With aging, abnormal benign growth of the prostate results in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) with concomitant lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Because the prostate is an androgen target tissue, and transforms testosterone into 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), a potent androgen, via 5α-reductase (5α-R) activity, inhibiting this key metabolic reaction was identified as a target for drug development to treat symptoms of BPH. Two drugs, namely finasteride and dutasteride were developed as specific 5α-reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs) and were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of BPH symptoms. These agents have proven useful in the reducing urinary retention and minimizing surgical intervention in patients with BPH symptoms and considerable literature exists describing the benefits of these agents. In this review we highlight the adverse side effects of 5α-RIs on sexual function, high grade prostate cancer incidence, central nervous system function and on depression. 5α-Rs isoforms (types 1-3) are widely distributed in many tissues including the central nervous system and inhibition of these enzymes results in blockade of synthesis of several key hormones and neuro-active steroids leading to a host of adverse effects, including loss of or reduced libido, erectile dysfunction, orgasmic dysfunction, increased high Gleason grade prostate cancer, observed heart failure and cardiovascular events in clinical trials, and depression. Considerable evidence exists from preclinical and clinical studies, which point to significant and serious adverse effects of 5α-RIs, finasteride and dutasteride, on sexual health, vascular health, psychological health and the overall quality of life. Physicians need to be aware of such potential adverse effects and communicate such information to their patients prior to commencing 5α-RIs therapy.
G1198745 pharmacokinetics are well described by a pharmacokinetic model with parallel linear and nonlinear elimination. Simulations using this model show that at daily doses of 0.1 mg the steady state drug concentrations, and the rate at which these are achieved, are mainly influenced by the nonlinear pathway, while at daily doses above 1 mg they are almost entirely influenced by the linear pathway.
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Retrospective analysis of 886 men with negative baseline prostate biopsy and positive 2-year repeat biopsy in the Reduction by Dutasteride of PC Events (REDUCE) study. Acute and chronic inflammation and tumor volume were determined by central pathology. The association of baseline inflammation with 2-year repeat biopsy cancer volume was evaluated with linear and Poisson regressions controlling for demographics and laboratory variables.
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Dutasteride was shown to be more efficacious than finasteride and the side-effect profiles were comparable.
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This article aims to review the current status of dutasteride in androgenetic alopecia. The structure, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic and side effects are discussed along with its comparission with finasteride in androgenetic alopecia.
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Androgen-induced E26 transformation-specific (ETS) gene fusion-positive tumors have been associated with aggressive prostate cancer. The aim is to evaluate the ETS gene rearrangement status on initial biopsy of patients registered in the Reduction by Dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management trial study and determine if gene fusion status was associated with disease progression.
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A total of 51 men treated with DUT for >or=6 months with persistent OAB symptoms enrolled in a 12-week, open-label study, and given TER (4 mg q.h.s.). Inclusion criteria were international prostate symptom score (IPSS) >or=12, IPSS quality-of-life item >or=3, significant bother, frequency (>or=8 voids/24 h), and urgency (>or=3 episodes/24 h). Visits occurred at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed by changes in diary endpoints and IPSS (total, storage, and voiding). Safety was assessed by changes in postvoid residual, peak flow rate (Q(max.)), adverse events, and retention.
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clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00493987.
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Improvements in QoL and symptoms were equivalent across the medical treatments most widely used in real-life practice to manage patients with moderate or severe LUTS. HESr showed an equivalent efficacy to AB and 5ARI with fewer side effects.
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Serum testosterone increased in all groups on testosterone compared with that in the dutasteride only group. At the 400 mg dose the combination of testosterone and dutasteride resulted in average testosterone concentrations that were 2.7 and 4.6 times higher than in the testosterone only group on days 1 and 28, respectively (p <0.01). On day 28 average testosterone was 20% to 30% lower in all groups on testosterone and dutasteride, and 50% lower in the testosterone only group compared with day 1. Serum dihydrotestosterone was suppressed in all groups on dutasteride and increased in the testosterone only group.
