.

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The use of goserelin and bicalutamide did not appear to prolong PFS in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer in second or greater complete disease remission. The number of patients in disease remission at given time points may serve as a clinical trial endpoint for future studies of consolidation therapy.

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casodex 200 mg 2015-10-31

ICI 176,334 is a nonsteroidal anti-androgen that has been shown to selectively block peripheral androgen receptors in rats and is presumed to do so in chickens. In chickens, androgens stimulate secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., comb), but inhibit growth and the immune tissues. The present study examined the effect of dietary ICI 176,334 (5 or 25 mg/kg body weight) on growth in chickens in the presence or absence of testosterone treatment (as 1-cm long silastic implants). Treatments began at 2 wk of age and continued through 6 wk of age. Testosterone alone reduced body growth (average daily gain and shank-toe length, together with weights of the body, skeletal muscle, and the bursa of Fabricius, an immune tissue), and stimulated comb development. At the low dose (5 mg/kg), ICI 176,334 alone had no effect on body growth or organ weight with the exception that comb weight was reduced. At the high dose (25 mg/kg), ICI 176,334 decreased growth (body weight, average daily gain, and shank-toe length) and organ weights (breast muscle, bursa of Fabricius, testis, and comb weights). This effect may represent a toxicity. As might be expected with an anti-androgen, ICI 176,334 (at buy casodex either 5 or 25 mg/kg) completely suppressed the stimulation of comb growth evoked by testosterone. Similarly, ICI 176,334 (5 mg/kg) overcame, albeit partially, the growth-suppressive effects of testosterone (on body weight, average daily gain, shank-toe length, and breast muscle weight) and also had inhibitory effects on the weights of the testis and bursa of Fabricius. The anti-androgen, ICI 176,334, did not influence the reduction in circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone occurring after testosterone treatment. The present data are consistent with the growth-suppressive effects of testosterone in chickens being mediated via a peripheral androgen receptor. No effects of either testosterone or ICI 176,334 were observed on circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I despite the marked changes in growth rate.

casodex normal dosage 2015-02-15

We developed a buy casodex system where PTEN can be conditionally re-expressed at physiologic levels into a PTEN null metastatic human CaP cell line, C4-2, and androgen responsiveness examined.

casodex generic 2016-09-25

Androgen ablation therapy is performed for prostate cancer patients especially with advanced stage. Nevertheless, outgrowth of hormone independent cancer cells occurs within several years and leads to a lethal condition, so-called castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Even in CRPC cells under low levels of serum androgens, androgen receptor (AR) signaling still functions and is engaged in the establishment of CRPC. Recently, novel AR antagonists have been developed such as enzalutamide or ARN-509. This review focuses on these AR antagonists that have some features including high buy casodex affinity to AR compared with bicalutamide, preventing nuclear translocation and DNA binding. These new hormonal agents have changed the landscape of CRPC treatment with a promising outcome.

casodex online pharmacy 2017-08-01

A total of 480 patients with locally advanced prostate cancer were buy casodex randomized to treatment. After a median followup of 6.3 years mortality was 56%. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in overall survival (hazard ratio 1.05, upper 1-sided 95% confidence limit 1.31, p = 0.70) or time to progression (1.20, 1.45, p = 0.11). There were statistically significant benefits in the bicalutamide monotherapy group in the 2 quality of life parameters of sexual interest (p = 0.029) and physical capacity (p = 0.046). The highest incidences of adverse events were the pharmacological side effects of hot flashes in the castration group, and breast pain and gynecomastia in the bicalutamide group. The incidences of other types of adverse events were low. Bicalutamide was well tolerated, with few drug related withdrawals from study, and no new safety issues were identified during this longer followup.

casodex dosing 2016-04-25

A series of novel highly active androgen receptor (AR) antagonists containing spiro-4-(5-oxo-3-phenyl-2-thioxoimidazolidin-1-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)benzonitrile core was designed based on the SAR studies buy casodex available from the reported AR antagonists and in silico modeling. Within the series, compound (R)-6 (ONC1-13B) and its related analogues, including its active N-dealkylated metabolite, were found to be the most potent molecules with the target activity (IC50, androgen-sensitive human PCa LNCaP cells) in the range of 59-80 nM (inhibition of PSA production). The disclosed hits were at least two times more active than bicalutamide, nilutamide and enzalutamide within the performed assay. Several compounds were classified as partial agonists. Hit-compounds demonstrated benefit pharmacokinetic profiles in rats. Comparative SAR and 3D molecular docking studies were performed for the hit compounds elucidating the observed differences in the binding potency.

