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In this population, clinical features of IBD in older patients were similar to those in younger patients.
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MMX mesalazine 2.4 g/day administered as a single or divided dose demonstrated a good safety profile, was well tolerated and was effective as maintenance treatment. High clinical and endoscopic remission rates can be achieved with once-daily dosing.
Sulfasalazine (SASP), since 60 years standard in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, is a double molecule where 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine (SP) are linked together by an azobond. Bacterial splitting of SASP within the colon allows delivery of 5-ASA for its topical action (prodrug system). To target 5-ASA without the less tolerable SP down to the lower intestine new prodrugs have been developed and, in addition, mesalazine is offered which contains 5-ASA prepared as a delayed release preparation. A clinical comparison (metaanalysis) tended towards superiority of the new prodrugs and mesalazine over SASP for inducing remission, while SASP was more effective in maintaining remission. Only few studies exist comparing the efficacy of the new drugs and mesalazine. To date a slight superiority of the new prodrugs is implied. With the exception of SASP safety profiles do not significantly differ between the different drugs containing 5-ASA.
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Induction and maintenance of remission, mucosal healing, the avoidance of surgical intervention, and decreasing the likelihood of cancer developing are the primary therapeutic goals in ulcerative colitis (UC). For the traditional therapies, 5-aminosalicylic acid (including mesalamine), corticosteroids, and thiopurines (azathioprine and mercaptopurine), there are major changes evolving in terms of formulation, patterns of use, and appreciation of long-term benefits and toxicities. The calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin and tacrolimus, and infliximab, have recently defined, well-established roles. Preliminary supportive evidence is emerging in relation to novel antiinflammatory molecules such as curcumin, manipulation of the bacterial flora, enhancement of the mucosal barrier, and direct epithelial restoration. For patients in whom the disease is resistant to standard simple therapies, strategies are required to integrate these developing and new therapies into clinical practice. This review aims to highlight the evidence supporting new patterns of use of existing therapies and new therapies, and to devise therapeutic pathways that incorporate these new treatments. We propose how treatment might be optimized to improve the outcome in patients with mild-to-moderately active UC, chronic active UC, resistant proctitis, and fulminant UC.
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There is epidemiological evidence, that mesalazine can inhibit colon cancer development by affecting proliferation and apoptosis. Several studies suggest that supplementary intake of butyrate may yield to improved efficacy of mesalazine. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of such interaction remain unknown. This study addressed the combinatory effect of both substances on the growth of Caco-2 cells. Challenging of cells with mesalazine and butyrate provoked a time-dependent decrease in both cell counts and proliferation. Co-treatment with the substances could further intensify these effects. The growth-inhibitory action of mesalazine and butyrate was accompanied by a significant increase in caspase-3 activity, cleavage of PARP and caspase-8, while decreasing the expression of Xiap and Survivin simultaneously. Co-incubation of both substances exaggerated effects on all examined apoptosis-regulatory proteins except for Xiap. Our data demonstrate that co-treatment of mesalazine and butyrate evoked additive effects on inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis in Caco-2 cells.
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To compare the safety and efficacy of a pH-sensitive, polymer-coated oral formulation of mesalamine (Asacol, Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, Ohio) with those of placebo in maintaining remission in patients with ulcerative colitis.
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To document treatment of new-onset UC and UP in routine clinical practice.
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Nowadays mesalamine is a common treatment for Crohn's disease and hypersensitive reactions to this product have been reported. Yet there is limited information concerning mesalamine-induced myocarditis and its mechanism is not known. We described a case of mesalamine-induced myocarditis in Crohn's disease of the colon.
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In activated (CD25+) T lymphocytes, mean TRF2 mRNA levels were lower in both UC (6.6 vs 10, p=0.004) and CD subjects (6.9 vs 10; p=0.004). Similarly. in activated (CD25+) T lymphocytes mean RAP1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in UC subjects (4.5 vs 9.8, p=0.029) but not in CD subjects. In resting PBMC, mean TRF1 mRNA levels were lower in both UC (2.6 vs 3.5; p=0.008) and CD subjects (1.0 vs 3.5; p=0.04). No difference in PBMC and activated (CD25+) T lymphocytes mRNA levels of TPP1 and POT1 were noted in either UC or CD subjects. An association with 5-aminosalicylate therapy (R(2)=0.4) was only detected with RAP1 mRNA expression. TRF2 mRNA expression was inversely associated with disease duration only in UC subjects (p=0.05; R(2)=-0.6).
Family physicians in all Arab towns and villages were contacted to obtain information on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Relevant clinical data were retrieved and updated to December 31, 2009.
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The following electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane IBD/FBD Group Specialised Trial Register, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Reference lists of articles, as well as conference proceedings were manually searched. Pharmaceutical companies were also contacted.