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The dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride has been shown to suppress serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by >90%. In the present study, the effect of dutasteride 0.5 mg/day on intraprostatic DHT levels was investigated. In this multicenter, double-blind trial, 43 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) were randomized to receive dutasteride, 0.5 mg/day or placebo for 3 months before surgery. Intraprostatic DHT, testosterone and dutasteride levels were determined at the time of TURP. Changes in serum DHT and testosterone from baseline, and both serum and intraprostatic dutasteride levels at the time of TURP were also assessed. Dutasteride reduced intraprostatic DHT by 94% relative to placebo (P<0.001); the adjusted mean intraprostatic DHT concentration was 3.23 and 0.209 ng/g in the placebo and dutasteride groups, respectively. In the dutasteride group, serum DHT was reduced from baseline by 93% at month 3, a significantly greater reduction (P<0.001) than the 15% decrease observed in the placebo group. There was a reciprocal increase in intraprostatic testosterone but the level of intraprostatic testosterone in the dutasteride group tended to be lower than the intraprostatic DHT level in the placebo group (P=0.06). Significant intraprostatic DHT suppression was achieved in all subjects who received dutasteride, regardless of the level of intraprostatic dutasteride. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and intraprostatic dutasteride concentrations (R(2)=0.73). After 3 months of treatment, dutasteride 0.5 mg/day provided near-complete suppression of both intraprostatic and serum DHT in men with BPH.
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Dutasteride induced a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis in the androgen-sensitive prostate cell lines PwR-1E, PNT-2, and LNCaP and in the androgen receptor-expressing PC3(AR2) cell line. However, there was no significant apoptosis noted in the parental PC-3 cells. Of 16 primary epithelial cultures that were treated, 7 cultures were induced to undergo apoptosis, and 9 cultures were unresponsive. All primary cultures were positive for cytokeratin 18 expression, confirming their epithelial phenotype. Responder epithelial cells were positive for AMACR expression.
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Finasteride and Dutasteride are 5α-reductase inhibitors used in the clinic to treat endocrine conditions and were recently found to modulate brain dopamine (DA) neurotransmission and motor behavior. We investigated if Finasteride and Dutasteride have a neuroprotective effect in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) male mice as a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental groups included saline treated controls and mice treated with saline, Finasteride (5 and 12.5 mg/kg) or Dutasteride (5 and 12.5 mg/kg) for 5 days before and 5 days after MPTP administration (4 MPTP injections, 6.5 mg/kg on day 5 inducing a moderate DA depletion) and then they were euthanized. MPTP administration decreased striatal DA contents measured by HPLC while serotonin contents remained unchanged. MPTP mice treated with Dutasteride 5 and 12.5 mg/kg had higher striatal DA and metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) contents with a decrease of metabolites/DA ratios compared to saline-treated MPTP mice. Finasteride had no protective effect on striatal DA contents. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels measured by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra pars compacta were unchanged. Dutasteride at 12.5 mg/kg reduced the effect of MPTP on specific binding to striatal DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) measured by autoradiography. MPTP reduced compared to controls plasma testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Dutasteride and Finasteride increased plasma T levels while DHT levels remained low. In summary, our results showed that a 5α-reductase inhibitor, Dutasteride has neuroprotective activity preventing in male mice the MPTP-induced loss of several dopaminergic markers.
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In benign epithelium, treatment caused distinctive cytoarchitectural changes of atrophy and a decrease in the epithelial height (P = 0.053). The peripheral zone showed the most marked response to treatment. In cancer tissue, the tumor volume was significantly lower in the dutasteride-treated men than in the placebo-treated men (mean 15% versus 24%, respectively, P = 0.025), the percentage of atrophic epithelium was increased (P = 0.041), and the stroma/gland ratio was doubled (P = 0.046). The treatment alteration effect score was doubled (P = 0.055) and did not correlate with any Gleason score changes.
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Fixed-dose combination of dutasteride and tamsulosin (FDCT) produced an Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of US$1481.92 per Quality adjusted for life-years saved.
• 5-α-RIs reduce the risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer among men who are screened regularly for prostate cancer. • Information is inadequate to assess the effect of 5-α-RIs on prostate cancer or all-cause mortality. • 5-α-RIs increase sexual and erectile dysfunction.
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We used the REDUCE study, which tested dutasteride for prostate cancer risk reduction in men with a prostate specific antigen of 2.5 to 10.0 ng/ml and a negative pre-study biopsy. All men were required to have a biopsy at 2 and 4 years independent of prostate specific antigen. We assessed the performance of prebiopsy prostate specific antigen to predict overall and high grade prostate cancer (Gleason sum 7 or greater) in each body mass index group using AUC.