casodex buy 2016-12-18

We examined the effect of a synthetic androgen, R1881, and that of androgen receptor (AR) blocker, bicalutamide, on the expression of FABP(pm) and mAAT and on buy casodex the uptake of fatty acids in the androgen-sensitive LNCaP, androgen responsive 22rv1 and androgen-independent CL1 human PC cells. This was done using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry, and (3)H-oleate uptake studies.

casodex overdose 2015-04-15

Testosterone-induced myotube hypertrophy was assessed as increased myotube cross-sectional area (CSA) and increased α-actin mRNA and α-actin buy casodex protein levels, with no changes in mRNA expression of atrogenes (MAFbx and MuRF-1). Morphological development of myotube sarcomeres was evident in testosterone-stimulated myotubes. Known hypertrophy signaling pathways were studied at short times: ERK1/2 and Akt showed an increase in phosphorylation status after testosterone stimulus at 5 and 15 min, respectively. S6K1 was phosphorylated at 60 min. This response was abolished by PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibition but not by ERK1/2 inhibition. Similarly, the CSA increase at 12 h was abolished by inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt pathway as well as by AR inhibition.

casodex tabs 2017-12-18

TERRAIN was a double-blind, randomised phase 2 study, that recruited asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic men with prostate cancer progression on androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) from academic, community, and private health-care provision sites across North America and Europe. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive voice response system to receive enzalutamide 160 mg/day or bicalutamide 50 mg/day, both taken orally, in addition to ADT, until disease progression. Patients were stratified by a permutated block method (block size of four), by whether bilateral orchiectomy or receipt of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist or antagonist therapy started before or after the diagnosis of metastases, and by study site. Participants, investigators, and those assessing outcomes were masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, analysed in all randomised patients. Safety outcomes were analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The open-label period of the trial is in progress, wherein patients still on treatment at the end of the double-blind buy casodex treatment period were offered open-label enzalutamide at the discretion of the patient and study investigator. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01288911.

casodex dosage 2017-09-14

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA buy casodex ) have been associated with the development of cancer. However, the interplay between lncRNAs and androgen receptor (AR) signaling in prostate cancer is still unclear. Here, we identified lncRNAs induced by androgen in AR-positive prostate cancer cells, where induction was abolished by AR knockdown as well as an anti-androgen, bicalutamide. By combining these data, we identified an androgen-regulated lncRNA, suppressor of cytokine signaling 2-antisense transcript 1 (SOCS2-AS1), the expression of which was higher in castration-resistant prostate cancer model cells, i.e long-term androgen-deprived (LTAD) cells, than in parental androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. SOCS2-AS1 promoted castration-resistant and androgen-dependent cell growth. We found that SOCS2-AS1 knockdown up-regulated genes related to the apoptosis pathway, including tumor necrosis factor superfamily 10 (TNFSF10), and sensitized prostate cancer cells to docetaxel treatment. Moreover, we also demonstrated that SOCS2-AS1 promotes androgen signaling by modulating the epigenetic control for AR target genes including TNFSF10 These findings suggest that SOCS2-AS1 plays an important role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer by repressing apoptosis.

casodex mg 2017-03-04

The presence of multiple determinants of buy casodex aggressive cancer biology may impact prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) rates compared with fewer factors. The authors estimated PCSM after radiation therapy with short-course androgen suppression therapy (RT+AST) or radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with clinically localized, intermediate-risk to high-risk prostate cancer.

casodex dosage form 2017-02-02

To explore whether less than 120 days of an antiandrogen plus a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist resulted in a different survival outcome than 120 days or more of buy casodex combined treatment in patients with Stage D2 prostate cancer.

casodex 30 mg 2015-03-26

Hormone therapy does not appear to cause clinically significant changes in depression among men with locally advanced prostate cancer. However, fatigue increased buy casodex significantly over the study period.

order casodex 2015-03-30

Casodex is an orally active non-steroidal antiandrogen that is highly selective for androgen receptors in animals and man. It is indicated for the non-surgical treatment of advanced prostate cancer in man. The present open controlled study in 13 Casodex-treated and 21 orchidectomy-alone (control) patients addressed the hypothesis that chronic administration of antiandrogens will result in Leydig cell hyperplasia as a result of feedback inhibition of the pituitary resulting in increased luteinising buy casodex hormone (LH) stimulation of Leydig cells. Although Casodex has been shown to produce a moderate rise in circulating plasma testosterone concentration on chronic treatment in prostate cancer patients, a controlled histopathological and morphometric assessment of the testis following orchidectomy in relapsed Casodex patients showed no effect on Leydig cell populations compared with an orchidectomy alone (control) group. No evidence for induction of Leydig cell hypertrophy or hyperplasia as a result of chronic oral administration of 50 mg Casodex daily was obtained in this study.

