Vascular complications are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. Herbal drugs are increasingly being used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The present study was designed to examine the therapeutic potential of Terminalia arjuna bark extract in improving myocardial function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. After 8 weeks of STZ administration, rats showed a decline in left ventricular pressure (LVP), maximal rate of rise and fall in LVP (LV [dP/dt] max and LV [dP/dt] min), cardiac contractility index (LV [dP/dt] max/LVP), and rise in LV end-diastolic pressure. Altered lipid profile, oxidative stress, and increased levels of endothelin 1 (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) along with histological changes in heart and pancreas were observed in diabetic rats. T arjuna significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction and myocardial injury in diabetic rats. It also reduced oxidative stress, ET-1, and inflammatory cytokine levels. The decreased body weight, heart rate blood pressure, and raised blood sugar in diabetic rats did not improve after T arjuna therapy. Results suggest that T arjuna bark extract improves the altered myocardial function in diabetic rats possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, decreasing ET-1 and cytokine levels.
These 5 plants exhibited in vitro control over a cohort of 8 enteropathogenic bacterial strains isolated from clinical samples.
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Cinnamon is currently marketed as a remedy for obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia. Integrative medicine is a new concept that combines conventional treatment with evidence-based complementary therapies.
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The results demonstrated that the bioactive components (phytosterols, flavanoids, saponins and tannins etc.) which are present in the encapsulated T. arjuna not only withstand the processing conditions but also are effectively released in the intestine and show their effects, such as hypolipidaemic and antioxidant activities, for better treating cardiovascular disease.
Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. (T. arjuna) has been widely used in the traditional ayurvedic system of medicine as a cardioprotectant and for acute and chronic renal diseases supporting its ethnopharmacological use.
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Arjunolic acid ameliorated the nephrotoxic biochemical changes induced by cisplatin supporting its renoprotective effects which may be mediated by attenuation of oxidative stress markers, downregulation of renal expressions of fibrotic (TGF-β), inflammatory (NF-κB) and kidney injury (Kim-1) markers along with upregulation of renal antiapoptotic marker (Bcl-2) gene expressions.
Free radicals and associated oxidative stress induced by alloxan are implicated in eliciting pathological changes in diabetes mellitus. Terminalia arjuna bark, an indigenous plant used in ayurvedic medicine in India, primarily as a cardiotonic is also used in treating diabetes, anemia, tumors and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) of Terminalia arjuna stem bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats and its lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and nonenzymatic activity was investigated in the liver and kidney tissues. The extract produced significant (P<0.05) reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO). The effect of oral T. arjuna at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight was more than the 250 mg/kg body weight. The extract also causes a significant (P<0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, total sulfhydryl groups (TSH) and non protein sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) in liver and kidney of alloxan induced diabetic rats, which clearly shows, the antioxidant property of T. arjuna bark. The result indicates that the extract exhibit the antioxidant activity through correction of oxidative stress and validates the traditional use of this plant in diabetic animals.
370 oral rinse samples were collected from patients. The germ tube test, CHROMagar Candida medium and VITEK 2 yeast identification system were used for species identification. C. dubliniensis isolates were confirmed by the production of rough colonies with hyphal fringes and chlamydospores on simplified sunflower seed agar.
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The PCR assays developed for Terminalia species were resulted in definite amplicons of the corresponding species. No cross-reactivity of the primers was detected. Sensitivity was found enough to amplify as low as 2 ng of DNA. Mixing of DNA in various concentrations for validation also proved the sensitivity of assay to detect original botanicals in the mixture. The developed methods proved very specific and sensitive to authenticate Arjuna bark to develop evidence-based herbal medicines.
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A fraction isolated from Terminalia arjuna was studied for its antimutagenic effect against 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in TA98, sodium azide in TA100 and 2-aminofluorene (2AF, S9-dependent), a promutagen, in both TA98 and TA 100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium using the Ames assay. The fraction inhibited the mutagenicity of 2AF very significantly in both strains while the revertant colonies induced by NPD and sodium azide were reduced moderately. 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and UV-spectroscopic data of the fraction revealed it to be tannin in nature.
