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No GABHS strain isolated from throat smears was resistant in vitro to both antibiotics. Both antibiotics had almost 98% effectiveness at the post therapy visit. On follow-up, significantly more relapses and recurrences were observed in the AMC-treated group than in the CEF-treated group (relapse rate 21.28% vs 15.56%, p<0.02, recurrence 10.64% vs 6.66%, p<0.002). The relapse odds ratio in the AMC group was 1.7 times greater than in the CEF group, and recurrence was 1.5 times higher. There were significantly higher rates of gastrointestinal adverse events in children treated by AMC (p<0.02).
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Efficacy and safety of amoxiclav (amoxicillin clavulanate) and ampicillin were studied in antibacterial therapy of acute sinusitis. Antibacterial efficacy of amoxiclav in acute sinusitis reached 100%. Its safety was good. Antibacterial efficacy of ampicillin was 76%; 24% patients retained symptoms of the disease, x-ray picture of sinusitis. Its toxicity was higher.
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This cross-sectional study comprised 60 children who presented for dental treatment for active dental infections in the primary dentition. Samples from dental infections were collected and bacteria were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics was determined by colony forming units on agar plates containing amoxicillin, clindamycin and amoxillicin-clavulanic acid (A-CA) tested at 8 μg/ml or 16 μg/ml.
In 490 subjects (259 Ab and 231 Pl), the frequency of IC was 1.9% in the Ab and 12.9% in the Pl group (OR 7.6, 95%CI 2.9-19.9; P < .001). The number needed to treat was 10 (7-16). Unadjusted relative risk was 0.15 (0.06-0.38) (P < .001). Absolute reduction risk was 0.11(0.066-0.155)]. Therefore, the hypothesis cannot be rejected. Multivariate analysis shows treatment with antibiotic (OR = 8.66 (3.17-23.67); P < .001) and age (OR = 1.08 (1.00-1.16); P = .029) are the only variables to be included in the logistic regression model.
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This study investigated the mechanisms involved in reduced susceptibility to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid and the prevalence of enzymes compatible with inhibitor-resistant TEM (IRT) beta-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli isolates from patients in north-eastern Spain. The resistance mechanisms of 158 strains showing resistance or intermediate resistance to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid among 1122 ampicillin-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli were assessed on the basis of their beta-lactam resistance phenotypes. beta-Lactamases produced by strains showing resistant phenotypes suggestive of inhibitor-resistant penicillinase production were characterised by their isoelectric point. Specific activity and the concentration of clavulanic acid required to inhibit beta-lactamase activity by 50% (IC50) were determined in strains harbouring enzymes that focused at pI 5.2 or 5.4 in order to achieve presumptive identification of IRT beta-lactamases. Resistance phenotypes were consistent with overproduction of TEM-1, TEM-2 or SHV-1 beta-lactamases in 56 strains, with AmpC cephalosporinase hyperproduction in 46 strains, and with production of inhibitor-resistant penicillinases in 49 strains. Of the latter isolates, 17 produced moderately high or high levels of enzymes co-focusing with TEM-1, 17 produced enzymes co-focusing with OXA-1 (n = 12) or with PSE-1 (n = 5), either alone or in association with TEM-1, while only 15 produced enzymes with a phenotype characteristic of IRT beta-lactamases. It was concluded that resistance to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid in E. coli isolates from this area was mainly associated with presumptive overproduction of TEM-1, TEM-2 or SHV-1 beta-lactamases (46%) or of AmpC cephalosporinase (29%), while the occurrence of enzymes categorised as IRT beta-lactamases was unusual (9.5%).
Based upon direct measurement of antibiotic levels in plasma and tissue, this study suggests that a revision of the oral prophylaxis in children is required in order to reduce microbial charge in the operative field and accordingly improve the recovery after tonsillectomy.
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Bolivia is among the lowest-resourced South American countries, with very few data available on antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. The phenotypic and molecular characterization of bacterial isolates responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Bolivian Chaco are reported here.
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Nasal Staphylococcus aureus is a major source of community and hospital associated staphylococcal infections. This study determined the prevalence of nasal S. aureus isolates and investigated their antimicrobial resistance profile in healthy volunteers.
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The aim was to demonstrate the equivalence of the clinical efficacy and safety of cefpodoxime-proxetil (200 mg bid for 5 days) to that of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (1 g/125 mg bid for 8 days) in adults with acute maxillary sinusitis.