casodex generic form 2017-06-07

Development of antiandrogen-resistance in advanced prostate cancer involves multiple androgen receptor (AR)-dependent and -independent buy casodex pathways. Here, we demonstrated that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) exhibited an overexpression pattern in hormone-refractory prostate cancer and several models of advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer. We further established a novel in vitro model of antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer (LNCaP-BC) by long-term bicalutamide treatment. Besides antiandrogen-resistant and other enhanced malignant growth phenotypes, LNCaP-BC cells exhibited an increased activated eNOS expression and NO production, and suppressed AR transactivation status. Treatment with a NOS inhibitor L-NAME could re-sensitize the growth response to bicalutamide and enhance the AR transactivation in LNCaP-BC cells. Together, our present findings indicate that increased NO production by acquired increased expression of activated eNOS could contribute to the antiandrogen-resistant growth of prostate cancer cells, via a mechanism of NO-mediated suppression of AR activity, and also targeting eNOS could be a potential therapeutic strategy for antiandrogen-resistant prostate cancer.

casodex generic equivalent 2016-04-27

A new synthetic methodology for preparing radioactive Effexor 200 Mg androgen receptor binding compounds in order to determine receptor-ligands interactions has been developed.

casodex user reviews 2016-12-18

To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Pamelor Starting Dose bicalutamide 150 mg once-daily as immediate hormonal therapy in patients with prostate cancer or as adjuvant to radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy.

casodex generic bicalutamide 2015-03-25

The serum alpha 2M levels in prostate cancer with bone metastases showed a significantly lower level compared with the group without bone metastases (p < 0. Propecia Generic Brand 01). Cases with serum alpha 2M levels of less than 50 mg/dl all had bone metastases. Serum alpha 2M levels were inversely related to PSA levels in stage M1b disease.

casodex tab 2015-07-03

The palliative effects of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), and its putative main active ingredient, Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which include appetite stimulation, attenuation of nausea and emesis associated with chemo- or radiotherapy, pain relief, mood elevation, and relief from insomnia in cancer patients, are well-known. Because of the adverse psychoactive effects of THC, numerous recent preclinical studies have been focused on investigating other non-psychoactive constituents of Dosage Zantac Infant C. sativa, such as cannabidiol, for potential therapeutic use. In this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, De Petrocellis and colleagues present comprehensive evidence that plant-derived cannabinoids, especially cannabidiol, are potent inhibitors of prostate carcinoma viability in vitro. They also showed that the extract was active in vivo, either alone or when administered with drugs commonly used to treat prostate cancer (the anti-mitotic chemotherapeutic drug docetaxel (Taxotere) or the anti-androgen bicalutamide (Casodex)) and explored the potential mechanisms behind these antineoplastic effects.

casodex generic brand 2016-03-12

With a median follow-up time of 160 Benicar 75 Mg weeks, the combination of bicalutamide plus LHRH-A was well tolerated and had equivalent time to progression and survival compared with flutamide plus LHRH-A. Treatment with bicalutamide plus LHRH-A resulted in longer median survival than treatment with flutamide plus LHRH-A.

casodex drug class 2015-07-08

We previously developed carborane-containing potent AR antagonists, BA321 and BA341, on the basis of our hypothesis that the carborane cage would be an excellent hydrophobic pharmacophore in place of steroidal C and D rings. As an extension of that work, we designed and synthesized carborane-containing AR antagonist candidates with a pyridine ring. Compound 6b, which has a pyridine Priligy Reviews Uk ring directly bound to the p-carborane cage at the 3-position, exhibited potent AR-antagonistic activity in transcriptional activation assay using NIH3T3 cells transfected with a hAR-expression plasmid. In addition, it showed more potent antiandrogenic activity than that of the well-known antiandrogen flutamide and comparable activity to that of (R)-bicalutamide in SC-3 cell proliferation assay.