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It has been suggested that polymer coating might retard jejunal absorption of 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) and thus promote delivery to its colonic site of action. Twenty three patients with active (nine), or quiescent (14) ulcerative colitis were given either uncoated or coated 5-ASA (Asacol) 400 mg qds for one to three weeks, after which they ingested five 1.5 ml dialysis membrane sachets which were recovered from the stool in the next 72 hours. After one week of treatment the concentration of 5-ASA in the faecal dialysate, urine, and fasting plasma in those receiving the coated and uncoated preparations were respectively: 25.4 +/- 5.1 compared with 1.2 +/- 0.4 mmol/l (p less than 0.001); 0.34 +/- 0.21 compared with 0.70 +/- 0.29 mmol/24h (NS) and 11.1 +/- 4.2 compared with 0.07 +/- 0.03 mumol/l (p less than 0.02). Faecal excretion of the drug appeared to be greater in patients with active colitis than in those with quiescent disease. Thus coating with pH dependent methacrylic acid copolymer B is a very effective method of promoting delivery of 5-ASA to the colon, stool dialysate concentrations being 20 fold more than those in controls. Increased trough plasma concentrations in the polymer coating group probably reflect delayed intestinal absorption but no evidence of plasma accumulation after 21 days of therapy was found.
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The relapse rates of Crohn's disease were similar for up to 12 months in both the 5-ASA 1.5 g b.d. and the placebo treatment groups.
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Eighty-seven questionnaires were received out of the 107 distributed. In the clinical practices of these 87 respondents, there were 502 existing and 73 new cases per year for ulcerative colitis (UC) and 202 existing and 32 new cases per year for Crohn's disease (CD). Colonoscopy and histology were the most commonly used methods for the diagnosis of UC and CD, but clinical practice regarding the diagnosis of IBD varied. The treatment of choice for mild-to-moderate UC and CD was 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is also the preferred choice for the maintenance treatment of UC and CD.
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The differential diagnosis of pulmonary lesions in patients with ulcerous colitis may be a problem. In the reported case, pulmonary lesions were interpreted as interstitial pneumonitis accompanying ulcerous colitis. However, they are most probably a consequence of allergic response to mesalazine.
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High doses of orally administered prednisolone induced the healing of the pyoderma gangrenosum within 2 months. After another 2 months systemic steroids were discontinued. Further laboratory tests confirmed secondary adrenal and ovarian failure (negative CRH-GnRH-test). Change of drug therapy to hydrocortisone (25 mg) in combination with mesalazine (3 g) and azathioprine (100 mg) improved the clinical course. Hydrocortisone was gradually reduced until CRH-GnRH-response returned to normal.
Measurement of adalimumab trough levels and anti-adalimumab antibodies after surgery could be useful to further reduce postoperative recurrence.
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The objective of this study was to analyze the evolution of the surgical rates and medical therapy in the population-based Veszprém county database.
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Oral budesonide has been found to be efficacious for mild to moderate Crohn's disease in adults, with equal improvement rates for budesonide and prednisone. We report the results of a retrospective study of budesonide treatment in mild to moderate Crohn's disease in children.
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1 Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is an inflammatory eye condition, affecting the cornea and conjunctiva, caused by a deficiency in the aqueous fraction of tears. The condition is relatively common in the dog with a varied aetiology. A number of drugs have been implicated in the production of KCS in the dog including salicylazosulphapyridine (sulphasalazine). 2 This paper details clinically evident KCS in a 12-month oral toxicity study with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), the therapeutically active metabolite of sulphasalazine. 3 The condition was first diagnosed at study week 22 and subsequently progressed both in incidence and severity. There was a distinct sex-difference in the response, with treated females being more affected than males. 4 There was a close correlation between the production of KCS and reduced lacrimation as assessed by the Schirmer tear test. 5 Although sulphasalazine causes KCS in dogs there have been no reports of ocular lesions of this type in man with this drug. It is highly probable that the dog is not a predictive model for man with regard to KCS induction by sulphasalazine or its metabolite 5-ASA.
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There is increasing interest in using higher dosages of mesalazine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; however, with current mesalazine products this involves the use of 8-16 tablets per day.
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(1) To determine the efficacy of transdermal nicotine for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. (2) To assess adverse events associated with transdermal nicotine therapy for ulcerative colitis
All reported randomised controlled trials were retrieved by searching the Medline and EMBASE databases and the bibliographies of relevant studies. Trials which met inclusion criteria were assessed for scientific rigour. Data were extracted by two independent observers according to predetermined criteria.
To characterize the response to current medical therapies in children with ulcerative colitis, and to identify those factors that may predict the need for colectomy.