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We studied 22 consecutive patients who had suspected antibiotic-associated colitis and who were negative for C. difficile. Patients underwent diagnostic colonoscopy, and among those who received a diagnosis of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, stool samples were cultured for K. oxytoca. We isolated K. oxytoca strains and tested them for cytotoxin production using a tissue-culture assay. In addition, we also cultured stool samples obtained from 385 healthy subjects for K. oxytoca. An in vivo animal model for antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis was established with the use of Sprague-Dawley rats.
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We treated a 5-year-old girl and a 6-year-old boy with acquired Brown's syndrome associated with pansinusitis. In both patients, the diagnosis was established roentgenographically, and the patients were treated with oral antibiotics. Systemic corticosteroids were used in one case, although their clinical value was uncertain. Patients presenting with acute-onset Brown's syndrome of undetermined cause should undergo computed imaging of the orbits and paranasal sinuses.
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Understandable concerns about the development of hospital-acquired infection led to a new protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis which in turn led to a number of patients being put at increased risk of potentially serious infective complications. Antibiotic prophylaxis must reflect tissue penetration, the organisms encountered and their susceptibilities, as well as being based on objective evidence.
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Thirty emergency appendectomies (85.7%) and other 5 elective surgical procedures (14.3%) were performed in 35 patients including 14 males and 21 females with a mean age of 37 (range, 18-72) years. No SSI or drug allergy was observed.
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The results and predictions were consistent with the knowledge in this field. The model may be useful to optimize clinical trial designs and drug dosing regimens.
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A total of 92 patients (52 adults and 40 children) admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, with pyogenic meningitis were enrolled in a descriptive cross-sectional analysis of the bacteriology and sensitivity factors associated with this disease. In 75 cases (82%), cerebrospinal fluid cultures were bacteriologically positive. Common isolates included Streptococcus pneumoniae (45%), Neisseria meningitidis (14%), and Haemophilus influenzae (12%). Although all 3 of these isolates were responsive to chloramphenicol, 7% of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 15% of Neisseria menigitidis isolates were resistant to crystalline penicillin and 27% of Haemophilus influenzae isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Sensitivity of these 3 organisms to the third-generation cephalosporins (ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone), a second-generation cephalosporin (cefuroxime), and augmentin was almost 100%; however, their use is limited by cost. On the basis of these findings, it is recommended that chloramphenicol and crystalline penicillin or ampicillin be initial blind therapy for adults and older children with pyogenic meningitis, while ampicillin and chloramphenicol should be used in preschool children.
Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns is essential for evidence-based empirical antibiotic prescribing, and a cutoff point of 20% has been suggested as the level of resistance at which an agent should no longer be used empirically. We sought to identify the changing incidence of causative uropathogens over an 11-year period. We also examined the trends in antibiotic resistance encountered in both the pooled urine samples and those where the causative organism was Escherichia coli.
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This was a retrospective study over a period of 10 years in 98 patients hospitalized in an ENT and Head and Neck Surgery department for peritonsillar abscess.
Pharyngotonsillitis (PT) caused by group A beta hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) is one of the most common infections of childhood. Two antibiotic suspensions, cefaclor (CEF) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (AMC), are commonly used in Poland for the treatment of PT caused by GABHS in children.
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This is the first prospective clinical trial in which patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis have been stratified by degree of underlying illness. Uncomplicated patients were randomised to levofloxacin 750 mg once daily (q.d.) for 3 days or azithromycin q.d. for 5 days. Complicated patients were randomised to levofloxacin 750 mg q.d. for 5 days or amoxicillin 875 mg/clavulanate 125 mg twice daily for 10 days. Regardless of therapy, complicated patients demonstrated lower clinical and microbiological success than uncomplicated patients. Clinical success for clinically evaluable patients was similar for levofloxacin and azithromycin (93.0 versus 90.1%, respectively), and levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate (79.2 versus 81.7%, respectively). For microbiologically evaluable patients, clinical response to levofloxacin for 3 days was superior to azithromycin for 5 days (96.3 versus 87.4%, respectively), and levofloxacin for 5 days was similar to amoxicillin/clavulanate for 10 days (81.4 versus 80.9%, respectively). Microbiological eradication was superior for levofloxacin for 3 days compared with azithromycin for 5 days (93.8 versus 82.8%, respectively), and similar for levofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanate for 10 days (81.4 versus 79.8%, respectively). In conclusion, levofloxacin 750 mg for 3 days was comparable to azithromycin for 5 days for uncomplicated patients with acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, while 5 days of 750 mg levofloxacin was comparable to 10 days of amoxicillin/clavulanate for complicated acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.