casodex medication 2017-09-27

Over 3,000 men, the majority of whom were patients with prostate cancer, were treated with Casodex (ICI 176,334), an oral anti-androgen, at doses ranging from 10 to 200 mg daily, corresponding to a total exposure to the drug of over 1,500 patient-years. Over this period, the tolerability of Casodex and its effect on quality of life were closely studied. Information on tolerability is presented from three large randomized trials of Casodex, 50 mg/day, in patients with prostate cancer, two large randomized trials of Casodex, 150 mg/day, in patients with prostate cancer and three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Casodex, 50 mg/day, in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Information on quality of life and assessment of sexual functioning is presented from the trials using Casodex, 50 mg/day, for both prostate cancer and BPH. The most commonly reported adverse events were those that would be Motilium Generic Name expected with an anti-androgen (i.e. breast tenderness, gynaecomastia and hot flushes). Overall, Casodex was well tolerated; there were no reports of light/dark adaptation problems or pulmonary fibrosis, and only one case of alcohol intolerance, which was not considered by the investigator to be treatment related. Only 0.3% of patients in the whole trial programme had to be withdrawn because of changes in liver function, and there were no clinically significant changes in mean liver function tests. Although there were no consistent differences between treatments for other aspects of quality of life, there was evidence of benefit from treatment with Casodex in maintaining both sexual interest and functioning.

casodex and alcohol 2017-06-13

Activation of signal transduction kinase cascades is known to alter androgen receptor (AR) activity, but the molecular mechanisms are still poorly defined. Here we show that stress kinase signaling regulates Ser 650 phosphorylation and AR nuclear export. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, activation of either MAPK kinase (MKK) 4:c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) or MKK6:p38 signaling pathways Cipro 500mg Cost increased Ser 650 phosphorylation, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of JNK or p38 signaling led to a reduction of AR Ser 650 phosphorylation. Both p38alpha and JNK1 phosphorylated Ser 650 in vitro. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of either MKK4 or MKK6 increased endogenous prostate-specific antigen (PSA) transcript levels, and this increase was blocked by either bicalutamide or AR small interfering RNA. Stress kinase inhibition of PSA transcription is, therefore, dependent on the AR. Similar experiments involving either activation or inhibition of MAPK/ERK kinase:ERK signaling had little effect on Ser 650 phosphorylation or PSA mRNA levels. Ser 650 is proximal to the DNA binding domain that contains a nuclear export signal. Mutation of Ser 650 to alanine reduced nuclear export of the AR, whereas mutation of Ser 650 to the phosphomimetic amino acid aspartate restored AR nuclear export. Pharmacologic inhibition of stress kinase signaling reduced wild-type AR nuclear export equivalent to the S650A mutant without affecting nuclear export of the S650D mutant. Our data suggest that stress kinase signaling and nuclear export regulate AR transcriptional activity.

casodex 50 mg 2016-05-20

A 61-year-old man with a history of recurrent prostate cancer presented with obstructive urinary symptoms. He had been diagnosed with locally invasive adenocarcinoma of the prostate 10 years previously and treated with neoadjuvant hormonal and external beam radiation therapies. Because of the patient's rising PSA level, he had been started on goserelin 6 years after this diagnosis and bicalutamide 6 months before the current presentation. The patient presented to the urology clinic with worsening lower urinary tract symptoms consisting of nocturia, urgency, and weak stream.

casodex tablets 2017-04-01

Our study population consisted of 16 patients with CRPC who were treated with flutamide (375 mg daily) as second-line hormonal therapy. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were measured to investigate the relationship between plasma androgens and outcome following treatment. Furthermore, adrenal androgen levels in a medium of adrenal cancer cell line were also measured.

casodex generic cost 2016-04-02

Bicalutamide is a potent, nonsteroidal antiandrogen with a plasma half-life consistent with a once-daily schedule. Monotherapy trials with 50 mg of bicalutamide established its intrinsic activity, as demonstrated by subjective and objective responses and decreases in PSA concentrations. In comparison with castration, 50 mg of bicalutamide monotherapy was inferior with respect to survival. In a randomized, double-blind (for antiandrogen therapy) trial, with a median follow-up of 49 weeks, 50 mg of bicalutamide plus an LHRH-A was superior (P = 0.005) to flutamide plus an LHRH-A in delaying time-to-treatment failure and was better tolerated, as was evident from a significantly (P < 0.001) lower incidence of diarrhea and fewer withdrawals for adverse events among bicalutamide-treated patients. With longer follow-up and a 34% mortality, survival was equivalent between groups. Dose-related effects of bicalutamide on serum PSA concentrations were clearly demonstrated in the clinical trial program. With a total exposure of > 2800 patient-years, bicalutamide has been shown to be a well-tolerated therapy with a low incidence of treatment-related withdrawals.

casodex drug interactions 2017-07-30

To evaluate the effect of immediate androgen suppression in conjunction with standard external beam irradiation (RT) versus RT alone on a group of men after prostatectomy who had indications for adjuvant treatment.