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Symptomatic BPH patients (n = 118) were randomized to receive 0.2 mg tamsulosin alone or with 0.5 mg dutasteride daily for 12 months. The TZI, International Prostate Symptom Scores, maximum urinary flow rates (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volumes, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. The groups were subdivided according to a cut-off TZI value of 0.5 to compare treatment-related changes.
Early monotherapy of dutasteride showed a decline in serum PSA levels in men with lower nadir PSA levels, and a Gleason score 6, when the serum PSA was detected after RP.
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Single-dose combination dutasteride/tamsulosin therapy has a high probability of being cost-effective in comparison to tamsulosin monotherapy in the UK's NHS.
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Overall, 3,169 men (50%) were nonusers, 1,368 (21%) used aspirin, 1,176 (18%) used NSAIDs, and 677 (11%) used both. In unadjusted models, aspirin was associated with reduced prostate cancer risk (OR = 0.85, P = 0.036). In multivariable analyses, aspirin was associated with reduced total prostate cancer risk (OR = 0.81, P = 0.015). Use of NSAIDs or NSAIDs and aspirin was not associated with total, low-grade, or high-grade prostate cancer, though all ORs were <1 (all P ≥ 0.08). Therefore, we created a dichotomous variable of aspirin and/or NSAID users versus nonusers. On multivariable analysis, the use of aspirin and/or NSAIDs was significantly associated with decreased total (OR = 0.87, P = 0.030) and high-grade (OR = 0.80, P = 0.040), but not with low-grade, prostate cancer risk (OR = 0.90, P = 0.15). Results were similar in placebo and dutasteride arms.
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Dutasterid is a novel effective inhibitor of 5-alpha reductase of both types which can be used in patients with large (more than 80 cm3) prostatic adenoma to prevent intra- and postoperative hemorrhagic complications before transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR). The trial included 70 males aged 67-82 years (mean age 74 years) with large size prostatic adenoma (more than 80 cm3) having indications for prostatic TUR. Patients with coagulopathy, suspected prostatic cancer, previous treatment with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors were not included. Group 1 (n=35) received dutasterid in a dose 0.5 mg/day for 38 days, on the average, before operation, and alpha-adrenoblocker tamsulosin in a dose 0.4 mg to prevent acute urine retention. Group 2 (n=35) received only alpha-adrenoblocker tamsulosin. Comparison of intraoperative indices showed that group 1 demonstrated shorter duration of the operation (62 vs. 79 min), more amount of the removed tissue (92 vs. 85 g), less volume of the irrigation liquid (16.7 vs. 19.3), shorter duration of urethral catheter tension (10.4 vs. 19.3), less volume of intraoperative blood loss (93.6 ml vs. 138.6 ml, p < 0.05). As a result, hospitalization time, time of urinary bladder drainage were also reduced in group 1. Postoperative hemorrhagic complications were not registered. We recommend to begin dutasterid administration in a dose 0.5 mg for 1 month before TUR not only for patients with larger prostate (greater than 80 cm3) but with smaller prostates (30-80 cm3) for prevention of hemorrhagic complications and better conditions for surgery.
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A retrospective analysis of 378 consecutive men treated with 5α-reductase inhibitor monotherapy between January 2004 and September 2009 (197 on finasteride and 211 on dutasteride) in a single clinic was performed. Efficacy assessments included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV). Safety assessments included International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and adverse events. Patients were evaluated at 3 months, 1 year and yearly thereafter.
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The scientific basis, therapeutic approach, and risks and benefits of prostate cancer prevention are reviewed. Special attention is given to data on 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs).
Two clinical trials have shown that users of 5α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride (5-ARIs) have reduced overall prostate cancer risk, while the proportion of high-grade tumors is increased. We studied tumor characteristics, risk of biochemical recurrence and mortality after radical prostatectomy in 5-ARI and alpha-blocker users.
Through the use of identical twins, this randomized trial provides evidence that dutasteride significantly reduces hair loss progression in men with male pattern hair loss.
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Mean change of hair counts from baseline to 6 months after treatment start was an increase of 12.2/cm(2) in dutasteride group and 4.7/cm(2) in placebo group and this difference was statistically significant (P = .0319). Dutasteride showed significantly higher efficacy than placebo group by subject self-assessment and by investigator and panel photographic assessment. There was no major difference in adverse events between two groups.