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A patient suffered a myocardial injury as a manifestation of anaphylactic reaction to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid administration. A cardiologic study (ergometry and catheterization) showed no obstructive coronary disease and prick test to amoxicillin was positive. Anaphylaxis may cause myocardial injury and the mechanism is likely to be vasospasm induced by mast cells and basophil mediators.
Isolates [MICs (mg/L) of cefditoren, cefuroxime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid] used were: one beta-lactamase-negative (beta(-); 0.015, 1 and 1), one beta-lactamase-positive (beta(+); 0.03, 4 and 8) and two strains exhibiting ftsI gene mutations [one beta(-) ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR; 0.015, 8 and 4) and one beta(+) amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR; 0.03, 8 and 4)]. A computerized pharmacodynamic model simulating free antibiotic concentrations (calculated considering reported percentages of protein binding) of 400 mg twice-daily cefditoren, 500 mg twice-daily cefuroxime and 875/125 mg three times daily amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was used to explore antibacterial activity against initial mixed inocula with 25% of each strain. Areas under bacterial curves (AUBCs) from 0 to 24 h (log cfu.h/mL) were calculated and differences between values in antibiotic-free (AUBC(K)) and in antibiotic simulations determined (ABBC(0-24) = AUBC(K0-24)-AUBC(0-24)).
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Knowledge about the performance of dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract is essential for the development of new oral delivery systems, as well as for the choice of the optimal formulation technology. Magnetic Marker Monitoring (MMM) is an imaging technology for the investigation of the behaviour of solid oral dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract, which is based on the labelling of solid dosage forms as a magnetic dipole and determination of the location, orientation and strength of the dipole after oral administration using measurement equipment and localization methods that are established in biomagnetism. MMM enables the investigation of the performance of solid dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract with a temporal resolution in the range of a few milliseconds and a spatial resolution in 3D in the range of some millimetres. Thereby, MMM provides real-time tracking of dosage forms in the gastrointestinal tract. MMM is also suitable for the determination of dosage form disintegration and for quantitative measurement of in vivo drug release in case of appropriate extended release dosage forms like hydrogel-forming matrix tablets. The combination of MMM with pharmacokinetic measurements (pharmacomagnetography) enables the determination of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIC) and the delineation of absorption sites in the gastrointestinal tract.
A prospective study was carried out in 43 hospitalized patients with respiratory or other serious bacterial infections requiring intravenous antibiotic therapy to assess the efficacy and tolerance of amoxycillin/clavulanic acid ('Augmentin'). After bacteriological and laboratory investigations patients were started on 1 g amoxycillin plus 200 mg clavulanic acid intravenously every 8 hours for the first 3 days and then were treated orally at the same dosage. Duration of treatment varied according to the type and severity of the infection, with a minimum of 10 days. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated by the clinical response, judged by the resolution of signs and symptoms of infection. The results showed that there was a clinical cure rate of 88.4%. Local tolerance was excellent and there were few side-effects reported. Six patients experienced vomiting which led to the withdrawal of treatment in 1 patient.
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Perimandibular abscesses require drainage and removal of the underlying cause of infection. Traditionally drainage was established extraorally, but this can be associated with delay to treatment, because this is done under general anaesthesia. Between July 2008 and June 2013, 205 patients were initially either treated by immediate intraoral incision under local anaesthesia or extraoral incisions under general anaesthesia and prospectively evaluated. Predictors of treatment outcomes and complications were analysed. Fewer secondary procedures were needed for patients with primary treatment under general anaesthesia (p < 0.0001), but the overall stay in hospital was shorter after initial treatment under local anaesthesia (p < 0.0001, Odds Ratio (OR) 0.72, 95% CI 0.62-0.85). Postoperative complications occurred significantly more often under general anaesthesia (p < 0.0001, OR = 16.63, 95% CI 5.59-49.5). Significant prognostic variable was the administration of amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid (p = 0.016, OR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.41) and adverse prognostic factors were infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (p = 0.048, OR 17.45, 95% CI 1.02-298) or diabetes mellitus (p = 0.003, OR 10.39, 95% CI 2.23-48.41). Amoxicillin combined with clavulanic acid showed a significant impact on the treatment course of patients with perimandibular abscesses.