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An ethanolic herbal extract residue was prepared from the seeds of premature fruits of Terminalia arjuna Linn. Different concentrations of it were tested against 1 x 10⁶ million Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) tumour cells. At a 200 μg/ml concentration it registered 90% toxicity. Then its effect on the lifespan of mice with DLA tumour cells was studied. At high and low dosages of 50 and 10 mg. b. wt. kg-1 of herbal extract residue, it exhibited 87.5% and 60.4% increase in the lifespan, respectively. Blood parameters such as percentage Hb, RBC and WBC counts were conducted with tail vein blood samples. Hb and RBC counts of treated mice were higher than that of tumour bearing mice, while WBC counts were lower. This is a good index of tumour recovery. Further studies were carried out on mice with solid tumours to record volumes, along with a lifespan study. Low dosage of the herbal extract residue was able to control the tumour volume 35.1% and 32.9% increase in the lifespan was noted both at high and low dosages, respectively.
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The results of the present study suggest that the methanolic extract of the bark powder of Terminalia arjuna in rat induces myocardial HSP72 and augments myocardial endogenous antioxidants, without causing any cellular injury and offers better cardioprotection against oxidative stress associated with myocardial IR injury.
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To evaluate antihyperglycemic and antioxidant role of methanol extract of T. arjuna leaf (META) in Wistar rats.
While there are circumstances in which the distinction between dorsal thoracic intradural arachnoid cysts and idiopathic anterior spinal cord herniation are radiologically obvious, in cases where the appearances are less clear, cine-mode SSFP MRI imaging can provide an invaluable tool to differentiate these pathologies and lead the clinician towards the correct diagnosis and management. The mainstay of surgical management for dorsal TIACs is laminectomy and cyst excision or fenestration. Surgery for gait ataxia should be aimed towards preventing deterioration, while maintaining the potential for symptomatic improvement, whereas surgery for radicular pain should be curative.
We aimed to evaluate therapeutic potential of arjunolic acid (AA), in Terminalia Arjuna bark, on Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma (EAC) in-vivo and in-vitro. EAC was induced in fifty female Swiss albino mice. Two doses of AA was used 100 and 250mg/kg. Arjunulic acid reduced tumor volume and cells count. AA decreased EAC cells viability and increased cell toxicity. Moreover, AA reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β, TGF-β type I receptor and latency-associated peptide levels associated with elevated IL-10 in-vivo and in-vitro. In conclusion, AA produced antitumor activity against EAC by increasing cytotoxicity and apoptosis and partially blocking the TGF-βR1 and affecting inflammatory cytokine levels.
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The bark of Terminalia arjuna L. (Combretaceae) is used in Ayurveda since ancient times for the treatment of cardiac disorders. Previous laboratory investigations have demonstrated the use of the bark in cardiovascular complications. The present study was aimed to find the effect of 70% alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna on anaesthetized dog blood pressure and probable site of action.
Smoking, largely through increased oxidative stress, causes endothelial dysfunction which is an early key event in atherosclerosis. Smoking cessation and antioxidant vitamin therapy are shown to have beneficial role by restoring altered endothelial physiology. The present study was aimed to determine whether Terminalia arjuna, an Indian medicinal plant with potent antioxidant constituents, would improve endothelial dysfunction in smokers.
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Internal transcribed spacer-based species-specific polymerase chain reaction.(PCR) assays were developed to authenticate Terminalia arjuna stem bark and to identify substitution/adulteration of Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula in the genuine starting materialDefinite amplicons were obtained specific to particular species and the assay was found of profound sensitivity to amplify as low as 2 ng of DNAResults of method validation proved that the assay can identify adulterant Terminalia species even when present in lower amountsThe DNA barcodes and PCR methods can also be used to identify Terminalia bellirica and T. chebula related herbal medicinal material. Abbreviations used: ITS: Internal transcribed spacer, BSA: Bovine serum albumin, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide.
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The clinical study has shown that combined therapy gives better results than topical treatment.
Methanol, ethanol, acetone, aqueous (hot and cold) extracts from the leaves and bark of T. arjuna were tested for their antimicrobial activity.
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While separating two natural nano-sized triterpenic acids via bromolactonization, we serendipitously discovered that arjuna-bromolactone is an excellent gelator of various organic solvents. A simple and efficient method for the separation of two triterpenic acids and the gelation ability and solid state 1D-helical self-assembly of nano-sized arjuna-bromolactone are reported.